ALTHOUGH the masts, yards, sails, blocks, and ropes, do altogether compose what may be called the RIGGING OF A SHIP, or VESSEL; yet the mode of applying the ropes to the several other parts, and combining the whole, so as to produce the means of navigating the vessel, is likewise termed, RIGGING A VESSEL; and of rigging, in this latter sense, we are now about to treat.
There are two species of Rigging: one called STANDING-RIGGING; the other RUNNING-RIGGING.
Ropes used to sustain the masts remain fixed; as shrouds, stays, and back-stays: such are called standing-rigging.
The ropes leading through various blocks, and to different places of the masts, yards, sails, and shrouds, and which are moved according to the various operations of navigation, such as the lifts, braces, sheets, tacks, haliards, clue-lines, bunt-lines, leech-lines, bow-lines, spilling-lines, brails, down-haulers, &c. are called running-rigging.
These general ideas of rigging may suffice. For the more easy and accurate knowledge of this science we now commence with an
EXPLANATION OF THE TERMS USED IN RIGGING.
ARM-GASKET. See GASKETS. ARM-CLEAT. See CLEATS.
AWNING. A canvas covering, expanded over the decks of a ship, to screen the crew from, and prevent the decks spliting by, the heat of the sun.
BACK-STAYS. See STAYS.
BAG-REEF. See REEF.
BALANCE-REEF. See REEF.
BECKETS. Large iron hooks, or short ropes, used in several parts of a ship to confine large
ropes, &c. or to hang up the weather-sheets and lee-tacks of the main and fore sail to the foremost main and fore shrouds. Some beckets have an eye spliced in one end, and a small walnut-knot
crowned at the other, and some have both ends spliced together like a wreath. The noose made at the breast of a block, to make fast the standing part of a fall-to, is also called a becket.
BELAYING. Fastening a rope, by giving it several cross turns alternately round each end, of a
cleat, pin, &c.
BELL-ROPE. See ROPES.
BELAYING-CLEAT. See CLEATS.
BELAYING-PINS. See PINS.
BENDING. Fastening one rope to another, or to different objects, and fastening a sail to its yard.
BENDS. The small ropes used to confine the clinch of a cable.
BENTINCK-SHROUDS. See SHROUDS.
BIGHT. The noose, or doubled part of a rope when folded.
BILL-PENDENT. See PENDENT.
BITTS. A frame composed of two upright pieces of timber, called the pins, and a cross piece fastened horizontally on the top of them: they are used to belay cables and ropes to. BOWLINE and BRACE BITTS are situated near the masts; the FORE-JEER. and TOPSAIL-SHEET bitts are situated on the forecastle and round the fore-mast; the MAIN-JEER and TOPSAIL-SHEET-BITTS, tenon into the
fore-mast-beam of the quarter-deck; the RIDING-BITTS are the largest bitts in a ship, and those to which the cable is bitted when the vessel rides at anchor.
BIT-STOPPER. See STOPPER.
BLOCKS. Machines used in ships, &c. to encrease the mechanical power of ropes. See the treatise on blocks.
BLOCK-AND-BLOCK. The situation of a tackle when the effect is destroyed by the blocks meeting together.
BOARDING-NETTING. See NETTING.
BOATSKIDS. Long square pieces of fir, extending across the ship from the gang-boards, and
on which the boats, spare masts, &c. are stowed.
BOBSTAY. See STAY.
BOLSTERS. Bags filled with rope-yarn, or shakings, which are placed under the shrouds and
stays, to prevent their chafing against the trestle-trees.
BOLT-ROPE. The rope sewed to the edges of sails.
BOOMS. Long poles run out from the extremities of the yards, bowsprits, and sides of the masts, to extend the feet of particular sails. The DRIVER-BOOM, on which the foot of the driver, or spanker, is extended, is attached to the mizen-masts, and the outer end hangs over the stern. The JIB-BOOM is run out from the outer end of the bowsprit, and extends the foot of the jib. The MAIN-BOOM, used in
vessels of one or two masts, is similar to the driver-boom of a ship, and on this is spread the foot of the main-sail. The RINGTAIL-BOOM is a small boom projecting from the stern of some vessels to spread the
foot of the ringtail-sail; and also a small boom, lashed occasionally to the outer end of the mainsail-boom, to spread the foot of the ringtail-sail when hoisted at the after-leech of fore and aft
main-sails. The SQUARE-SAIL-BOOM is lashed across the deck of vessels with one mast, to spread the
foot of the square-sail. STUDDING-SAIL-BOOMS, to spread the studding-sails, slide through boom-irons at the extremities of the yards, and from the vessels' sides.
BOOM-IRONS. Two flat iron rings formed into one piece, one above the other; employed to connect the booms to the yards, &c. the lower ring is the largest, and is driven on the yard: some boom-irons fasten on the yards with a crotch or strap, secured by nails and hoops.
BOOM-TACKLE. See TACKLE.
BOWSING. Hauling or pulling upon a rope or fall of a tackle to remove a body, or increase the tension.
BOWLINE. See LINES.
BOWLINE-BITTS. See BITTs.
BOWLINE-TACKLE. See TACKLE.
BOWSPRIT. The large boom or mast which projects over the stem. See the treatise on masts.
BOWSPRIT-HORSES. See HORSES.
BOWSPRIT-NETTING. See NETTING.
BOWSPRIT-SHROUDS. See SHROUDS.
BRACE. A rope to turn the yards and sails horizontally about the masts, and shift them when necessary. PREVENTER-BRACE. A rope used in ships of war, to supply the place of a brace, should that be shot away or damaged. They are led the contrary way, to be less liable to detriment at the same time.
BRACE-BITTS. See BITTS.
BRACE-PENDENTS. See PENDENT.
BRAILS. Ropes passing through blocks on the gaff, and fastened to the after-leech of fore and aft main-sails, to truss or brail them up. Similar also are the brails of stay-sails.
BREAST-ROPE. See ROPE.
BREAST-WORK. The rails and stantions on the foremost end of the quarter-deck and poop.
BREAST-WORK-NETTING. See NETTING.
BRIDLES. Short ropes, or legs, which fasten the bowlines to the cringles on the leeches of sails.
BUMKINS OR BOOMKINS. Short booms projecting from each side of the bow to haul down the fore-tack.
BUMKIN-SHROUDS. See SHROUDS.
BUNT-GASKET. See GASKET.
BUNTLINES. See LINES.
BURTONS. See BURTON TACKLES.
BUOY-ROPE. See ROPE.
BURTON-PENDENTS. See PENDENTS.
BURTON-TACKLE. See TACKLE.
BUTTON AND LOOP. A short piece of rope, having at one end a walnut knot, crowned, and at the other end an eye. It is used as a becket to confine ropes in.
BUTTONS. Small pieces of thick leather under the heads of nails that are driven through ropes.
CABLET. Any cable-laid rope under nine inches in circumference.
CAPS. Short thick blocks of wood, with two holes in them, used to confine the masts together. See the treatise on mast-making.
To CAP a rope. To cover the end with tarred canvas, which is whipt with twine or spun-yarn.
CAPSTERN. A machine for heaving up anchors, or other great strains.
CAST-OFF. To loose a rope, by unseizing it, or by cutting the lashing.
CATHARPINS. Short ropes, to keep the lower shrouds in tight, after they are braced in by swifters, and to afford room to brace the yards sharp.
CATFALL. The rope that forms the tackle for heaving up the anchor from the waters' edge to the bow. It reeves through the sheaves at the outer end of the cat-head, and through the sheaves of the cat-block alternately.
CHAIN-BOAT. A large boat fitted with a davit over its stem, and two windlasses, one forward, and the other aft, in the inside. It is used for getting up mooring-chains, anchors, &c.
CHAIN-PLATES. Thick iron plates bolted to the ship's sides, and to which the chains and dead-eyes that support the masts by the shrouds are connected.
CHAINS, or CHANNELS, or CHAINWALES. Broad thick planks, bolted edgeways against the ship's sides, abreast and abaft the masts, used to extend the shrouds from each other, and from the head of the masts.
CHEST-TREES. Narrow pieces of oak plank, fitted and bolted to the top-sides of vessels abaft the fore-channels, with a sheave in the upper end; it confines the clues of the main-sail, by hauling home the main-tack through the sheave.
CHOAKING the LUFF. Placing the bight of the leading part, or fall of a tackle, close up between the nest part and jaw of the block.
CHOCK. A thick triangular piece of wood, fastened in a temporary manner in the strap at the arse of the block: on the base of the chock-wedges are driven to force the block into its place.
CLAMP. A crooked iron plate, fastened to the after-end of the main-cap of snows, to secure the trysail-mast.
CLASP-HOOP. See HOOP.
CLEATS. Pieces of wood of various shapes, used for stops, and to make ropes fast to, viz. ARM or SLING-CLEATS are nailed on each side of the slings of the lower yard, and have an arm at one end, which lies over the straps of the jeer blocks to prevent their being chaffed. BELAYING-CLEATS have two arms, or horns, and are nailed through the middle to the masts, or elsewhere, to belay ropes to. COMB-CLEATS are semi-circular, and are hollowed in the middle to confine a rope to one place. RANGE-CLEATS are shaped like belaying-cleats, but are much larger, and are bolted through the middle. SHROUD-CLEATS have two arms, similar to belaying-cleats; the inside is hollowed to fit the shroud, and grooves are cut round the middle and ends to receive the seizings, which confine them to the shrouds. STOP-CLEATS are nailed to yard-arms, to prevent the slipping of the rigging and the gammoning, and to stop collars on masts, &c. THUMB-CLEATS are shaped like arm-cleats, but are much smaller.
CLINCH. That part of a cable which is fastened to the ring of an anchor, &c.
CLOATHING THE BOLSTERS. Laying several thicknesses of worn canvas, well tarred, over them, to make an easy bed for the shrouds.
CLUE-GARNETS. Tackles connected to the clues of main and fore courses, to truss the sail up to the yard.
CLUE-LINES. See LINES.
COIL. Rope laid in regular folds for the convenience of stowage, and hanging upon cleats, to prevent its being entangled.
COLLAR. The upper part of a stay; also a rope formed into a wreath, by splicing the ends together, with a heart, or dead-eye, seized in the bight, to which the stay is confined at the lower part.
COMB-CLEAT. See CLEATS.
CRINGLES. Small loops made on the bolt-rope of a sail; used to fasten different ropes to, hook the reef tackles to, for drawing the sail up to its yard, to fasten the bridles of the bowline to, and to extend the leech of the sail, &c.
CROSS-JACK-YARD. See YARD.
CROTCHES. Pieces of wood or iron, the upper part of which is composed of two
arms, resembling a half-moon. They are chiefly used to support spare masts, &c.
CROSS-TREES. Short flat pieces of timber, set in and bolted athwartships to the trestle-trees, at the mast-head, to support the tops, &c.
CROW-FOOT. An assemblage of small cords, which reeve through holes, made at regular distances through the uphroe: its use is to suspend the awnings, and keep the foot of the top-sail from striking under the tops.
CROWN OF THE CABLE. The bights which are formed by the several turns.
CROWNING. The finishing of a knot made on the end of a rope.
CUNTLINE. The intervals between the strands of a rope.
DAVIT. A short boom fitted in the fore-channel, and used as the arm of a crane to hoist the flukes of the anchor clear of the ship's side, till high enough to lay on the gunwale, and fastened by the shank-painter.
DAVIT-ROPE. See ROPE.
DEAD-EYES. Round flat wooden blocks, with three holes instead of sheaves, through which the laniards reeve, when setting up the shrouds, or stays. The power gained by dead-eyes, is as the number of parts of the laniards rove through them; but, if the laniards be not well greased, the power will be greatly lost by friction, so that they are never applied as purchases, but merely for the better keeping the quantity gained of any shroud, or stay, when set up, and are much stronger than blocks with sheaves, when strain lies on a single pin.
DECK-STOPPER. See STOPPER.
DERRICK. A tackle used at the outer quarter of a mizen-yard, consisting of a double and single block, connected by a fall; also a diagonal shore, as a support to sheers; also a single spar, top-mast, or boom, raised upright, and supported by guys at the head, from whence hangs a tackle over the hatchway, the heel working in a socket of wood fastened on the deck.
DOG-STOPPER. See STOPPER.
DRIVER-BOOM. See Boom.
DRIVER-YARD. See YARD.
DOLPHIN. A rope lashed round the mast as a support to the pudding.
DOWNHAULER. A rope which hoists down the stay-sails, studding sails, and boom-sails, to shorten sail, &c.
EARINGS. Small ropes employed to fasten the upper corners of sails.
EASE-OFF, OR VEER-AWAY. To slacken a rope gradually.
ENTERING-ROPE. See ROPE.
EYE of A SHROUD. The upper part, which is formed into a sort of collar to go over the mast heads.
EYELET-HOLES. The holes made in the head and reefs of sails.
FAKE. One of the turns of a rope when stowed, or coiled.
FALL. The rope that connects the blocks of a tackle; but the fall sometimes implies only the loose part which is pulled upon to produce the desired effect.
FANCY-LINES. See LINES.
FANGS OR LEE-FANGS. A rope fastened to a cringle, near the foot of a ketche's wing-sail, to haul in the foot of the sail for lacing on the bonnet, or taking in the sail.
FENDERS. Pieces of wood, or old cable, bags of old rope-yarn, shakings, cork, or other materials, hung by a laniard over a vessel's sides, to prevent her being damaged.
FID. A square bar of iron, or wood, driven through a hole in the heel of a top-mast, when raised at the head of a lower-mast; it, resting on the trestle-trees, supports the top-masts, &c. The top-gallant-mast is retained in the same manner at the head of the top-mast, and the royal mast above that.
FIDS. Round tapering pins of various sizes, made of iron, or hard wood, and used for splicing of cordage.
FISH-TACKLE. See TACKLE.
FISH-TACKLE-PENDENTS. See PENDENTS.
FLAG-STAFF. See STAFF.
FLAG-STAFF-STAYS. See STAYS.
FLEETING. Changing the situation of a tackle, by placing the blocks further asunder, the force being destroyed by the blocks meeting, called block-and-block.
FLEMISH HORSES. See HORSES.
FLY OF A FLAG. The opposite part to the hoist.
FLYING OF SAILS. Setting them in loose a manner; as royal sails without lifts, or sheets, the clues being lashed; as small topgallant-sails, jibs, without stays; and as studding-sails without booms.
FORE-TOPGALLANT-STAY-TACKLE. See TACKLE.
FOUL implies entangled, as the tackle is when twisted. The Cables are FOUL, when twisted round each other, by a vessel's turning round the anchors by which she rides.
FOXES. Twisted rope-yarns; used for making of rope bands, &c. &c.
FRAPPING. Taking several turns round the middle of a lashing, or any number of ropes, and drawing the several parts tight together.
FURLING. Wrapping, or rolling a sail close up to its yard, mast, or stay, and fastening it up with gaskets, lines, &c.
FURLING-LINE. See LINES.
FUTTOCK-PLATE. A narrow plate of iron, having a dead-eye bound in the upper end. An eye is made in the lower end, which is put through a mortise in the sides of the top, to hook the futtock-shroud to.
FUTTOCK-SHROUD. See SHROUD.
FUTTOCK-STAVE. A short piece of rope served over with spun-yarn, to which the shrouds are confined at the catharpins.
GAFF. A pole used to extend the mizen course of a ship, and the fore and aft mainsails of smaller vessels.
GAMMONING. The rope which binds the inner quarter of the bowsprit close down upon the stem, that it may rest well in its bed.
GANGWAY-NETTING. See NETTING.
GASKETS. Braided cordage used to confine the sail to the yard, when furled, &c. ARM-GASKETS; those gaskets used at the extremities of yards. BUNT-GASKETS are those used in the middle of yards. QUARTER-GASKETS; those used between the middle and extremities of the yards.
GIRT-LINES. See LINES.
GRIPES. Short ropes with dead eyes, used to confine the boats to the deck.
GROMMETS. Rings made of worn rope, which are used to confine the nock of spritsails to the mast, and the oars of boats to the pins, instead of rowlocks, &c.
GUEST-ROPE. See ROPE.
GUYS. Ropes to keep steady sheers, davits, or derricks, when charged with any weighty body. GUY-PENDENTS. See PENDENTS.
HAGSTEETH. Those parts of pointing, matting, or the like, which are intertwisted with the rest in an irregular manner.
HALIARDS. Ropes or tackles employed to hoist or lower yards, sails, and flags, upon the masts, yards, stays, &c.
HAND-TIGHT. A moderate degree of tension on a rope, as to make it straight.
HANKS. Rings made of iron, or hoopsticks bent in a circular form, fixed on the stays to confine the staysails.
TO HAUL. To pull on a rope.
HEAD-LINE. See LINES.
HEAD-NETTING. See NETTING.
HEART. A peculiar sort of dead-eye, resembling a heart: it has one large hole in the middle, to contain the laniard, by which the stays or shrouds are extended.
HEAVER. A short wooden staff, used as a lever in setting up the topmast-shrouds, strapping of blocks, and seizing the rigging, &c.
HEAVING. The aft of turning about a capstern, &c. by means of bars, or handspikes.
HEEL-ROPE. See ROPE.
HITCH. A noose, by which one rope is fastened to another, or to some object, as a ring, post, timber-head, &c.
HOIST OF A FLAG OR SAIL. That part which is towards the staff, or bent to a mast or stay.
HOISTING. Drawing up a weight by tackles.
HOLDING-ON. The act of pulling back and retaining any quantity of rope, acquired by the effort of a capstern, or tackle; also the end of a stopper, nipper, &c. held by the hand.
HOOPS. Thin bars of iron, of circular, and other shapes. CLASP-HOOPS are similar to other hoops, but open with a hinge. BUOY-HOOPS are the wooden hoops that confine the buoy; and the wreaths of rope that go round the buoy, to which the straps are fastened. WOODEN-HOOPS are those which encircle mast, and to which the fore-leech of some sails are bent.
HORNS. The jaws, or semi-circular inner ends of booms and gaffs.
HORSE. A machine with which the operation of woolding is performed.
HORSES. Ropes for the men to stand upon, or hold by, &c. BOWSPRIT-HORSES are made fast at the ends, at a parallel height from the bowsprit, and serve as rails for the men to hold by, when going out upon the bowsprit. FLEMISH-HORSES are small horses under the yards without the cleats.
JIB-HORSES hang under the jib-boom, and are knotted at certain distances, to prevent the men's feet slipping. TRAVERSE-HORSES are of rope, or iron, for sails to travel on, &c. The one of rope is thick, and extended up and down, parallel to the mast; that on the fore-side is for hoisting or lowering the square-sail, whose yard is attached to the horse by a traveller, and slides up and down occasionally. The horse fixed abaft the mast is for the trysail of a snow, which slides up and down with hanks as a staysail. This is seldom used but in sloops of war, which occasionally assume the form of snows. HORSES OF IRON are thick iron rods, fastened at the ends athwart the deck of single-mast vessels, before the mast, for the foresail-sheet to travel on; and that abaft the mast, across the inside of the stern, on which travels the main-sheet-block. YARD-HORSES are ropes depending from the yards, for the men to stand upon in loosing, reefing, or furling the sails.
HOUNDS. That part of the mast-head which gradually projects on the starboard and larboard sides, beyond the cylindrical surface below.
HOUSE-LINE. See LINES.
JACK-BLOCK. A small block seized to the topgallant-mast-head, for sending the topgallant-yards up and down.
JAMBED. Obstructed and rendered immoveable.
JAWS. Two cheeks, forming a semi-circle, which enclose the after-part of the mast, so as to confine, by the help of the parral, the inner end of the boom or gaff.
JEARS. Tackles for hoisting or lowering the lower yards.
JEAR-BITTS. See BITTS.
JEWEL-BLOCKS. Small blocks, seized to eye-bolts in the extremities of the upper yards, for hoisting the studding-sails by the haliards, which reeve through them.
JIB-BOOM. See BOOM.
JIB-HORSES. See HORSES.
JIGGER. A Short rope fitted, with a block and a sheave, for holding on the cable as it is hove in by a windlass.
JIGGER-TACKLE. See TACKLE.
INHAULER. A rope employed to haul in the jib-boom, &c.
IRON-HORSES. See HORSES.
JUNK. Short pieces of old cable, used for mooring ships' sterns, or cut into
smaller portions for making mats, rope-bands, points, gaskets, &c.
KECKLING. Any old rope wound about a cable, to preserve the surface of it from chafing.
KEVELS. Two crooked pieces of timber, whose lower ends rest in a step or foot nailed to the ship's sides; the heads branch out like horns, to belay ropes to.
KINKING. The curling up of a rope when twisted too hard, or drawn hastily out of the coil.
KNOTS. The fastenings by which one rope is joined to another; or the knobs formed on their ends to prevent their slipping.
LACING. Fastening the head of a sail to a mast, yard, gaff, &c. by a line turned spirally round them, and reeved through the eyelet-holes in the sail. When a sail is laced to a mast, it is best to take cross turns, backwards and forwards, on the fore-side of the mast only, so that the sail may slide up or down.
LANIARDS. Short small ropes to make fast the shrouds, stays, &c.
LASHERS. The ropes employed to lash, or secure particular objects, as jears, &c.
LASHING. Fastening or securing one thing to another, with several turns of a rope.
LEADING-PART. That part of a tackle which is hauled upon.
LEGS. Short ropes which branch out into two or more parts, as the bowline-legs or bridles, buntline-legs, crowfoot-legs, &c.
LIFE-LINES. See LINES.
LIFTS. Ropes which suspend the outer-quarters of the yards, and raise or lower them. STANDING-LIFTS are made fast, and belong to yards that never require to be topped.
LINES. Cordage smaller than ropes, and formed of two or more fine strands of hemp; as HOUSE-LINE, made of three strands, used to seize blocks into their straps and the clues of sails; and to marl the skirts of sails to their bolt-ropes, &c. LOG-LINE, made of three or more strands, and used for the log, &c. MARLINE, made of two strands, and used for the same purposes as house-line.
Some ropes are, from their situations, termed lines; as BOWLINES, BUNTLINES, CLUE-LINES, FANCY-LINE, FURLING-LINE, GIRT-LINE, HEAD-LINE, LEECH-LINES, LIFE-LINES, NAVE-LINE, SLAB-LINE, SPILLING-LINES, TOW-LINE, and, TRACING-LINE.
BOWLINES are fastened on and near the middle of the leech of square sails, by two or three subordinate parts, called bridles; and are used to brace sideways, or close-haul to the wind, the weather, or windward, leeches of the sails forward; which are kept steady by the tension of the bowline. BUNTLINES are ropes fastened to the foot of square sails, to haul them up to their yards. CLUE-LINES are similar to the clue-garnets, and are used to square sails in general; whereas clue-garnets are confined to the main and fore courses. FANCY-LINE is a rope used to overhaul the brails of some fore and aft sails. FURLING-LINE is a small rope, or a line, used to fasten small sails to the yards, when furled. GIRT-LINE IS a rope reeved through a single block, occasionally lashed to mast and sheer heads, to hoist up rigging, &c. HEAD-LINE is the line sewed along the upper edge of flags to strengthen them. LEECH-LINES are ropes used to truss up the sails. LIFE-LINES, for the preservation of the seamen, are worn hawser-laid rope: they make fast with two half hitches round the strap of the lift-block and jeer, or tye-blocks in the middle of the yard. NAVE-LINE is a tackle depending from the mast-head to the trusses, to keep them opposite the yards, whilst hoisting or lowering. SLAB-LINE is a rope used to truss up the foot of the main and fore courses occasionally, for the pilot or master to look forward underneath, as the ship advances. SPILLING-LINES are ropes reeved through blocks, lashed on each side of the quarter-blocks of the lower yards, then lead down before the sail, return upwards under the foot, and make fast round the yard with a timber hitch: spilling-lines of topsails have two legs, which are each made fast with a timber-hitch round the quarters of the topsail yards, then lead down on the aftside, return upwards under the foot of the sail, and reeve through a block on the fore-side, lashed to the tye-block on the yard, and then lead upon deck abaft the mast. TOW-LINE is a small hawser, used to remove any vessel, by means of anchors, capsterns, &c. TRACING-LINE is a small rope or tackle used to hoist any object to a higher station, and render it more convenient; such are the tracing-lines of the yard-tackles; the inner tracing-line hoists the block, and the outer tracing-line, the parts of the tackle.
LIZARD. An iron thimble spliced into the main-bowlines, and pointed over to hook a tackle to.
LOG-LINES. See LINES.
LOOP. A noose made in a rope.
LOOSING THE SAILS. Unfurling them for setting, or for drying, when wet.
LOWER SHROUDS. See SHROUDS.
LOWER STAYS. See STAYS.
LUFF TACKLE. See TACKLE.
MAIN-STAY-TACKLE-PENDENTS. See PENDENTS.
MAIN-BOOM. See Boom.
MAN-ROPES. See ROPES.
MARLINE. See LINES.
MARLING-SPIKE. A tapered iron pin, with a globular head, used to make openings between the strands of ropes for introducing the ends of others through them: it is sometimes used as a lever to strain tight seizings, &c.
MARTINGAL. An ash bar, fixed downwards from the fore-side of the bowsprit-cap, and by which the martingal-stay supports the jib-boom.
MASTS. Long cylindrical pieces of timber, to which are fastened the yards, sails, and rigging. See the treatise on masts.
MARTINGAL-STAY. See STAY.
MAST-COATS. Coverings made of well tarred canvas to prevent the water going down the mast-hole.
MAT. A thick texture made of spunyarn, strands of rope, or foxes, wove or plaited together, and fastened upon masts, yards, &c. to prevent their chafing.
MESSENGER. A cable-laid rope, used to heave in the cable.
MESHES. The spaces between the lines of a netting.
MOUSE. A large knob, in the shape of a pear, formed on stays; also a smaller one round messengers, by intertwisting a small rope round the strands.
MOUSING A HOOK. Taking several turns of spunyarn round the back and point of a hook, and fastening it, to prevent its unhooking.
NAVE-LINE. See LINES.
NETTING. A fence made by seizing together the BIGHTS of small ropes, leaving uniform spaces or meshes between: it is used in different parts of a ship; thus, the BOARDING-NETTING is thrown over the sides, to prevent the enemies boarding. BOWSPRIT-NETTING is fastened at the outer end of the bowsprit to the horses, or man-ropes, to stow away the fore-topmast-staysail and jib. BREASTWORK, GANGWAY, QUARTER, and WAIST NETTINGS, are used to keep the hammacoes in the stantions. HEAD-NETTING is fastened to the horses in the head and upper rail, to save the men from slipping overboard. QUARTER-DECK-NETTING is suspended over the officers heads, to prevent any thing falling thereon, in time of action. TOP-NETTING is fastened to the rail, shrouds, and top, to preserve the men from falling.
To NIPPER or NIP ropes, is to stop them with several turns of rope-yarn, or spun-yarn, round each, and the ends made fast.
NIPPERS. Braided cordage 12 or 14 feet long, used in heaving in the cable by the viol, or messenger.
NORMAN. A short wooden bar, with a head, used in one of the holes of the windlass, when there is little strain on the cable.
OAKUM. Old ropes untwisted and picked small.
OVERHAULING. Extending the several parts of a tackle, or ropes, connected to blocks or dead-eyes, to any distance required.
OUTHAULER. A rope made fast to the tack of the jib, to haul it out by.
PAINTER. A rope secured to the bow of a boat to make her fast with.
PANCH. A covering of wood, or a thick texture made of plaited rope-yarn, larger than a mast, to preserve the masts, &c. from chafing.
PARCELLING. Wrapping worn canvas round ropes, to prepare them for serving.
PARRAL. A sort of collar, by which the yards are fastened at the slings to the masts, so that they may be hoisted or lowered with facility. Of parrals there are four sorts, viz. one sort is formed
of a single rope, covered with spunyarn or leather, and having an eye spliced in each end; another sort is formed of two ropes, which reeve alternately through a rib and truck, and have an eye in one end; a third sort, calculated to confine the jaws of a jib-boom to the mast, is formed of a rope which reeves through several trucks without ribs; and a fourth sort is formed of a truss, by which the yard may at any time be slackened from the mast, or may be confined close by tackles connected to their lower ends, which lead upon deck, and are most convenient for the lower yards. The first and second sorts are used for topsail and topgallant yards.
PARRAL-TRUCKS. See TRUCKS.
PASSAREE. Any rope fastened round the cat-head and fore-tack, to keep tight the leech of the sail in light winds.
To PAY OUT. To let a cable or other rope run out of the vessel.
PEEK-HALIARDS. The ropes by which the outer end of a gaff or yard, that hangs oblique to a mast, is hoisted.
PENDENTS. Large, but short, ropes which go over the mast-heads, and to which are hooked the main and fore tackles. There are, besides, many other pendents, with a block or tackle attached to one end, all of which serve to transmit the effort of their tackles to some other object: such are the
BILL-PENDENT, BRACE-PENDENTS, PREVENTER-BRACE-PENDENTS, BURTON-PENDENTS, FISH-PENDENTS, GUY-PENDENTS, MAIN-STAY-TACKLE-PENDENT, PENDENTS OF TACKLES, QUARTER-TACKLE-PENDENTS, REEF-TACKLE-PENDENTS, RUDDER-PENDENTS, STAY-TACKLE-PENDENTS, TOP-ROPE-PENDENTS, TRUSS-PENDENTS, VANG-PENDENTS, WINDING-TACKLE-PENDENTS, and YARD-TACKLE-PENDENTS.
PINS, for belaying ropes to, are turned wooden pins, with a shoulder near the middle; the small end is driven through the rough tree rails, or racks of thin plank made on purpose. Iron belaying-pins are round, taper from the middle to each end, and are driven in the rails, or racks, to belay the ropes to, by taking several cross turns about them.
POINTING. Tapering the end of a rope, or splice, and working over the reduced part a small close netting, with an even number of knittles twisted from the same, to prevent the end untwisting, and to go more easily through a block or hole.
POINTS. Short pieces of braided cordage plaited together.
PORT-TACKLE. See TACKLE.
PREVENTER. An additional rope employed, sometimes to support or answer the purpose: of another that has a great strain or is injured. Such are the PREVENTER-BRACES, SHROUDS, STAYS, &c.
PREVENTER-STAYS. See STAYS.
PREVENTER-SHROUDS. See SHROUDS.
PREVENTER-STAY-TACKLE. See TACKLE.
PREVENTER-BRACE-PENDENT. See PENDENTS.
PUDDENING. A thick wreath, made of rope, fastened about the main and fore masts of a ship, to prevent their yards from falling down, when the ropes that support them are injured.
QUARTER-CLOTH. Canvas nailed with sennit along the rough-tree-rail on the quarter-deck, and to the plank-sheer, to keep out the spray of the sea.
RACK. A short thin plank, with holes made through it, containing a number of belaying-pins, used instead of cleats: it is seized to the shrouds, and nailed over the bowsprit or windlass.
RACK. A long shell, containing a number of sheaves, formerly fixed over the bowsprit to lead in the running rigging; at present, wooden saddles, with holes in them, are nailed on the bowsprit for this purpose, being more out of the way, and less liable to be out of order.
RACKING A TACKLE. Fastening together the fall of a tackle, or any two ropes, by passing two or more cross turns with rope-yarn round each part, and as many round turns above them; making fast the ends with a reef-knot.
RANGE-CLEATS. Large cleats, with two arms, bolted in the waist of ships, to belay the tacks and sheets to.
RATLINGS. Small ropes which cross the shrouds horizontally, at equal distances from the deck upwards, forming ladders to go up or down from the mast-heads.
REEF. That portion of a sail contained between the head or foot, and a row of eyelet-holes parallel thereto, which portion is taken up to reduce the surface of the sail when the wind encreases. Sails, according to their sizes, have from one to four reefs. A BAG-REEF is the fourth, or lower, reef of a topsail. A BALANCE-REEF crosses boom-mainsails diagonally, from the nock to the end of the upper reef-band on the after-leech.
REEF-TACKLE. See TACKLE.
REEF-TACKLE-PENDENTS. See PENDENTS.
To REEVE. To pass a rope through a block or hole.
RELIEVING-TACKLES. See TACKLES.
RIBS OF A PARRAL. Short flat pieces of wood, having a hole near each end, through which the parral-rope is reeved.
RIDING-BIT. See BITS.
RIDGE-TACKLE. See TACKLE.
RING-TAIL-BOOM. See Boom.
RING-ROPE. See Ropes.
RING-BOLT. An iron bolt, with a ring fitted in an eye in the end.
ROLLING-TACKLE. See TACKLE.
ROPE-BANDS. Braided cordage, used to fasten the heads of sails to their respective yards.
ROPES. All cordage in general above one inch in circumference, which bear different names, according to their various uses. BELL-ROPE is hawser-laid rope, 9 or 12 feet in length, which bends round a thimble in the eye of the bell or crank. In the middle of the rope is a diamond knot, and at the end a double wall knot, crowned. BOLT-ROPE, is the rope sewed to the skirts, or edges of sails. BUOY-ROPE, a rope fastened to the buoy of the anchor. BREAST-ROPE is fastened along the laniards of the shrouds, for safety, when heaving the lead in the chains. DAVIT-ROPE, the lashing which secures the davit to the shrouds, when out of use. ENTERING-ROPES hang from the upper part of the stantions, along-side the ladder, at the gangways. GUEST-ROPE is fastened to an eye-bolt in the ship's side, and to the outer end of a boom projecting from the ship's side, by guys, to keep the boats clear off the sides. HEEL-ROPE is to haul out the bowsprits of cutters, &c. MAN-ROPES are for the security of the men, when going out on the bowsprit. PARRAL-ROPES are to connect the ribs and trucks of parrals together. PASSING-ROPES lead round the ship, through eyes in the quarter, waist, gangway, and forecastle stantions, forward to the knight-heads.
RING-ROPES are occasionally made fast to the ring-bolts in the deck, and, by cross turns round the cable, to confine it securely in stormy weather. SLIP-ROPE is to trice the bight of the cable into the head; and is also employed in casting off vessel, till got in a tide's way, &c. TILLER-ROPE is the rope by which the tiller is worked. TOP-ROPE, is a rope reeved through the heel of a topmast, to raise it by its tackle to the mast-head.
ROPE-YARN. One of the threads of which a rope is composed.
ROUGH-TREE-RAIL. A rail, breast high, along the sides of the poop and quarter-deck.
ROUNDING. Serving the cable with worn rope, or sennit to secure it from chafing.
ROWSING. Pulling upon a cable or rope, without the assistance of capsterns, &c.
ROYAL-STAY. See STAY.
ROYAL-YARD. See YARD.
RUDDER-COATS. Coverings made of well tarred canvas, to prevent the water from coming in at the rudder-hole.
RUDDER-TACKLE. See TACKLE.
RUDDER-PENDENTS. See PENDENTS.
RUNNER. A single rope, connected with a tackle, which transmits its effort the same as if the tackle was the whole length; such are the BREAST-BACKSTAY-RUNNER, RUNNERS OF TACKLES, &c.
RUNNING-RIGGING. All that part of rigging which traverses through blocks, &c.
SADDLES FOR BOOMS. Small blocks of wood, hollowed on their lower and upper sides, and nailed on the yards and bowsprits, for retaining booms in a steady position. The lower-side is hollowed, to fit the convexity of the yard it is intended for; and the upper-side to the figure of the boom, as a channel for it to slide on. SADDLES, on the bowsprit, for leading the rigging through, are semi-circles made to fit the convex surface of the bowsprit; they are rounded On the back, and have several holes made in the sides, through a which the rigging is led, when they are nailed to the inner part of the bowsprit,
SAILS. See the treatise on sails.
SEIZING. Joining two ropes, or the two ends of one rope, together, &c. by taking several close turns of small rope, line, or spunyarn, round them. END-SEIZING is a round seizing on the end of a rope. THROAT-SEIZING is the first seizing claps on where a rope, or ropes, cross each other. MIDDLE-SEIZING, is a seizing between a throat and end seizing. EYE-SEIZING, is a round seizing next the eye of a shroud, &c.
SELVAGEE. Several rope yarns turned into a circular form, and marled together with spunyarn. It is used to attach the hook of a tackle to any rope, shroud, or stay, to extend, or set them up: two or more turns of the selvagee are taken round the same, in which the hook is fixed.
SENNIT. Braided cordage, formed of rope-yarn.
SERVING. Encircling a rope with line or spunyarn, &c. to preserve it from being chafed.
SERVING-MALLET. A cylindrical piece of wood, with a handle in the middle: it is used for serving, and has a groove along the surface opposite to the handle, which fits the convexity of the rope to be served.
SETTING THE SAILS. Loosing and expanding them.
SETTING-UP. Encreasing the tension of the shrouds, stays, and backstays, to secure the masts by tackles, laniards, &c.
SHACKLE. A sort of iron ring, to hook a tackle to.
SHANK-PAINTER. A short rope and chain bolted to the ship's sides, above the fore channels, to hang or secure the shank of an anchor to; the flukes resting in a chock on the gunwale.
SHEEP-SHANK. A sort of knot made on backstays, &c. to shorten them.
SHEET. A rope or tackle fastened to the clues of sails, to retain them in any direction.
SHEET-STOPPERS. See STOPPERS.
SHIFTING-BACKSTAY-TACKLE. See TACKLE.
SHROUDS. A range of large ropes, extended from the mast-heads to the larboard and starboard sides of the vessel, to support the mast, &c.
The shrouds are denominated from the places to which they belong; thus: the fore, main, and mizen shrouds ; fore, main, and mizen-topmast shrouds, &c.
The number and size of the shrouds are in proportion to the size of the masts, as in the annexed Tables of Dimensions.
BOWSPRIT-SHROUDS, are those which support the bowsprit. BUMKIN-SHROUDS, are those which support the bumkins. FUTTOCK-SHROUDS, are shrouds which connect the efforts of the topmast shrouds to the lower shrouds. BENTINCK-SHROUDS, are additional shrouds, to support the masts in heavy gales. PREVENTER-SHROUDS, are similar to bentinck-shrouds, and are used in bad weather to ease the lower rigging.
SHROUD-TRUCKS. See TRUCKS.
SHROUD-STOPPERS. See STOPPERS.
SLINGS. Short ropes, used to hang the yards to the mast, &c. or to encircle a bale or cask, and suspend it whilst hoisting or lowering; and also to secure buoys, &c.
To SLUE. To turn a mast, or boom, about in its cap, or boom-iron, &c.
SNAKING. A sort of fastening to confine the outer turns of seizings, &c.
SNAKING THE STAYS, or ropes, on the quarters, instead of netting, is seizing proportioned sized rope, at angles, from one stay or rope to the other, alternately, in a parallel direction along the whole length. Its use to stays is, that one part may remain perfect and independent of the other, should it be shot away.
SNOTTER. A short rope, spliced together at the ends, and served with spunyarn, or covered with hide: it is seized to the size of the mast, leaving a bight to fit the lower end of a sprit, which it confines to the mast.
SPANS. Short ropes, having a block, thimble, or eye, spliced into each end; the middle is hitched round a mast, yard, gaff, cap, or stay, from whence the ends branch out. Spans are sometimes fastened at both ends, and have a block in the bight. They are used to lead ropes through, which pass through the blocks or thimbles, to encrease power, or to prevent their swinging about.
SPANNING OF BOOMS. Confining them by ropes.
SPANNING OF RUNNERS. Taking several turns with small rope round both runners abaft the mast, and frapping the turns.
SPANISH WINDLASS. See WINDLASS.
SPARS. Small fir-trees.
SPILLING-LINES. See LINES.
SPLICING. Joining one rope to another, by interweaving their ends, or uniting the end of a rope into another part of it. There are different sorts of splices, viz. the CUNT-SPLICE, which forms an eye in the middle of a rope: the EYE-SPLICE forms an eye or circle at the end of a rope on itself, or round a block, &c. The LONG-SPLICE is made to rejoin a rope or ropes intended to reeve through a
block without encreasing its size: the SHORT-SPLICE is made by untwisting the ends of a rope, or of two ropes, and placing the strands of one between those of the other. The TAPERED-SPLICE is chiefly used on cables, and is made as the short-splice, but is gradually tapered toward each end, by cutting away some of the rope-yarns, and is served over: the DRAWING-SPLICE, is a splice used for joining cables together, and is esteemed the best for this purpose, as it may be readily undone.
SPRIT. A small yard, or pole, by which spritsails are extended. The foot of it is fixed in a SNOTTER, which encircles the mast, and it crosses the sail diagonally, the upper end being attached to the peek.
SPUNYARN. Two or more rope-yarns twisted together.
SQUARE-RIGGED. A term applied to those ships which have long yards, at right angles with the length of the keel, and low masts: it is thence used in contra-distinction to those vessels whose sails are extended by stays, latteen-yards, &c.
SQUARE-SAIL-BOOM. See Boom.
STAFF. A light pole on which the flags are hoisted. The ENSIGN-STAFF, is the principal staff, and is erected on the stern, within-side the tafferel, to display the ensign. FLAG-STAFFS are also erected on the mast-heads, or formed by the upper part of the topgallant masts, to hoist the flags, royals, &c. The JACK-STAFF is a short staff erected on the aftside of the bowsprit-cap, to expand the jack.
STAGE. A small platform made of grating, or of short boards, for men to stand upon to fix the rigging toward the outer end of the bowsprit, &c.
STANDING-PART. That part of a tackle which is made fast.
STANDING PART OF A ROPE, (in the making of knots, &c.) means the principal part of a rope, in contra-distinction to the end by which the knot is formed; or it may be said to be that part of a rope which is at rest, and is acted upon by the end.
STANTIONS OF THE NETTINGS. Square wooden pillars, set into the upper part of the ship's side, or small pillars of iron, used to support the nettings, awnings, &c.
STAYS. Strong ropes, to support the masts forward, which extend from their upper part, at the mast-head, toward the fore part of the ship. The stays are denominated from the masts, LOWER-STAYS, TOPMAST-STAYS, TOPGALLANT-STAYS, FLAGSTAFF or ROYAL STAYS, &.c.
BACKSTAYS, BREAST, SHIFTING, and STANDING, are stays which support the topmasts and topgallant masts from aft; they reach from the heads of the topmast and topgallant-mast to the channel on each side of the ship, and assist the shrouds when strained by a press of sail. The shifting backstays change according to the action of the wind upon the sails, whether aft, or upon the quarter. BOB-STAYS, are stays used to confine the bowsprit down upon the stem, and counteract the force of the stays, which draw it upwards. STAYSAIL-STAYS, are those stays on which the staysails are extended. The JIB-STAY is similar to the staysail-stays, and extends the jib. The MARTINGAL-STAY supports the jib-boom, as the bobstays support the bowsprit. PREVENTER-SPRING-STAYS, are subordinate stays to support their respective stays, and supply their places in case of any accident. SKIATIC-STAYS are ropes used for hoisting, or lowering, burdens in or out of ships.
STAYSAIL-STAY-TACKLE. See TACKLE.
STAY-TACKLE-PENDENTS. See PENDENTS.
STERNFAST. A rope to confine the sterns of boats, &c.
STIRRUPS. Short ropes, which have their upper ends plaited and nailed round the yards:
eyes made in their lower ends, through which the horses are reeved, to keep them parallel to the yards.
STOOLS. Small channels, fixed to the ship's sides, to contain the dead-eyes for the backstays.
STOP. Several turns of spunyarn taken round the end of a rope, similar to a seizing, to fasten it to another rope. Also, a projection left on the upper part of topgallant-masts, &c. to prevent the rigging from sliding down.
STOPPERS. Short ropes, used to check the cable, suspend weighty bodies, and retain the shrouds, &c. in a fixed position, after being damaged, or otherwise. ANCHOR-STOPPERS are used to suspend the anchor, when catted: BITT-STOPPERS are those stoppers used to check the cable: DECK-STOPPERS are used to retain the cable when the ship is riding at anchor: DOG-STOPPERS are used as additional securities when the ship is riding in heavy gales, or bringing up a ship with much sternway, to prevent the cable from snapping at the bitts, and to ease the deck-stoppers: WING-STOPPERS are used for the same purposes as dog-stoppers: SHROUD-STOPPERS are used to confine a shroud together, when damaged, or shot. FORE-TACK, and SHEET, STOPPERS, are for securing the tacks and sheets, till belayed.
STRAPS. Wreaths of ropes which are spliced round blocks, or used to encircle a yard or any large rope, by which tackles, &c. may be connected to them.
STUDDINGSAIL-BOOM. See BOOM.
STUDDINGSAIL-YARDS. See YARDs.
To SURGE. To let a cable, or rope, round a capstern slide up it, by gently slacking the part held on.
To SWAY. To haul down upon a rope or cable.
SWIFTERS. The after shrouds on each side of the main and fore masts: they are above all the other shrouds, and are used as an additional security to the masts. SWIFTER is also a small rope used: to confine the bars of a capstern in their holes, while the men are heaving it about; and likewise a large rope, sometimes used lengthways round a boat under the gunwale, to strengthen it, and defend it from other boats which may strike against it.
SWIFTERING OF SHROUDS. Stretching of them by tackles, to prevent any future extension.
SWIGGING OFF. Pulling upon the middle of a tight rope that is made fast at both ends.
TACKS. Ropes used to confine the foremost lower corners of courses, and of staysails, and other fore and aft sails; also the rope employed to haul out the lower corners of studdingsails. TACK is also applied to that part of a sail to which the tack is fastened.
TACK OF A FLAG. A line spliced into the eye at the bottom of the tabling, for securing the flag to the haliard.
TACK-STOPPER. See STOPPER.
TACKLE. A machine formed by the connection of a rope or fall, with an assemblage of blocks. The number of parts of the fall is more or less, in proportion to the effects intended to be produced. That part of the fall which is fastened to one of the blocks, is called the STANDING-PART, and the other parts of it are called the RUNNING-PART.
Tackles are used to raise, or remove, weighty bodies; to support the masts, extend the rigging, or expand the sails. They are either moveable, as connecting with a runner, or have one part fixed to an immoveable station, by a hook, lashing, &c.
A tackle is a convenient kind of purchase, but subject to much friction. Its power will be, the friction not considered, as the number of parts of the fall that are applied to sustain the weigh. If a
tackle consists of a double and a single block, and the weight to be hoisted is hung to the double block, there will be four parts of the fall; and the weight resting upon four ropes, equally stretched, each must bear the same part of the weight. Thus, suppose the weight hung to the double block be four hundred, then one hundred applied to the hauling part of the fall will suspend it; and if as much more power be applied as will overcome the friction, it will purchase the weight: but, had the weight been hooked to the single block, it would have rested on three ropes only, each of which would bear a third of the weight; therefore a third of the weight being applied to the hoisting part of the fall, would suspend the weight, when hooked to the single block; and as much more power being applied as will overcome the friction, would purchase the weight.
Ropes, if tight laid, will not easily bend round small sheaves, but will take up a considerable part of the power to force them into their proper direction; hence it follows, that blocks with small pins, large sheaves, and slack-laid ropes, are the best materials to obviate friction, and make tackles with.
The blocks that are fixed, are only for the convenience of turning the direction of the fall, they add nothing to the power of the purchase, but, on the contrary, destroy so much as is necessary to overcome their friction, and are therefore to be avoided as much as possible.
The ANCHOR-STOCK TACKLE is composed of a double block, and a single block, strapped, with a hook and thimble. Boom TACKLES are composed of double and single blocks, strapped, with tails, and are used in getting the studding-sail-booms in or out. BOWLINE TACKLE is composed of a long tackle, and a single block, strapped, with a hook and thimble: it is used to bowse up the main-bowline, when the ship is upon a wind. BURTON TACKLES are composed of double and single blocks, and are used with pendents, to set up the shrouds, support the topsail-yards, &c. A FISH TACKLE is composed of a long tackle, and a single block, strapped, with eyes, and is used with a pendent, to fish the anchor, and get it into its place. GARNET TACKLE is composed of a double block, and a single block, strapped, with a hook and thimble: it is hooked to the skiatick-stay in merchant ships, and is used to hoist goods in or out. JIGGER TACKLES are composed of double and single blocks, strapped, with tails, and are used for topping the main and fore yards by the lifts, &c. LUFF TACKLES are composed of double and single blocks, strapped, with a hook and thimble, and are used occasionally at any of the ship. OUTHAULER TACKLE is composed of two single blocks, strapped, with tails, and is used to bowse out the jib-boom. PORT TACKLES are used to hoist and lower the port-lids. QUARTER TACKLES are composed of double and single blocks, strapped, with eyes, and the lower blocks with a hook and thimble: they are used to hoist up water, and provisions. REEF TACKLES are composed of two double, or two single, blocks; one block is spliced into a pendent, and the other is strapped, with an eye: they are used to draw the extremities of the reefs close up to the yard-arms, for reefing the sail. RELIEVING TACKLES are luff tackles, used to the fore-end of the tiller, when the tiller ropes are damaged. RIDGE TACKLE is composed of a double block, and a single block, strapped, with an eye: it is used to suspend the awning in the middle. ROLLING TACKLES are luff tackles, used to the topsail-yards, to support them, and preserve the parrals. RUDDER TACKLES are composed of long tackle blocks, and single blocks, strapped, with hooks and thimbles: they are used to save, or direct the rudder, when any accident happens to the tiller. RUNNER TACKLES are composed of double and single blocks, and a pendent; the lower blocks are strapped, with a hook and thimble: they are used to set up the shrouds, and to get the mast-heads forward, for staying the masts. STAY TACKLES, MAIN AND FORE, are composed of double and single blocks, strapped, with hooks and thimbles, except the blocks spliced into a pendent: they are used for getting the
provisions, &c. out of the fore and main hold, and for getting the boats in or out. The pendent, formerly, travelled on the stay, by iron thimbles; but this is now discontinued in the Royal Navy, they much injured the stay, by the friction. STAYSAIL STAY TACKLES are composed of double and single blocks; the lower blocks are strapped, with a hook and thimble; they are used to set up the jib, and other staysail-stays. SHIFTING BACKSTAY TACKLES are composed of double and single blocks, strapped, with a hook and thimble, and are used to set up the shifting backstays, where wanted. TOPMAST STAY, and PREVENTER STAY TACKLES are composed of long tackle blocks, and single blocks; the lower blocks are strapped, with a hook and thimble; they are used to set up the topmast, and preventer stays. FORE TOPGALLANT STAY TACKLE is composed of a double and a single block, and is used to set up the fore topgallant stay. TACK TACKLE is composed of a double and a single block, strapped, with hooks and thimbles; and is used for bowsing down the tack of fore and aft mainsails. The TOP TACKLE is composed of double or treble blocks: it is attached to the top-rope-pendent, and used to erect the topmasts, at the heads of the lower masts. TRUSS TACKLES are composed of two double blocks, strapped, with hooks and thimbles, and are used to secure the lower yards to their masts, being hooked to the truss-pendent. WINDING TACKLE is composed of a four-fold and a treble block, or a treble and a double block, strapped, with eyes: it is attached to the winding-tackle-pendent, and is chiefly used to get in and out the guns. YARD TACKLES are composed of double and single blocks; the double blocks are spliced into the lower ends of pendents, and the single blocks are strapped, with hooks and thimbles: they are used to hoist the boats in or out.
TACKLE-FALL. That end of the rope of a tackle which is bowsed on, or the rope which composes the tackle.
TACKLE-PENDENTS. See PENDENTS.
TAIL. The long end of a block-strap, by which the block is attached to any place required.
TARPAWLING. Canvas paid over with tar, and used to cover the hatches, to prevent water from coming in; and to cover the blocks at the sheer-heads of hulks, &c.
THIMBLES. A kind of iron rings, whose outsides are grooved, to receive ropes of different sizes. They are fixed to the rigging for blocks to be hooked to, and for ropes to reeve through, &c.
THROAT. The inner end of a gaff, or boom.
TILLAR-ROPE. See ROPE.
THRUMMING. Interplacing short pieces of thrumbs, or rope-yarn, in a regular manner, into matting, through intervals made by a fid.
TIMENOGUY. A Rope fastened at one end to the fore-shrouds, and nailed at the other end to the anchor-stock, on the bow, to prevent the fore-sheet from entangling.
TONGUE. A short piece of rope spliced into the upper part of standing-backstays, &c. to the size of the topmast-heads: it is served over with spun-yarn, and is used to keep them open to the size of the mast-heads.
TOP. A platform, surrounding the lower mast-heads, to extend the topmast-shrouds, &c.
TOP-ROPE. See ROPE.
TOP-ROPE-PENDENTS. See PENDENTS
TOP-TACKLE. See TACKLE.
TOPMAST-STAY-TACKLE. See TACKLE.
TOPPING. The act of drawing one of the yard-arms higher than the other, by slackening one lift, and pulling upon the other.
TOPPING-LIFT. A tackle to suspend, or TOP, the outer end of a gaff, boom, &c.
TOPSAIL-YARDS. See YARDS.
TOPGALLANT-YARDS. See YARDS.
TOP-NETTING. See NETTING.
TRACING-LINE. See LINE.
TRAVELLER. A large iron thimble, whose diameter is larger than the common thimbles, though the surface is smaller. Travellers are used to facilitate the descent of topgallant-yards by the back-stays, the travellers being placed on the back-stays, and surrounded by a short rope, or tail, which is fastened round the yard-arms. The JIB-TRAVELLER is a circular iron hoop, with a hook and shackle, used to haul out the tack of the jib.
TRAVERSE-HORSES. See HORSES.
TREE NAILS. Cylindrical wooden pins, used by riggers for levers, or heavers; also the wooden pins by which the ship's planks are fastened to the timbers.
TRESTLE-TREES. Two strong bars of oak, bolted to the 'thwartship sides of the lower mast heads, to support the top, and weight of the topmast; and to the topmast heads, to support the top-gallant-masts, &c.
TRUCKS. Small pieces of wood, of various shapes, used for different purposes. FLAG-STAFF-TRUCKS are round flat pieces of elm, with a small sheave on each side. They are fixed, by a square mortise-hole made in the middle, upon the upper end of flag-staffs, and are used to reeve the haliards. PARRAL-TRUCKS are round balls of elm, or other wood, and have a hole through the middle, in which a rope is reeved, to form the parrals. SEIZING-TRUCKS are similar to parral-trucks, but have a score round the middle to admit a seizing. They are used to lead ropes through. SHROUD-TRUCKS are short cylindrical pieces of elm, &c. they have a hole through the middle, lengthways, a groove down the side, of the size of the shrouds, and a score round the middle to admit a seizing. They are seized to the shrouds, to lead ropes through, that they may be more readily found.
TRUSS. A rope employed to confine or slacken the lower-yards to or from their respective masts.
TRUSS-TACKLE. See TACKLE.
TRUSS-PENDENTS. See PENDENTS.
TYE. A sort of runner, or large rope, used to convey the effort of the tackle to hoist the upper yards and gaff.
VANGS. The braces that keep steady the peek of gaff sails and fore-and-aft sails. VANG-PENDENT. See PENDENTS.
To VEER AWAY. To let go a rope gently.
WARP. A hawser, used to remove a ship from one place to another.
WARP, or more properly WOOF, is the twine or thread woven across the knittles in pointing.
WARP OF SHROUDS. The first given length, taken from the bolster at the mast-lead to the foremost dead-eye.
WHIP. A small single tackle, formed by connecting the fall to a single block, or with two blocks, the one fixed, and the other moveable: it is used to hoist light bodies out of the hold, &c.
To WHIP. To turn a piece of pack-thread, &c. upon the end of a rope, to prevent its unravelling.
WHIP UPON WHIP. The greatest purchase that can be gained by blocks, which is formed by fixing the end of one whip upon another whip fall. Thus two single block will afford the same purchase as a tackle, having a double and a single block, and with much less friction. This purchase should therefore be used whenever the length of the hoist will admit of it. To topsail, and topgallant-yards, that hoist with a single tye, there is sufficient room to apply this purchase as haliards, which will overhaul with great facility.
WINDING TACKLE. See TACKLE,
WINDING TACKLE-PENDENT. See PENDENT.
WINDLASS. A machine, used in most merchant ships, to answer the purpose of a capstern. A SPANISH WINDLASS is formed of an iron bolt, placed in a hole, which is hove round by a woolder that acts as a lever for turning it round. It is used to stretch small rigging for serving, &c. &c.
WOOLDING. Winding several close turns of rope in a tight manner round masts and yards, that are made of several united pieces, to strengthen and confine the same together.
WORMING. Winding a rope close along the cuntlines, to strengthen it, and make a fair surface for service.
YARDS. Long cylindrical pieces of fir timber hung upon the masts of ships, to expand the sails to the wind. The lower yards to which the courses are bent, are the largest; such are the main, fore, and mizen yards which, except the mizen, hang to the masts at right angles with the ship's length. The MIZEN-YARD, hangs obliquely to the mizen-mast, parallel to the ship's length. The TOPSAIL-YARDS which expand the topsails, hang to the topmasts, next above the lower yards. The TOPGALLANT-YARDS, which expand the topgallant-sails, hang above them; and the ROYAL-YARDS, which expand the royal-sails are hung above the topgallant-yards. The CROSS-JACK-YARD is used to expand the foot of the mizen topsail; and the topsail, or square-sail, of vessels with one mast. The DRIVER-YARD is a small yard, which expands the head of the driver without the peek of the gaff, to which it is hoisted by haliards. STUDDING-SAIL-YARDS, hang to the extremities of the yards, and by these are expanded the heads of the studding-sails.
RIGGING is, in part, prepared on shore, in a rigging-house, which has the following conveniences, &c. viz. At the upper end is a windlass; and, at certain distances, down the middle are two rows of large strong posts, for stretching ropes, and laying on service. On each side of the house are births for the men to prepare small rigging in.
The ropes for the several parts of rigging are, in circumference and in length, according to the Table of Dimensions, for ships of each rate, given in this work.
There is much subordinate knowledge necessary before a person can either prepare rigging in the house, or fit it on board of the ship. This consists of knotting, splicing, making of hitches, mousing, serving, &c. the necessary instructions for which are accordingly here given.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR KNOTTING, SPLICING, MAKING OF HITCHES, MOUSING, SERVING, &c.
BENDS. COMMON BEND. Pass the end of a rope through the bight of another rope, then round and underneath the standing part; but, to prevent its jambing, pass it round again under the standing part. The sheet of a sail has the end passed up through the clue, then round the clue, and underneath the standing part. The rope of a buoy is passed as a sheet, and has the end stopt. Bends of a cable-clinch are passed as a seizing. CARRICK BEND. Lay the end of a rope, or hawser, across its standing part; then take the end of another rope, or hawser, and lay it under the first standing part, at the cross, and over the end; then through the bight, under the standing part; then over its own standing part, and underneath the bight again: it is often used in half, to form a greater length, to warp or tow with. FISHERMAN'S BEND. Take a round turn with the end of a rope, or hawser, through the ring of an anchor, &c. and a half hitch through both parts, and another half hitch round the standing part; then stop the end. HAWSER BEND is a hitch, with a throat and end seizing made on one end, and the end of another hawser reeved through the bight, and hitched with a throat and end seizing. TEMPORARY BEND, commonly made to reeve through large blocks, thus: Lay three fathoms of the end of two hawsers together, and put on a round seizing in the middle; then reverse the ends to each standing part, and put on a throat seizing between each end and the middle, and a round seizing on each end.
CATSPAW, for hooking up shrouds, &c. Lay the end of a rope, or fall, over the standing part and middle of the bight, then turn it three times over both parts, and hook the tackle through both bights.
CLINCHES. INSIDE CLINCH. The end of a cable is passed through the hawse hole, and reeved through the ring of the anchor; then passed round the standing part, through the bight, and a circle, which is called the clinch, formed the same size as the ring of the anchor: a throat and end-bend is then clapped on opposite each other, and a seizing of spun-yarn close to the end. All other
inside clinches are stopped, similar to the bends of this clinch, with small rope, or spun-yarn. OUTSIDE CLINCH only differs from an inside clinch, by passing the end on the outside, and not through the bight, for the more readily casting it off.
CROWNING, OR FINISHING A WALL-KNOT. Lay the first strand over the walling, and the second strand across over the first, and the third strand across over the second, and through the bight of the first; then haul the ends tight.
FLEMISH EYE, OR MADE EYE. Open the end of a rope; then open the yarns, dividing them into two parts, and laying one part over the other; or place them together, one part in the other: then well marl, parcel, and serve them together.
FOXES are two or three rope-yarns of junk, twisted together on the thigh till quite hard; then well rubbed with a hand-full of rope yarn. Make several bights over your thumbs to twist them together.
FRAPPING is taking several turns with the end of a lashing round the middle of it, or any number of ropes, and drawing the several parts tight together.
GASKETS are made with three-yarn foxes. Those for large ships consist of nine foxes, and those for smaller of seven. Place four foxes together, but lay them of unequal lengths; mark the middle of the whole length, and plait four foxes together, for eight or nine inches; then double it and plait the eight parts together for five inches, and work in the odd fox. The whole is then plaited together for eighteen inches in length; then leave out one fox, and so keep lessening, one fox at a time, till you come to five. If the foxes work out too fast, others must supply their places, till the whole length is worked, which is from five to seven fathoms long. To secure the ends, make a bight, by turning upwards one of the foxes, and plait the others through the bight, then haul tight upon that laid up.
HITCHES. CLOVE-HITCH is two half-hitches, one at the back of the other, made by the ratlings round the shrouds, and by buoy ropes round anchors. BLACKWALL-HITCH. Take the end of a rope, or fall of a tackle, round the back of a tackle-hook, and jamb it underneath the standing part. HALF-HITCH. Pass the end of a rope over the standing part, and through the bight, and lay it up
to the standing part; and repeat it for two half hitches. MAGNUS-HITCH Take two round turns through the ring of an anchor, &c. and bring the end over the standing part, then round the ring and through the bight. MIDSHIPMAN'S-HITCH. Take a half hitch round the standing part, and a round turn above the hitch, which jambs tight. It is mostly tied to make fast the sheets of sailing boats. RACKING-HITCH, for shortening slings. Lay the bight over both parts, and turn it over several times; then hook the tackle through the bights. ROLLING-HITCH. Take two round turns round a mast, &c. and make two half hitches on the standing part. TIMBER-HITCH. Lay the end over the hauling part, and pass it through the bight; then take several turns round the standing part, and stop the end. The bight serves as a sling for bales, drawing of timber, &c.
KNITTLES are two or three rope-yarns twisted hard together between the finger and thumb, with the twist of the yarn beginning in the middle; the ends are whipped.
KNOTS. BOWLINE-KNOT. Hold the end of the rope in the right hand, and the standing part in the left; then pass the end under the standing part in the left hand, and over through the bight; then bring it over the standing part, and pass it again through the bight, and haul tight. RUNNING-BOWLINE-KNOT has the knot made on the bight, instead of the standing part, round which it makes a bight. BUOY-ROPE-KNOT. One end is unstranded for one yard in length, stopped with rope yarn, and one of the nine smaller strands taken out of each of the three larger strands, which are then laid
together again. The three smaller strands are double walled, right handed close to the stop, and then laid up their cuntlines. DIAMOND-KNOT, single. The strands of the rope are untwisted to where the knot is designed to be made; then form bights, by laying the strands down the sides of the rope, and keep them fast: then pass the end of the first strand through the second bight, missing the first; and the end of the second strand through the third bight, round the second; and the end of the third strand round the second and third bight; then pass the end through the first bight, and haul tight. The strands are then twisted together to the next knot. DIAMOND-KNOT, double, is made by the several strands following their respective places through the bights of the single knot; and led up through the middle, and the strands twisted together to the place of the next knot. These knots are used as ornaments upon bell and side ropes. OVERHAND-KNOT is made by passing the end over the left hand, and through the bight. REEF-KNOT is to attach the two ends of a rope together; and, in making, observe to pass both parts of the rope on one side, in the bight of the other, thus; turn up one end, and form a bight, and put the other end up through the bight; take it round underneath, and pass it through the bight again. SHROUD-KNOT. The two ends are opened about four feet, and interplaced one in the other, as for splicing: then a single wall knot is made with the ends on each part, and the ends laid in the cuntline, tapered, and served over with
spunyarn. SPRITSAIL-SHEET-KNOT. The ends of the rope are first thrust through holes, one on each side of the spritsail-sheet block; then untwisted about two feet, and the six strands walled together, and crowned at top, thus: lay four strands over the walling, two to the right, and two to the left; the remaining two strands are woven contrarywise over and under the other strands, and hauled tight. The block is then seized in the bight. STOPPER-KNOT is made the same way as a double wall knot, and the ends put up through the heart, and whipt at top. TACK-KNOT is made by untwisting the strands sufficiently, and there making a stop with rope-yarn; then single wall and crown, then double wall and double crown, and haul the ends tight, and jamb the knot: then the strands are led down through the walling, and laid down in the cuntline; tapered, marled, and served over with spun-yarn. WALL-KNOT, single, is made by untwisting the ends of a rope, and making a bight with the first strand; then passing the second over the end of the first, and the third strand over the end of the second, and through the bight of the first, and haul the ends tight. WALL-KNOT, double, is made by passing the ends, singly, close underneath the first wall, and thrusting them upwards through the middle, only the last end comes up under two bights.
LASHING. LASHING OF BLOCKS. Take a number of turns, parallel to each other, through
the eye of the block-strap, and round any object, as a mast, yard, &c. and, to strengthen the lashing, take several cross turns with the end, and make fast.
MARLING is winding any line round a rope, and securing every turn by a hitch, so that they may be independent of each other, and remain fixed, should either be cut through by friction. It is principally used to fix on the clues of sails, and top-brims of topsails. Splices are marled down for serving with rope-yarn or twine.
PARCELLING, long narrow strips of worn canvas, laid smooth round a rope in spiral turns, and well tarred. It is previously done when a rope is to be served, or a mouse formed upon stays.
PLAITING, braided cordage, made by rope-yarns, &c. twisted together, and then laid one over the other alternately; or the end of a rope opened, and the strands placed together in the same manner.
POINTING is tapering the end of a rope, or splice, and working, over the reduced part, a small close netting, with an even number of knittles twisted from the same, to prevent the end untwisting,
and to make it go more easily through a block, or hole. Half the knittles are first laid down, leaving out every other one, then three turns of the warp is taken round them; then take up those knittles, and lay down the other half, and take three turns of the warp round them, and so on, alternately, until the length be once and a half the circumference of the rope. The end and upper part of the knittles are then round-seized, and snaked with twine, &c.
POINTS, short pieces of braided cordage, plaited together as gaskets are; beginning in the middle with nine foxes, and tapering to five at the ends, and from one fathom and a half to one fathom in length. They are used to reef the courses and topsails.
ROPEBANDS differ from gaskets only in their length, being from seven to nine feet long.
SEIZING is joining together two ropes, or different parts of one, with small rope, line, or spunyarn, by taking several close turns round them, from six to ten, according to the size of the rope: they are strained tight. The lower turns have always one more than the riding or upper turns; two turns are taken across the seizing, between the two ropes seized; the end is taken under the last turn; hove tight; and knotted, close to the jambing turn, if large, with a wall knot crowned, and if small, with an over-hand knot, and cut off. Seizings to the double straps of blocks are crossed each way with two turns.
A SELVAGEE is several rope-yarns placed together, and marled together with spun-yarn, in the form of slings. It is used to attach the hook of a tackle to any rope, shroud, or stay, to extend them, by taking two or more turns round the same, and hooking in the bights.
SENNIT is braided cordage, made by plaiting from five to thirteen rope-yarns together, one over the other, according to the size and length, always keeping an odd yarn.
SERVING is encircling a rope with line or spun-yarn, &c. to keep it from rubbing and chafing. The end of the spun-yarn, for service, is placed under the two or three first turns, to keep it fast; then two turns are taken round the rope and mallet, on each side of and round the handle. The mallet is then gradually turned round the rope by its handle, while another person passes the ball of spunyarn; and this is continued until the rope is covered the length required. When the mallet is within a few turns of the end, take the turns off the mallet, and pass them by hand, and heave the end well through, where it is made fast, as at first.
SHEEP-SHANK is made to shorten backstays, &c. by bending part of the backstay, &c. three parts, and taking a half hitch over the bights.
SNAKING. A sort of fastening to confine the outer turns of seizings, &c. with the same size rope, line, spun-yarn, &c. by passing it across, and under the outer turns, at angles.
SPLICING. THE CUNT-SPLICE, forms an eye in the middle-of a rope, &c. as the eye-splice doth
at the end, by interweaving the ends into the strands of the rope, &c. at certain distances from each other, so that the rope becomes double, in the extent of the splice. This splice is used for pendents, or any thing that goes over the mast-head with a splice; also for lead-lines, log-lines, and fishing-lines, where the short splice would be liable to separate. EYE-SPLICE forms an eye, or circle, at the end of a rope, on itself, or round a block, &c. The strands are untwisted, and their ends pushed through intervals made in the strands, by a fid or marline-spike, at that distance on the rope which the eye may require; observing to put the middle end through first, then pass it over the surface of the second strand, and push it through the third; repeat the same with the two other ends, laying them fair asunder. The ends of this splice are tapered, by gradually reducing the yarns, then placed smooth along the rope; then marled, and served with spun-yarn, round all blocks in the royal navy. LONG SPLICE is made to rejoin a rope or ropes, intended to reeve in a block, without
encreasing its size. The ends are opened from one half to a whole fathom in length, and placed close together regularly one in the other; one strand is then unlaid, and the opposite strand laid up its intervals each way, and the two strands knotted together at the ends and middle of the splice; the ends are then halved, and pushed under the next strand. SHORT SPLICE is made by untwisting the ends of two ropes, or the two ends of one rope, and placing the strands of one opposite to and between the strands of the other: draw them close together, and push the strands of one under the strands of the other, the same as the eye-splice. This splice is used for block-straps, slings, &c. and the ends are tapered and served. TAPERED SPLICE, mostly used on cables, is made by unlaying a certain length of each cable, then placing them together, and interplacing the strands, as in the short splice, twice each way, and hauled tight each time; then inlay the strands, or ends, successively, and reduce them, by cutting away one strand; then interplace the two remaining strands, and reduce them to a single strand, which is again thrust through, and cut off. The splice is then served over with spun-yarn, something more than the whole length. DRAWING SPLICE, used on cables, is made by unlaying about three fathoms of the ends; then place them together, and make a short splice: then leave about one fathom, and from thence reduce each strand to a long taper, by gradually cutting away as many yarns as necessary, and neatly point over the taper; then lay the ends up the cuntlines, and clap on a quarter seizing at each end of the splice, an end seizing at the beginning of the pointing, and a stop at the ends of the tails. This is the best splice for cables, as it may be readily taken asunder. Another good method of making a CABLE SPLICE, is to put the ends in twice each way; then to pick out the strands, worm part of them round the cable, and taper away the rest, which should be marled close down; then clap on a good throat and two end seizings of ratline.
STOP is a temporary seizing, and performed similarly. When used to stop worming, it is snaked.
WHIPPING, to prevent the unravelling of the end of a rope. Take several turns of spun-yarn, &c. round the end of the rope, and lay one end under the four first turns, and the other end under the four last turns, and haul tight. Another method is, to knot every turn on the contrary side of the rope, hauling it tight, and finishing the last turn with a reef-knot.
WORMING. Wind a small rope in the cuntlines of the strands of cables, shrouds, or stays; and spun-yarn in those of ropes four inches in circumference and above. The first end of the worming is securely stopped; it then fills one interval, or cuntline; and, when arrived at the end of the length intended to be served, it is there stopped; then laid back into the second interval; and so on successively, stopping it at the ends.
When worming is wanted to be cut without waste, observe this general rule. Once the length of the service, multiplied by the number of strands, or intervals, and one-third more added, gives the length of the worming. EXAMPLE. Twelve fathoms of service, in a four-strand-rope, will take 64 fathoms of rope for worming; and for a three-strand-rope, 48 fathoms.
SHROUDS. The cablet is warped round two iron fids, fixed in the floor, as distant from each other as the first warp is long. The length, which is the distance from the top of the bolsters at the masthead to the foremost dead-eye, is specified in the Table of Dimensions. One end of the cablet is made fast to the lower fid, and passed round the upper fid; and so on, alternately, one turn close to the back of the other, and each hauled tight by hand. The additional length, gained by the turns lying round each other, is sufficient for the lengthening of each pair of shrouds, as they rake aft. When the whole gang of shrouds are warped out, the bights at the lower end are cut through, in a strait direction with the fids.
The upper bights are designed for the eyes, and are marked round the middle, beginning at the inner one, with one piece of spun-yarn knotted, two for the second; and so on for the number required.
The outer turn is called SWIFTERS; and they are left four or five feet at each end longer than the shrouds, and have an eye spliced in them the circumference of the mast-head.
The shrouds, when cut to their length, are got up and stretched thus for worming: at the end of each length is made a bend; one end is passed through a pair of slings, fixed round a post, at the lower end of the house, and the other end through the strap of a treble block, and a fid thrust through each bend. The treble block is connected by its fall to a double block, lashed round a post, at the upper end, thus: The standing part of the fall is fastened to the becket, at the arse of the double block; then reeved through the first sheave of the treble block, then through the first sheave of the double block on the same side, and so on alternately, and the fall carried and attached to the windlass by three or four round turns. The windlass is put in motion by men, with levers, or handspecs, and each length thus stretched, hand-tight.
The rope used for the fall is commonly five-inch white rope.
All shrouds are wormed with double spun-yarn, one-fourth the length from the center to the eye, on each side; but the fore-leg of the foremost pair is wormed all the way to the end.
Each length after being wormed, is hove out by the same purchase, till each pair has acquired, by stretching, once and a half the length of the eye; and should remain on that stretch twenty-four hours before the service is laid on.
Shrouds are wormed before they are hove out to lengthen, because the worming of cable-laid ropes encreases, in tension, with the rope; and thereby draws smooth and even into the cuntline.
The eyes of all Shrouds are parcelled with worn canvas, well tarred; about one fathom and a half on each side of the middle, for large ships, and proportionably for smaller; and then served with spun-yarn one-fourth of their length: each turn of the serving is laid close, and strained tight round, to prevent the water penetrating. The fore-leg of the foremost pair of shrouds is served the whole length.
Swifters, when stretched, have the length of the splice set off on each side of the middle; and likewise the length of the eye, or circumference of the mast-head. The latter is parcelled and served as above. They are then cut asunder in the middle, and spliced to the circumference of the mast-heads; then got on the stretch, and served over the splice one-fourth of the length.
The bights of shrouds are seized together to the circumference of the mast-heads: the seizing of the first shroud is put on below the bolster, or trestle-trees, with seven under and six riding turns, and a double cross turn over all. The seizing of each shroud is to be laid its breadth below the next, and clear of each other, to prevent chafing.
Brigs have four pair of shrouds forward; and the foremost shroud and pendent are in one.
BOWSPRIT-SHROUDS are made of cable-laid rope. They have an iron hook and thimble spliced in the inner ends, and are served over the splice.
STAYS have an eye in one end, sufficiently large to reeve itself through.
Each stay is got upon the stretch, and hove well out with the windlass, as the shrouds are; then wormed with spun-yarn one-third of its length; and is hove out a second time, till the middle strand, or heart, is made to break in several places.
The mouse, made with spun-yarn, in the shape of a pear, is then raised on the stay, at one-third of its length. By some, but, by others, two sides of the mast-head, added to twice the length of the trestle-trees, gives the length from the eye to the mouse. The ground of the mouse, or the length from the shoulder, or upper part, to the beginning of the tail, is one-third the circumference of the stay; or else is laid with as many turns in length as the shoulder is raised above the stay, which should be in circumference three times that of the stay, and from that to diminish to the shape in the plate, by gradually leaning the turns in the spun-yarn: every turn of the spun-yarn to be hove well tight with a large serving mallet, and beat close. Between the turns of the spun-yarn are laid several rope-yarns, lengthways, and their ends brought back over the next turn from the shoulder, which prevents their slipping. When all the turns are laid, it is parcelled over with worn canvas, well tarred, pegged on, and pointed over with inch or three-quarter rope; each knittle to be in length five times the circumference of the stay, to have an even number, and hove tight when passed. The shoulder of the mouse must be covered with knittles, and their number diminished as they are worked into the smaller parts. The ends of the knittles are stopped with spun-yarn, at the front, with a secure seizing. The warp to be marline, and the pointing continued the circumference of the stay for the length of the tail. The collar, the eye, and one fathom below the mouse, are parcelled with worn canvas, well tarred, and served over with spun-yarn.
BOBSTAYS are wormed, parcelled, and served with spun-yarn three-fourths of the length.
COLLARS. FORE-STAY-COLLARS are fitted to the circumference of the bowsprit, and spliced together at the ends; wormed, parcelled, and served the whole length; then doubled, and a heart seized in the bight. The splice is to lie on the back of the heart with quarter seizings, a score being cut on each side of the heart, large enough to admit from nine to twelve turns of seizing; the seizing is to be snaked on the back, to lie closely.
MAIN-STAY-COLLAR is made by the rope-makers, with an eye in one end; is wormed, parecelled, and served round the eye, and the whole length.
PREVENTER-STAY-COLLARS are fitted to the circumference of the bowsprit, with an eye spliced in each end for lashing; then wormed, parcelled, and served with spun-yarn from eye to eye; and a heart seized in the bight, as in the fore-stay-collar.
BOWSPRIT-SHROUD-COLLAR and BOB-STAY-COLLARS are fitted to the circumference of the bowsprit:
They have an eye spliced in each end; are then wormed, parcelled, and served from eye to eye; and a heart seized in the bight, with a long and short leg, with seven under and six riding turns, well strained, and crossed with two turns: the end whipt, and secured with a wall-knot crowned.
CATHARPIN-LEGS are four in number. The foremost is the shortest, and they increase one inch in length as they go aft. The length of the foremost one is from four feet in small, to eight feet in large, ships. They have an eye spliced in each end for lashing; are then wormed, parcelled, and served with spun-yarn from eye to eye.
HORSES for the yards have an eye spliced in one end, the circumference of the yard-arm, and served with spun-yarn over the splice.
JIB-HORSES are doubled, and served with spun-yarn one fathom in length in the bight, and knotted with a over-hand knot, at the distance of every yard.
PENDENTS OF TACKLES are wormed, parcelled, and served with spun-yarn, in the way of the cuntsplice. They are then spliced in the middle, to the circumference of the mast-head; have large thimbles spliced into the lower ends; are then wormed, parcelled, and served with spun-yarn the whole length.
Large ships having two pair of pendents to the main and fore masts, the after pendents are one foot longer than the foremost ones.
YARD-TACKLE-PENDENTS have an eye spliced in one end to the size of the yard-arm, and a double block in the other end. The splices are served over with spun-yarn.
BRACE-PENDENTS have an eye spliced in one end to the size of the yard-arm, and a single block in the other end. The splices are served over with spun-yarn.
PREVENTER-BRACE-PENDENTS are spliced through the strap of the brace-pendent-block; served with spun-yarn over the splice; and are left the length of the service of the splice and length of the eye longer than the brace-pendent, with an eye spliced in the other end to the circumference of the yard-arm.
TRUSS-PENDENTS are doubled, and cut in the bight: they have an iron thimble spliced into one end, and are served with spun-yarn one-third of the length.
MAIN-STAY-TACKLE-PENDENTS have an eye spliced in one end, and a double block in the other, and served with spun-yarn over the splices.
QUARTER-TACKLE-PENDENT is spliced into the strap of the double block; served with spun-yarn over the splice, and the other end whipt.
MIZEN AND TOPMAST BURTON-PENDENTS have a cuntsplice in the middle to the circumference of the mast-head; thimbles spliced in the lower ends; and served with spun-yarn over the splices.
GUY-PENDENTS are doubled, and served with spun-yarn in the bight, one fathom in length.
VANG-PENDENTS are doubled, and served with spun-yarn two fathoms long in the bight, and a double block spliced into each end, and served with spun-yarn over the splices.
RUNNERS OF TACKLES have a double block spliced in one end, and served with spun-yarn over the splice, and the other end whipt.
SLINGS AND STRAPS. The strap has an eye spliced in each end, with a long and short leg, to the circumference of the yard, and served with spun-yarn from eye to eye, with a thimble seized in the bight.
Slings have an eye spliced in one end; then wormed, parcelled, and served almost the whole length. The spritsail slings are wormed, and served with spun-yarn.
SPANS about the mast have a single block spliced in one end, and served with spun-yarn the whole length, except-what is left at the other end to splice in another block on-board.
LONG AND SHORT SPANS have a single block spliced in each end, and the splices served over with spun-yarn. One end is finished in the house, the other in the top, after they are hitched round the cap.
STANDING-LIFTS have an eye spliced in one end, and are served with spun-yarn over the splice.
BECKETS are whipt at each end.
TYES are wormed, parcelled, and served with spun-yarn for three-fourths of their length.
TACKS, MAIN AND FORE, are cable laid, and are tapered in the making. The biggest end is opened out long enough to heave the knot close together: the knot is double-walled and crowned; the ends are thrust through the walling, then scraped down, served over with spun-yarn, and wormed, parcelled, and served with spun-yarn one-fourth of the whole length.
THE RIGGING TO THE TOPMASTS.
SHROUDS are warped out on the floor, as the lower shrouds are, and fitted to the circumference of the topmast-head.
In the foremost shrouds, on each side, is seized a sister block, below the futtock-staff.
STANDING-BACKSTAYS are wormed, and served with spun-yarn, in the way of the top-brim. They are fitted as the shrouds are, except that the third pair is tongued together the circumference of the topmast-head: the tongue is a short piece of rope of the same circumference as the stay, and is spliced into the strands of the stay; the ends of the tongue are tapered, marled down, and served over with spun-yarn.
BREAST-BACKSTAY-RUNNERS are doubled, and cut in the bight. They have a double block spliced in one end; are served with spun-yarn over the splice; and the other end is whipped.
STAY is fitted as the lower stay is. The collar is in proportion to the topmast-head.
PREVENTER-STAY, the same as the stay.
COLLARS have an eye spliced in one end, are wormed and served with spun-yarn, and have a single block seized in the bight.
The FORE-TOPMAST-STAY-COLLAR is seldom used; but it is prepared in case the bees of the bowsprit should be carried away. Ships, however, that have no bees to the bowsprit, make use of this collar.
FUTTOCK-SHROUDS. The length given in the Table of Dimensions is divided into four, and cut in the bights. Each length has a hook and thimble spliced into each end, and the ends of the splices stopped with spun-yarn; then doubled, and a spun-yarn tied in the middle for the cutting mark. The hooks are then hooked in each other, and got upon the stretch. They should be well
hove out, to try the hooks and splices, as the topmast depends very much thereon. If a hook should break, or the splices draw, the former must be shifted, and the latter hauled tighter through.
After they are sufficiently stretched, the ends of the splices are tapered, marled down, and served with spunyarn within two feet of the cutting mark: they are cut asunder, and the ends whipt.
FUTTUCK-STAVES are wormed, parcelled, and served with spunyarn the whole length; and then cut to the lengths wanted on-board.
TOP-ROPE-PENDENTS have a large iron thimble spliced in the lower end; are marled over the splice in the rigging house, and pointed when got on-board.
REEF-TACKLE-PENDENTS have a double block spliced in the end, and are served with spunyarn over the splice.
TYE has a double block spliced in the lower end, and is served with spunyarn over the splice.
PARRAL-ROPES have an eye spliced in each end; are wormed, and served with spunyarn from eye to eye: they are then doubled, and cut asunder in the bight. The end of one is thrust through the upper hole in the ribs; and through the hole in the middle of the trucks, and so alternately. The other end is brought the reverse way through the lower hole in the ribs and trucks.
THE RIGGING FOR THE TOPGALLANT MASTS.
SHROUDS are fitted as the topmast-shrouds are, except that, instead of a sister-block, a thimble is seized in the two foremost pair on each side, close up to the hounds.
STANDING-BACKSTAYS are fitted as the shrouds are; wormed, and served in the way of the top-brim.
STAY is cable-laid in large ships, and hawser-laid in small ones. The latter has an eye spliced in the upper end to the circumference of its mast-head, and served with spunyarn over the splice. The cable-laid is fitted with a collar, and moused, as any other stay.
STRAPPING OF BLOCKS.
The whole length of all the different sizes of block-strapping is got upon the stretch, and hove out tight for worming and serving; it is then wormed and served, and cut into shorter lengths, to suit the different blocks.
The strapping of jeer-blocks is wormed, parcelled, and served. Strapping of four inches diameter, and above, is wormed and served: and all under four inches is only served with spunyarn; except the spritsail-brace, buntline, and leechline blocks, that are lashed under the tops, which are only served with spunyarn over the splice, and the tail left half a fathom in length.
Jeer-blocks are double scored; and the double and treble blocks are strapped with a double strap, thus: it is spliced together at the ends, and, when doubled, to be the size of the block and circumference of the yard. It is then doubled, and the block seized in the bight, with a long and short leg; the splice lying in the arse of the block.
The scores of all blocks are to be well tarred, and the pin and sheave examined, before the strap is put on. The block is set well into the strap with wedges, thus: the four parts are frapped together with rope-yarn under the block, with a chock between, and the wedges are set between the breast of the block and chock. Then the strap is nippered, with a heaver, round the block; the wedges, chock, and frapping, taken away, and the block hung upon the stake-head, or post, and the strap well seized together, close under the block, with nine under and eight riding turns, every turn strained tight round by a heaver, and crossed each way with two turns.
Jeer-blocks, for the mastheads, are strapped with long eyes, to receive many turns of the lashing; and the block is seized into the strap, as before; as are all seizing blocks, in proportion to their sizes. The straps are cut agreeable to the following Table.
A TABLE OF THE DIMENSIONS OF STRAPS FOR LASHING AND SEIZING BLOCKS.
Size of the blocks.
Circumf. of the straps.
Length of the straps.
Size of the blocks.
Circumf. of the straps.
Length of the straps.
Blocks, strapped with eyes or thimbles spliced in the ends, are seized tight into the bight, and the legs left long enough to lash through the eyes, round a mast, yard, &c. as the topsail clue-lines, clue-garnets, and spritsail clue-lines, &c.
Blocks strapped with a thimble, or hook and thimble, have the strap spliced together at the ends. The block is fixed in one bight, for the splice to lay on the arse of the block, and the thimble in the other bight; the seizing is put on, between the block and thimble, with eight under and six riding turns, according to the size of the block, each turn strained tight by a heaver; the turns double crossed, and the end stopt with a wall-knot crowned.
Blocks strapped with double tails, are fixed in the strap, similar to blocks with eye-straps; and those with a single tail are spliced in, and served with spunyarn over the splice.
Girtline-blocks are strapped in the house, and the girtlines reeved.
In the Table of Dimensions for standing and running rigging will be found dimensions of all blocks for their respective uses and situations.
NECESSARY ROPES FITTED IN THE RIGGING-HOUSE.
WINDING-TACKLE-PENDENT has an eye
spliced in one of the ends; the ends put in three times, and cut off short; the other end is whipt.
FISH-TACKLE-PENDENT has a large iron hook, with a thimble spliced in one end; and the ends of the splice tapered, marled down, and served over with spunyarn.
BILL-PENDENT has a hook and thimble spliced in one end, and served with spunyarn over the splice.
RUDDER-PENDENTS are doubled and cut in the bight; they have a hook and thimble spliced in one end, and are served with spunyarn over the splice.
DAVIT-GUYS have an eye spliced in one end to the circumference of the davit-head; are served with spunyarn over the splice; and whipt with spunyarn at the other end.
STOPPERS, DECK and BITT, are divided into ten short and two long stoppers. The two long stoppers, from a first rate ship to a sloop, are cut sixteen feet; and, when knotted, to be twelve feet six inches. The short stoppers are each cut twelve feet six inches; to be, when knotted, eight feet three inches long. One end of each stopper has a double wall-knot, and the ends led up through the middle, and whipt with spunyarn: the other end is only whipt with spunyarn.
BUOY ROPES. One end is unstranded for one yard in length, stopped with rope-yarn, and one of the nine smaller strands taken out of each of the three larger strands, which are then laid together again. The three smaller strands are double-walled right-handed close to the stop, then laid up their cuntlines, and three fathoms next the knot wormed, parcelled, and served with spunyarn.
When two or more buoy ropes are knotted at the same time, after the knot is formed on each, the ends are spliced together, and the other ends made fast to tackles, and hove tight, which strains the knots close and firm. If a single buoy rope be knotted after the knot is made, make a bend at one end, and attach a tackle to it, and make fast the other end; then bowse upon the tackle, and close the knot as before.
DIMENSIONS OF BUOY SLINGS.
NUMBER of GUNS
SIZE OF THE BUOY
LENGTH OF THE HOOP.
No. Of SLINGS
No. Of HOOPS.
Length Cut Out.
Length Hove Out.
98 & 90
80, 74, & 64
East India ships.
60 & 50
44 to 32
West India ships.
28 & 24
16 & 14
Merchant Vessels, 200 tons & under
BUOY-SLINGS are cut to the first length in the table; and have an eye spliced in each end, large enough to reeve the same sized rope: they are then got on the stretch, and hove out to the next length; then wormed, and served with spunyarn from eye to eye.
BUOY-HOOPS are cut sixteen inches longer than the length in the table, to allow for splicing the ends together. In the merchant service they are wormed and served; but not in the king's service.
Each hoop is fixed its breadth within the second iron hoop, at each end, and is reeved through the eye in the end of the slings, before the ends are spliced together. Each sling is doubled, and two slings are fixed at each end of the buoy. The eyes of the slings, at one end, lead down through the upper hoop, and reeve on the lower hoop; and the eyes of the slings, at the other end, lead up under the lower hoop, and reeve on the upper hoop, between the upper slings.
The hoops are drawn asunder, sufficiently to force the buoy between them; are then put over the ends of the buoy, and the slings and hoops got into their places, as near as possible. The slings are placed on the quarters, equally between each other; and the bights fixed in scores, in the ends of the buoy. It is next got upon the stretch: one end of the slings is made fast to a post, and the other end to a tackle, whose fall is swayed tight, or hove so by a heaver. When the buoy is thus set tight, the hoops are driven by a mallet into their places; and the bight of the slings is seized well together, with a thimble in one end, and an eye at the other. Large buoys have seven under and six riding turns smaller buoys six under; and five riding turns; the end of the seizing crossed each way, and the end knotted and crowned. A fid is driven in the eye, to make it round, then driven out, and the two bights marled together.
Another thimble is turned into the thimble in the other end, for bending the buoy rope to.
GUN AND NUT SLINGS are spliced together with a short splice, and served with spunyarn over the splice.
BUTT AND HOGSHEAD SLINGS. Each pair has a thimble spliced in one end, which is served with spun-yarn over the splice; the other end is whipt.
CAN-HOOK SLINGS. A flat broad iron hook, with an eye in one end; is spliced through the eye in each end of the slings, and sometimes with a thimble seized in the bight.
PUDDENING OF ANCHORS. Worn hawser-laid rope is cut into lengths three times the diameter of the ring; and as many of these lengths as will cover the ring, which is about thirteen. The ring is first chocked upright, by wedging it in the hole of the shank; then well tarred, and parcelled with worn canvas, twice round, and marled down close with spun-yarn. The turns of the puddening are then passed, one turn and a half each way from the middle of the ring; then hove tight by a heaver, and well seized with two quarter and two end seizings, that are snaked all round. The ends remaining, are opened out, and payed all over with a good coat of tar.
WOOLDINGS, round masts or bow sprits, are performed by a machine, called a horse, made with two cheeks of oak plank, and a small windlass in the middle: one end of the cheeks rest upon the ground, the other against the mast or bow sprit, being hollowed to fit their convexity. The number of turns of each woolding is from thirteen to fifteen. The first turn is whipt at the end with spun-yarn, and nailed, to the mast or bowsprit, with three nails, and a leather button under the head of each nail. The turns are passed close together singly, and every turn hove tight, by the windlass being made fast to the middle, with a hitch round an iron pin, and then hove with two levers or handspecs, one at each end. Every turn, when hove tight, is fastened with a nail and leather button, each nail being regularly below the other to the middle turn, and then above,
The number of wooldings on a main mast are from ten to twelve, according to its length, or one woolding between every hoop. The foremast has one woolding less than the main-mast. Mizenmasts and bowsprits have one woolding under the hounds, and near the outer end of the Bowsprit.