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Folks,

Naval Sonar, NAVPERS 10884, 1953 was created a few years after WW II and incorporates the major invovations of WW II. It describes the peak of WW II US sonar technology with a hint of the comming Cold War innovations.

This manual has a bit more math and theory than many of the operator manuals we have presented on this web site. If you are not familiar with the math, please do not be discouraged, instead try skipping what you do not understand and move on. The farther into the manual you go the less theory and the more practical systems are described. At the end, there are chapters that describe the most successful systems with very little math.

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Image of the the cover. NAVAL SONAR
Prepared by BUREAU OF NAVAL PERSONNEL, NAVPERS 10884

NAVAL SONAR

Prepared by
BUREAU OF NAVAL PERSONNEL

Logo, Department of the Navy, Bureau of Naval Personnel

1953

NAVPERS 10884


PREFACE

Naval Sonar was prepared primarily as a text for a correspondence course for use in training Naval Reserve electronics officers. The aim in preparing this book has been to present a general over-all view of underwater sound principles and sonar equipment. Naval Sonar will serve as background information for officer personnel and advanced enlisted ratings who may be called upon to learn the details of installation, operation, and maintenance of sonar equipment.

The summary technical report of Division 6, NDRC, volume 7, Principles of Underwater Sound, and various sonar manufacturers' instruction books were used as primary reference sources for Naval Sonar.

This publication has been prepared by the U. S. Navy Training Publications Center for the Bureau of Naval Personnel.

 
ii

CONTENTS
 
Chapter Page
1. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF UNDERWATER SOUND  
Introduction 1
Characteristics of sound in an ideal medium 1
Sound propagation in an ideal medium 3
Refraction of sound 8
Reflection and scattering 16
   
2. TRANSMISSION OF SOUND IN SEA WATER  
Introduction 32
General processes and their interaction 32
Analysis of the four processes 38
Geographical variations 41
Summary of conditions for temperature gradients 42
Wakes 42
   
3. SOUND RECEPTION AND DETECTION BY LISTENING  
Introduction 52
Human ear 52
Doppler effect 56
Ear in underwater detection 58
Time patterns and propeller beats 70
Frequency considerations in listening 71
Sonar listening systems 73
   
4. ESSENTIALS OF ECHO-RANGING EQUIPMENT  
Basic components of echo-ranging systems 76
Receiver-amplifier 77
Training device and bearing indicator 78
Range indicator 78
Transducers 79
Receiver sensitivity and background noise 95
Sonar location 100
 
Chapter Page
5. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS OF SONAR SYSTEMS  
Operational planning 102
Target bearing 106
Scanning sonar 112
Location of small objects 119
Variation of gain 120
Maintenance of close contact 121
Depth determination 121
Integrated sonar system 122
   
6. SURFACE-SHIP ECHO-RANGING EQUIPMENT  
Introduction 123
Scanning sonar equipment 128
Depth-determining equipment 141
   
7. SONAR RECEIVERS
Basic type 149
Conventional superheterodyne sonar receiving system 149
Sum-and-difference receiving system 157
 
8. SONAR TRANSMITTERS  
Introduction 173
QGB transmitter power amplifier 173
QHB transmitter 175
Keying methods 177
Transmission circuits 183
Unicontrol oscillator system 183
   
9. STABILIZATION
Introduction 185
The stabilization problem 185
Fundamentals of the stable element 186
Stable-element construction 189
Level and cross-level receiver system 189
Dual single-axis stabilization system 190
Three-axis stabilization system 191
Computer units 192
Integrated sonar system 192
Tangent solver 193
Conclusion 195
 
iii

Chapter Page
10. SONAR RESOLVING EQUIPMENT  
Model OKA-1 sonar resolving equipment 196
Relation of the OKA-1 to sonar systems 207
 
11. PLOTTING EQUIPMENT  
Introduction 213
Dead-reckoning systems 216
Attack plotter 217
Mk 5 plotting system 226
 
12. SOUND-RANGE AND DEPTH RECORDERS  
Tactical range recorder 228
Sound-range recorder 237
Depth-determining recorder 238
Echo-sounding recorder 240
   
13. SUBMARINE LISTENING EQUIPMENT  
Introduction 241
Model JP listening equipment 241
Model JT listening equipment 243
Triangulation-listening-ranging equipment 250
Model OMA noise-level monitor and cavitation indicator 254
Sonar communication set AN/INC-1 255
 
Chapter Page
14. SUBMARINE SONAR EQUIPMENT  
Introduction 260
Model WCA sonar equipment 260
Model WFA-1 sonar equipment 262
Model QHB-1 capacitive-scanning sonar equipment 263
Model QLA f-m scanning sonar equipment 263
   
15. ECHO-SOUNDING EQUIPMENT
The echo-sounding problem 269
NMC-2 sonar sounding equipment 271
NJ-9 sonar sounding equipment 274
NK-7 sonar sounding equipment 275
AN/UQN-1B sonar sounding set 278
   
16. SOFAR, HARBOR DEFENSE, AND OTHER SONAR SYSTEMS  
Sofar 281
Harbor defense 288
Submarine cables 293
Model QAA demolition-team sonar 295
Submarine detection by aircraft 299
   
17. SONAR TRAINING EQUIPMENT  
QFA-6 attack teacher 303
AN/UQS-T1 sonar training set 315
   
APPENDIX-Definitions of fire control terms and symbols as applied to sonar 323
INDEX 325
 
iv

Foldout Illustrations:

Figure 7-2. -Dual-channel receiver circuits.
Figure 9-11 -Functional diagram, Mk 59 Mod 0.
Figure 11-3 -Dead-reckoning system.
Figure 11-8 -Complete block diagram of the attack plotter.
Figure 11-9 -Circuit schematic of the attack plotter
Figure 13-3 -Circuit of the JP-1 audio amplifier with line filter.
Figure 13-3 -Circuit of the JP-1 audio amplifier with line filter.
Figure 13-15 -Schematic diagram of the supersonic-converter unit.
Figure 13-17 -JAA triangulation-listening-ranging equipment.
Figure 13-22 -Schematic diagram of the AN/UQC-1 equipment.
Figure 14-3 -Over-all pictorial diagram of the WFA-1 equipment.
Figure 15-6 -Schematic wiring diagram of the NJ-9 sounding equipment.
Figure 16-10 -Model JM-4 radio sonobuoy equipment.
Figure 17-3 -Schematic diagram of speed and direction controls of the attack teacher.
Figure 17-5 -Schematic diagram of the receiver-amplifier and bear-ring-deviation indicator of the QFA-6.
Figure 17-7 -Simplified functional diagram of AN/UQS-T1.


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