Submarine Information and Instruction Manual, 1942 was used for training on board S-class submarines during WW II. S-boats where built between 1918 and 1925, they were already obsolete by the beginning of WW II. This book has no illustrations, but includes a lot of details about S-boats and their operation.
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In studying the information compiled in this instruction book, it must be borne in mind that changes due to overhaul, modification, new material and alterations make it impossible to give the correct location of all gear on all boats. Therefore, the student should read the instruction book, study the drawings, look up and check the various locations by actually tracing out lines, etc., aboard the submarine. Through lectures, actual time spent on board boat and by individual instruction, these variations will be ironed out.
The instruction book will be the standard by which all students and instructors will be governed. Examinations will be based on this book.
The mission of the Submarine School is to equip enlisted men required for submarine service with an adequate foundation of theoretical and practical knowledge of submarines.
In carrying out this mission the basic Submarine School endeavors to explain the principles of all submarines, that is the principle of submergence and the control of the boat while submerged, and in addition the operation of and the details of construction of the hull and all the main internal fittings of an S-class submarine. By operation is meant the manning of the diving stations and the actual handling of the lines, valves, controls, tanks, etc. The S-class submarine has been picked as a type because its construction is comparatively simple. It should be borne in mind that basic principles will not vary between types of boats and that a thorough knowledge of an S-boat will enable a man to readily learn any of the later class submarines.
The instruction will proceed along the following lines:
Head Operation, Anchor Gear.
Buoyancy, Submarine Phraseology.
Hull and Compartment Tests.
Trim Line and Pumps.
Main Induction Line.
Battery Ventilation System.
Duties of Anchor Watch.
High Pressure Air System.
100 lb. and Salvage Air System.
Fuel Oil Compensating System and Lube Oil System.
General Review, (all subjects).
CO2, CO2 Testing Outfit.
Bridge Routine, Visual Signals, Duties of Helmsman and Lookout.
Operations in submarines at sea.
Instruction periods on submarines along side dock.
Instruction in submarine gun, and the use and safety precautions in handling a service automatic pistol.
Drill with arms.
Instruction in use of the submarine lung.
Note Book Work:
This work shall be as directed in these instructions. Note book work is essential to instruction because the knowledge obtained by sketching and digging out facts will be more readily retained by the student. All students are cautioned that the copying of notebooks of previous students defeats the purpose of the notebook and is strictly prohibited. Note books are the property of the student and should be retained by him and taken to sea. Note books will be taken to each instruction period held on board a submarine. Sketches should be referred to and various valves and machinery located and lines traced on the boat in conjunction with the sketch.
Note book work for each week will be completed by Friday noon and note books turned in to instructors at that time. Instructors will correct books and return them to student by Saturday noon.
The pamphlet issued each student is the text book for the course. All time not devoted to practical work is used for study and sketching.
All Hands Are Informed:
That the submarine service expects every man aboard from the captain on down to know his boat from the top mast to the keel. Knowledge of the entire boat is demanded, not just that required within a particular department or line of work.
That the hazardous nature of submarine operation demands from all detailed knowledge of construction, minute care in operation, and the highest attainable standard of attention to duty.
That though at sea the standard as regards uniform will necessarily follow the character of operations the high standard demanded in the U. S. Navy must be maintained in port and ashore. Each man is expected to maintain that high standard of his own accord.
That each man reporting aboard a submarine for duty is given six months in which to prepare himself to "Qualify for submarine duty." During that period he is expected to learn his particular boat as required in first paragraph.
That each man on a submarine will be given responsibility far exceeding that on any other type of naval vessel.
Now is the time for you to start preparation to fulfill the points listed in preceding paragraphs. The above has been told you at the beginning of your course. Guide yourself accordingly,
The following definitions are promulgated for the information and guidance of the students at the Submarine School.
A vessel so constructed as to permit operation on the surface as a surface ship, and also having the ability to submerge and operate in a partially, or completely submerged condition.
Surface Condition Normal:
The submarine is in diving trim, with the main ballast and safety tanks empty.
Surface Condition, Emergency:
Main ballast tanks which are fitted as reserve fuel oil tanks actually full of oil, or oil and water. Other main ballast and safety tanks empty.
Submarine operating with the "A" frames or highest part of structure under water.
A dive made from surface conditions when under way on one or more engines at the instant of sounding of the diving alarm.
A dive made from surface conditions when under way on one or more motors at the instant of the diving alarm.
A dive made when the boat is stopped and has no way on. The boat is trimmed down slowly by gradual addition of ballast water.
Riding the Vents:
A condition when the kingstons of a main ballast tank or safety tank are opened with the main vents closed.
Double Banking the Vents:
Consists of the following operation:
Open the kingstons.
Close the kingstons.
Open the main vents.
Close the main vents.
Open the kingstons.
Rig For Diving:
A term embracing all the preparations, tests, and adjustments made inside and outside the boat prior to a dive.
A condition of loading.
A trim in which the submarine is so compensated for weights that it can be quickly and safely submerged by the use of main ballast tanks, bow and stern planes and power plant.
A trim at a particular depth where the submarine may be held at constant depth with minimum speed or at a speed designated and with limited use of planes.
A condition of battery ventilation whereby the exhaust battery gases pass into the battery compartment.
Same except gases pass outside pressure hull.
Venting a Tank:
The process of permitting air to pass into a tank (venting in) or to pass out of a tank (venting out) as water or other liquid leaves or enters the tank.
Blowing a Tank:
The process of admitting compressed air into the top of a tank containing water or other liquid with the flood valves at the bottom open.
Main Ballast Tanks:
Tanks provided primarily to furnish buoyancy on the surface, and which are habitually carried full of water when submerged, excepting tanks whose main volume is above the surface water line. It is the flooding of these tanks which destroys positive buoyancy.
Main ballast tanks designed for quick blowing or pumping.
Ballast tanks with their main volume above the water line, designed for quick blowing in emergency. They are free flooding, vent controlled, and may be either "bow" or "stern" buoyancy tanks.
Ballast tanks not habitually carried full of water when submerged, and designed for weight compensation. Forward trim tank, after trim tank and auxiliary come under this heading.
The variable tanks nearest the bow and stern of the boat. Known as forward trim and after trim tanks respectively.
W. R. T. Tanks (Water Round Torpedo):
Variable tanks located near torpedo tubes and designed to carry enough water to fill up the space between the torpedo and the tubes.
Small variable tanks designed for water measuring and constructed to stand greater pressure than other ballast tanks.
Variable ballast tanks located at or near the center of gravity of the boat, and designed for weight compensation.
All main compartments are designated as rooms with a prefix denoting their principal use as: torpedo room, engine room, etc.
Rudders used for controlling the vertical motion of the vessel when submerged. Forward set are designed "bow planes" and after set as "stern planes."
The portion of the vessel forming the external boundary of it, regardless of weight, type or tightness of plating.
That portion of the double hull submarine forming longitudinal boundary of the main compartments regardless of weight type or tightness of plating.
That portion of a submarine, which, under normal submerged operation, may be at any, or all times subject to full pressure of submergence.
Main Vents and Stops:
Large valves used to permit the air in main ballast tanks to be forced outside the pressure hull as the flooding water enters the tanks.
Large valves of sliding type which are located at the bottom of the main ballast tanks to allow passage of water into or out of the tanks.
A body immersed in a liquid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by it.
The condition of a body immersed in a liquid, in which the
body is capable of displacing a weight of the liquid greater than its own weight. Hence it floats.
The condition of a body immersed in a liquid in which the body is incapable of displacing a weight of the liquid equal to or greater than its own weight. Hence it sinks.
The condition of a body immersed in a liquid in which the body displaces a weight of the liquid exactly equal to its own weight. Hence the body has no tendency to either sink or come to the surface of the liquid.
The point in the ballasting of a submarine at which neutral buoyancy occurs.
The difference between the weight of surface displacement of a submarine in diving trim, and her displacement when submerged in neutral buoyancy with all main ballast tanks completely filled. In other words the amount of ballast that must be taken on board to change her from the surface condition to the submerged condition in neutral buoyancy.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION S-CLASS SUBMARINE
General Arrangement and Hull Construction:
The "S" boats are of single hull type, with sections of circular form except at the ends. Forward the sections are generally elliptical in shape with major axis vertical, flattering out to a sharp bow; aft the sections are also of elliptical shape but with their major axis horizontal. The strong watertight hull extends from frame 5 to frame 131; abaft and forward respectively of these two frames the hull is non-watertight. The water tight hull is built to withstand pressure of 88 lb. per. sq. in. corresponding to 200 feet submergence. Within the hull proper are contained all the fuel and ballast tanks, as well as the operating machinery of the boat.
Upon the strong hull, from the stem to the stern is worked a non-watertight superstructure. This affords a working deck platform from bow to frame 27. Abaft frame 27 it is cut away to pressure hull to the stern. Within the superstructure are located the following:(Frames are numbered from aft forward-frame spacing 18 inches.)
Bow Rudder Gear (Bow Planes)
Sheave for Mushroom Anchor Cable
Towing Pendant Release
No. 1 Main Ballast Tank Vent
No. 2 Main Ballast Tank Vent
No 3 Main Ballast Tank Vent
Engine Exhaust and Muffler
Steering and diving rudders
Main induction line
Battery ventilation line
Torpedo impulse tanks
J. K. Device
There is also stowage for stanchions, lines and other gear in lockers built in superstructure.
The strong hull is divided into six compartments, exclusive of ballast and fuel tanks, by watertight bulkheads. The hull is riveted forward to a steel casting (at frame 131) called the bow casting. This casting has openings for the four torpedo tubes. The bow is strengthened and collision injury minimized by a center-line bulkhead which extends forward from the bow casting and the strong stem. Forward of the bow casting the hull is non-water-tight, within this section are contained the torpedo tube muzzle doors and shutters. The forward trimming tank is located between the bow casting and a watertight bulkhead at frame 124. This is a structural tank with a capacity of 451 cubic feet (12.90 tons).
The torpedo tubes pass through this tank in a fore and
oft direction, and the submerged anchor hawse pipe in a vertical (top included aft) direction. The operating rods for the bow cap and muzzle doors of the torpedo tubes also pass through the forward trim tank within tubes provided for that purpose. This tank is tested by hydraulic pressure to 88 lbs. per square inch.
The torpedo compartment is located between frames 101 and 124. The breeches of the torpedo tubes together with the firing valves, stop valves, shutters and muzzle door operating mechanism, and water gauge all mounted thereon, extend into the torpedo compartment. Stowage for eight spare torpedoes; water manifold for forward fuel tanks; cable cutter control; windlass motor and controller; work bench; stowage for torpedo fresh water and oils; all are in the torpedo compartment. There is an escape and communicating hatch opening into this compartment; and a torpedo loading hatch. Below the floor plates in the torpedo room are located from forward aft the following:forward bilge well, No. 1, 2, 3 and 4 fuel oil tank, air bottle well containing thirty-nine of the forty-five air bottles comprising the ship banks, and the forward part of No. 1 main ballast tank. In the well formed by the U-shaped structure of the forward section of the ballast tank is located the magazine for ammunition stowage.
Abaft the torpedo compartment, is the forward battery compartment. Sixty cells of battery arranged in 4 rows of 15 cells each, are installed in the battery tank, which is lined with concrete, mica and sheet lead for protection of the hull against corrosion and the passage of electric current due to battery ground. A wood deck made in sections, covers the battery tank and forms the floor of the living quarters in this compartment. Special means are taken in the construction and fitting of this deck and cover to insure watertightness. In the U shaped space below and outboard of the battery well is the forward main ballast tank, which is tested to a pressure of 88 lbs. per square inch. Above the battery tank deck, are living quarters for the crew, battery ventilators and fans and
No. 1 and No. 2 main ballast tank; main vents and stops. Also located in the living quarters of this compartment are berths, and lockers for stowage of the crews' effects, crews' water closet, officers ward room, air conditioning machine, radio and sound gear generators, magazines for 64-4" cartridges.
Between bulkheads on frames 81 1/2 and 70 1/2 is the control room, with the auxiliary tank below it and the conning tower above. This compartment contains the main control apparatus of the boat. On the port side aft is the radio equipment, and for'd of it the main depth control station, with accompanying gauges, handwheels and inclinometers. Against the for'd bulkhead on the port side is the air manifold. On the starboard side aft, the Gyro Compass.
Next forward is the kingston station with levers, gauges and handwheels, regulator tank, and forward of it the trim pump and water manifold. Also located in this compartment are the master controllers for main motors. On the centerline from forward aft are the hand steering wheel and ladder to conning tower; and abaft them No. 1 and No. 2 periscopes and main and auxiliary induction operating gear and midship ventilator. Under the floor are located the ship's fresh water tank, battery water tank, and the periscope motors. The control room is designed as an escape compartment in case of disaster. The bulkheads at forward and after end of control room are designed to safely withstand a pressure equivalent to 200 ft. submergence. All other bulkheads between compartments are built to withstand only 27 lbs. pressure, or the depth of equivalent to that pressure. Compartments are tested to 10 lbs. air pressure for tightness only during navy yard overhauls.
Between bulkheads on frames 51 and 70 1/2 is the after battery compartment, similar in design to the forward battery compartment. Above the battery deck on the port side are commissary arrangements and ice box, and on the starboard side are the main and auxiliary switchboards. Overhead are No. 3 main ballast tank main vent and stop. In the space below and outboard of the battery well is No. 3 main ballast tank which
is tested to a pressure of 88 lbs. per square inch. A storage battery of 60 cells is located in the battery well in same manner as in forward battery. Two state rooms for four officers, officers water closet, No. 9 fuel oil tank between frames 51 and 55.
Separated from the after battery compartment by a bulkhead with watertight door on frame 51, is the engine compartment, extending to frame 30, and containing the main engines and engine auxiliaries, the main contactor panels, and evaporators. Under a flat between frames 49 and 51 is the main lubricating oil tank and sump tank located on the centerline. Under an extension of this flat are fuel tanks numbered 5, 6, 7, 8 respectively, located between frames 45 and 49, 41 and 45, 36 and 41, 30 and 36.
From frame 30 to frame 10 is the motor room which contains the two main motors with line shafting to the stern tubes, the high pressure pump, the low pressure pump, the C&R air compressors, the lathe, the steering motor and quadrant. An outlet from the main induction enters the overhead at the forward port side. The diameter of the motor room being small there is nothing located under the flat except piping and the lower projections of the various gear. In the overhead is also an escape hatch leading outside the pressure hull.
Between frames 5 and 10 is the after trimming tank having a capacity of 5.55 tons and tested to 88 lbs. Between frames 0 and 5 the hull is non-watertight. The hull terminates forward and aft in the steel bow and stern castings. The hull plating is in general 20 lbs. amidships, reduced to 15 lbs. at the ends, fitted on the raised and sunken system with double zig-zag riveted seams.
The frames are of angle bar, 6" x 3 1/2" X 3 1/2 15 lbs., 63-9/16 x 3" 9/16 19 lbs. and 5" X 3 1/2 x 10.4 lbs., except at the ends where they are reduced to 3" x 3" x 7.9 lbs. aft and increased to 6" x 3 1/2" x 3 1/2" X 15 lbs. forward. A duct keel composed of two 12" x 3.89" x 3.89" 40 lbs. channel bars and 25 lbs. cover plate is worked from frames 24 to 125, being watertight
between frames 24 and 78. This watertight portion of the duct keel serves as a drain line connecting the main ballast and auxiliary tanks to the low pressure pump.
DIMENSION AND TEST PRESSURES
Length over all
Maximum beam, over fenders
Depth bottom duct keel to superstructure deck
Maximum diameter, moulded
Depth bottom duct keel to C. T. top
Depth bottom duct keel to top periscope No. 1
Displacement submerged not including water in superstructure
Displacement surface, about
Maximum draft, all ballast tanks empty at frame No. 70
Distance between centers propeller shafts
Diameter of propellers
Pitch of propellers
Number of blades
No. 1 Main ballast tank
No. 2 Main ballast tank
No. 3 Main ballast tank
Forward Trimming tank
After Trimming tank
No. 1 Fuel tank
No. 2 Fuel tank
No. 3 Fuel tank
No. 4 Fuel tank
No. 5 Fuel tank
1693 Lub. Oil
No. 6 Fuel tank
No. 7 Fuel tank
No. 8 Fuel tank
No. 9 Fuel tank
Total capacity normal fuel oil
No. 3 M.B.T. (reserve fuel oil)
Total capacity, normal and reserve
(No. 5 fuel tank being used for reserve lub. oil).
No. 2 M.B.T. is piped for a reserve fuel tank, but fuel is not carried in it. If fuel was carried in No. 2 M.B.T. it would increase the capacity of fuel to 42,325 gals.
Main lub. oil tank
Total capacity lub. oil
No. 5 fuel oil tank (reserve lub. oil)
Total capacity, normal and reserve
Fresh Water Tank:
Ship's fresh water
Battery fresh water
High pressure two stage centrifugal
300 gal. per min.
Low pressure centrifugal
4000 gal. per min.
20 gal. per min.
Each compressor delivers 20 cu. ft. of compressed air per hour at a pressure of 2800 lbs. per sq. in. Compressed air is contained in 45 flasks grouped in six banks.
Cap. cu. ft.
Total capacity cu. ft. 273.59
H. P. each 600
Rated R. P. M. 380
H. P. each
Torpedo tubes, bow
Tanks and Compartments.
Torpedo room, battery compartments, conning tower, engine and motor rooms are tested with ten (10) lbs. air pressure internally for tightness. This is not a strength test.
The main ballast tanks, auxiliary tanks and forward and after trim tanks are tested for leaks and strength to 88 lbs. per. sq. in.
Regulator for strength and tightness -150 lbs.
Fuel tanks-as groups 40 lbs. individually -15 lbs.
Lubricating oil tanks -10 lbs.
Battery and fresh water tanks-10 lbs. air for tightness
Trim line-132 lbs.
The submarine as a whole is tested every seven (7) years to 88 lbs. per sq. in. by actual submergence to a depth of 200 feet plus half the diameter of the hull.
High pressure system
Ship's service line (100 lb. line)
Torpedo impulse line
STEPS FOR GETTING TORPEDO TUBE
READY FOR FIRING
In the control room, throw in torpedo firing circuit switch, located on switchboard, or radio room bulkhead.
See air on 100 lb. line forward.
See high pressure air line to torpedo room is open.
Open forward trim line blow valve on air manifold. In torpedo room (1) flood the torpedo tubes from forward trim Lank, (2) open the shutters to desired tubes, (3) open the tube outer doors, (4) see curve firing gear disengaged, (5) check ready lights, (6) open stop valve from air line to solenoids, volume tank, open independent valve to solenoid H. P. (there is one valve for each solenoid,) (7) build up pressure from H.P. line to impulse tank to 135 lbs., (8) crack and open the firing valve stop, (9) throw in tube ready light switch.
The torpedo is now ready to be fired, electrically, from the control room. When the firing key is pressed, the solenoid is energized and lifts the solenoid off its seat, allowing the air from solenoid to enter the stop bolt cylinder behind the piston, forcing the stop bolt rod forward and withdrawing the stop bolt from in front of the torpedo drive stud. As the piston moves forward, it uncovers a port, allowing the air to continue to the after end of the over balanced piston; when the air enters the after side of the over balanced piston it overcomes the overbalanced condition of the firing valve, allowing the firing valve to open. The impulse air then enters the tube,
forcing the torpedo from the tube. The tripping latch strikes the starting lever as the torpedo moves forward, and starts the torpedo under its own power.
COMMON NOTES OF IMPORTANCE FOR
Normal air (the air we breathe) is simple mixtures (not a chemical combination) of the following gases:
78% by volume
21% by volume
Hydrogen and certain inert gases & traces of Carbon Dioxide (approx.)
1% by volume
Nitrogen is non-inflammable, colorless, tasteless and odorless.
Hydrogen in its pure state is a colorless, tasteless, odorless gas. It is the lightest substance known. It is very inflammable.
These two (Nitrogen and Hydrogen) gases as occurring in the atmosphere have no affect on the human body other than to dilute the oxygen as well as CO2 and likewise any poisonous gases which may be present.
HOW TO FIRE A SIGNAL GUN
See that signal gun is drained by opening secure drain valve, secure drain valve.
Open breech door with operating lever by the left.
See that holding button in barrel of gun is working freely.
Load rocket half way into gun, pull out safety pin, shove rocket home.
Close breech door by swinging operating lever to the right, press in on button on operating lever, continuing to swing lever to the right, opening the muzzle door.
Open supply valve from 100 lb. air line to firing lever. Hold firing lever open 10 seconds. Secure gun when fired.
HOW TO OPERATE THE HEAD
Open sea valve and stop, flood water into upper chamber as desired. Secure sea valve and stop.
Operate counter weight lever and allow water to pass into lower chamber (after releasing lever, make sure gasket seats properly).
Open stop on 100 lb. air supply.
By use of rocker valve, charge volume tank to 15 lbs. over sea pressure.
Open sea valve on discharge line from lower bowl, open quick opening valve from lower bowl.
Push rocker valve over to "Blow" (holding about 5 seconds.) Release rocker valve.
Secure quick opening valve, secure sea valve.
Vent remainder of pressure in volume tank into bilges (by putting rocker valve to "Vent") .
MISCELLANEOUS MACHINERY AND GEAR
The Steering and Diving Gear Consists of the Following:
The bow diving rudders commonly called bow planes used to control boat in depth.
The stern diving rudder commonly called stern planes used to control the fore and aft angle of the boat.
The steering rudder commonly called rudder, used to control the direction or course either surface or submerged.
A bow plane is an elliptical rudder about four feet in length by two feet in width and in normal operation is parallel to the surface of the water. There are two of these planes on the S-class, located one on either side of the bow above the pressure hull. In the folded position, the planes fold into the superstructure; in the rigged out position, the planes may be rotated about their horizontal axis to give dive and rise rudder. The axis of rotation is at the forward end of the planes. The mechanism of each plane is driven off a common gear train which is in turn driven by shafting from the control room. This shafting is outside the pressure hull on the port side from the casting back to the forward end of forward battery room and then inside the boat along the port side to the control room. The shafting passes through the W. T. bulkheads via stuffing boxes. It is brought from outside the pressure hull through a watertight gear box. This shafting is turned by means of a hydraulic motor located on the port side of the control room at the diving controls. In the event of failure of power, a hand wheel is installed to enable the shaft to be turned manually. A clutch is provided to connect either motor or hand control.
The stern planes are horizontal rudders rectangular in shape located at the stern aft of the propeller. One plane is located on either side of the center line, the two being rigidly connected together. The stern planes are supported by the skeg and as they are always rigged, means need only be provided to rotate them about their horizontal axis to give rise
4 and dive rudder. The port plane is connected by a crank to a shaft which passes through the stern via a stuffing box and is then connected by gearing to the stern plane operating shaft. The stern plane operating shaft leads from the control room to the motor room along the port side, all within the pressure
hull. The shaft is turned by power or by hand in exactly the same manner as the bow planes. The stern planes control is located just aft of that for the bow planes on the port side of the control room.
The rudder is located at the extreme stern of the boat on the fore and aft center line between the port and starboard stern plane. It is a vertical rudder and, therefore, at right angle to the stern planes, similar to the rudders used on all types of vessels. It is connected to a quadrant in the motor room by means of a crank and shaft, the latter passing through the pressure hull by means of a stuffing box. The rudder quadrant is operated by a motor located at the extreme after end of the motor room. The operation of the motor and therefore the rudder is controlled from steering station on the bridge, in the conning tower, and in the control room. In order to provide means of steering in event of power failure, a hand steering wheel is located in the forward part of the control room. Shafting from this station passes along the starboard side inside the pressure hull back to the rudder quadrant. A clutch is provided at the hand steering station to connect the wheel to the shafting. Another clutch is provided in the motor room to disconnect the motor from the quadrant. This last clutch is installed to render hand steering easier. The shafting from the control room to the quadrant is at all times connected to the quadrant and therefore always turns whether power or hand operation is in use. This is very desirable as it permits a shift from power to hand simply by operating the clutch in the control room, this operation requiring a few seconds only.
The anchor gear consists of a mushroom anchor commonly called "submerged anchor" and a patent anchor commonly called "deck anchor" with the necessary operating gear. Located inside the torpedo room on the overhead just forward of the torpedo room hatch is a gear box by means of which the anchor motor located just aft of it may be connected to the submerged anchor drum, the wildcat for the deck anchor or to
the capstan. It can of course be connected to only one at a time or be in a neutral position. Clutches operated by means of lever make shifting a very simple matter. The controller for the anchor motor is located inside the torpedo room and may be operated from the torpedo room or topside.
The deck anchor is a short shank patent anchor of 1500 lbs. weight. The anchor is carried on a billboard on the starboard side of the bow and fits into a recess in the superstructure. The anchor chain is sixty fathoms in length and is made of 7/8" studded link chain. The chain is stowed in a locker built within the superstructure. That part of the chain between the locker and anchor passes across the wildcat and through covered channel just underneath the deck of the superstructure. The wildcat is fitted with brake and pawls which can be operated from the deck or from the torpedo room.
The submerged anchor is of the mushroom type of 2500 lbs. weight. It is stowed at the bottom of the boat in a hawse pipe which extends up into the forward trimming tank. Connected to the anchor is a five foot shot of 1" chain and connected to the chain is fifty fathoms of 7/8" galvanized plow steel rope. This wire rope is housed on a drum located in the superstructure. The rope is led from the drum to the anchor by means of rollers and sheaves. The drum is fitted with brake and pawl. Because of the fact that the submerged anchor is always underwater and the amount of cable out cannot be determined by visual inspection, an indicator in the torpedo room is provided. The brake and pawl of the submerged anchor can be controlled from the torpedo room.
The main propelling machinery consists of two main engines and two main motors with necessary clutches and shafting to transmit the power to the propellers. The main engines are located one on each side of the engine room and are referred to as the port and starboard engines. They are 8 cylinder four cycle, non-reversible, internal combustion engines of the diesel type. They have a rated horse power of 600 each at full power. The two main motors are located in
the motor room one on each side aft of the forward bulkhead. These are compound wound direct current motors of 750 horse power each at 340 r.p.m. The motors serve the double purpose of propulsion surface or submerged and as generator to charge the main storage batteries. The current for the main motors is supplied by two batteries of sixty cells each which are located in the forward and after battery compartments. These cells are of the lead acid type.
Between the starboard motor and engine is a friction clutch which is used to connect or disconnect the main engine to the main shaft. Between the motor and the propeller is a positive jaw clutch used to connect the main shafting to the propeller. From forward aft the arrangement is thus; (1) engine, (2) engine clutch, (3) motor, (4) line shaft, (5) tail clutch, (6) thrust block, (7) tail shaft, (8) propeller. The arrangement on the port side is the same. When the engine is connected to the propeller both clutches are in; when the motor is in use the engine clutch is out and tail clutch is in; when charging batteries the engine clutch is in and tail clutch out. The propellers are three bladed of 66 inches diameter, the starboard right handed and the port left handed, i.e., outward turning for ahead speed.
BALLAST AND DRAINAGE SYSTEM
The Main Ballast Tanks-those intended to be entirely full when in the submerged condition and entirely empty when navigating upon the surface. Includes No. 1, 2 and 3 main ballast tanks.
The Variable Ballast Tank-those which are intended to be only partially full or entirely empty in either condition. Includes forward and after trim tanks, auxiliary and regulator.
Main Ballast Tank:
The first group of tanks constitutes by far the larger portion of all ballast, there being 178.64 tons of sea water in
these tanks when full. This amount is distributed in three independent tanks known as No. 1 main ballast tank (53.45 tons) extending between frames 88 and 103 and No. 2 main ballast tank (50.93 tons) extending between frames 74 and 88. No. 3 main ballast tank extending between frames 51 and 66 (74.26 tons) tanks, as noted above, are independent of each other, their extent fore and aft is such that, were they at any time allowed to remain partially full, the free water surface is sufficient to materially reduce the stability. For this reason they should not be allowed to remain partially full. These tanks, when empty, practically fix the light water line of the vessel, regardless of the water which may be carried in the smaller tanks, as noted in above paragraph. On account of this peculiar function, i.e., the fixing of the light water line by means of water ballast, it should be borne in mind that the draft of the vessel is not dependent upon stores, men, etc., as in a surface vessel, but should remain practically constant when navigating in water of constant specific gravity. Should at any time extra weight be added sufficient to cause the vessel to sink when her main ballast tanks are filled and variable tanks empty it will, of course, be necessary to remove enough portable lead from the interior of the boat to lighten it.
The main ballast tanks are structural tanks, that is, they are portions of the hull cut off by strong bulkheads and heavily stiffened. These tanks are tested by water pressure to 88 lbs. per square inch and are proved absolutely tight. The main ballast tanks are provided with lever kingston valves for flooding and emptying, and are vented by risers led from their highest points to the uppermost part of the pressure hull then overboard by the main vents. In addition to the main vents each tank is fitted with a small vent located at the air manifold in the control room. The purpose of the small vent is to enable the control room to learn the status of the tank as regards flooding and venting and also, to provide a means of allowing air to take the place of dispelled water when tank is being pumped with main vents closed. Each main ballast
tank is provided with a blow line connecting into the risers leading to the main vents. The valves to control this air are on the air manifold in the control room. The air used comes off the ships service air line (100 lb. line.)
In addition to the blow and vent pipe above described, the main ballast tanks and variable tanks are provided with gauge pipes leading from the top of each tank to the air manifold gauge board. By reference to a sea pressure depth gauge on this board, air for blowing purposes may be admitted to any tank at increased pressure over that registered by the depth gauge. The tank gauges also serve another useful purpose in connection with the variable tanks. Should it be desired at any time while the vessel is submerged to blow water overboard from any variable tanks, air pressure should first be admitted until the tank gauge indicates pressure in the tank in excess of the sea pressure. The sea valves can then be opened with the certainty that the water will go out. If the sea valve is opened first, there may be an in rush of water sufficient to destroy the vessel's positive buoyancy and cause it to sink.
Reference has been made to the lever kingston valve and a short description may be of interest. These valves open outboard, their stems terminating in slotted yoke mechanism with operating levers. The main tank kingstons are located in a heavy bottom shell plate, called the kingston valve plate. Two valves serve No. 1, 2 and 3 main ballast tanks. The slotted yoke arrangement is so designed as to lock the valve in the closed position and the admission of air to the tank to expel the water does not automatically open it, until a pressure is built up. The valves can be manually operated, but are normally operated pneumatically in order that the kingston valve may be located under the control room and thereby eliminate complicated operated rods through the bulkheads, flooding tunnels are lead to No. 1 and No. 3 main ballast tanks. The kingstons are located within these tunnels and are therefore within the control room and close to each other and to auxiliary kingston. While submerged the kingstons are normally
left open to permit blowing of water from the tanks to be done readily.
Variable Ballast Tanks:
This group include the tanks which are intended to be
only partially full or entirely empty in either the surface or submerged conditions.
Forward Trimming Tank:
Located between frames 124 and 131. This tank serves two purposes,-first to bring the vessel to the proper trim or degree of inclination for operating in the submerged condition. Second, to aid in adjusting for variable weights on board, particularly weight of torpedoes fired or moved forward from stowage. The tank should under normal conditions be not more than half full when trimmed down ready to dive. The forward trimming tank is a high pressure tank tested to 88 lbs. per square inch, by water pressure. It may be flooded through the trim line. A gauge glass is provided with a scale and when the vessel is on a level axis, serves as an index to the amount of water in the tank.
The tank is vented and blown through a single pipe leading to the blow and vent manifold in the control room, and is provided with a lead to the gauge board in torpedo room. The tank may be pumped through the trim line by the trim, high pressure or low pressure pump.
After Trimming Tank:
Located between bulkheads 5 and 10. This tank serves the same purpose as the forward trimming tank, i.e., to bring the vessel to the proper trim or degree of inclination for operation in the submerged condition and to aid adjusting for variable weights on board. The tank under normal conditions should be about 1/3 full when trimmed down ready to dive. It has been tested to 88 lbs. per sq. inch hydraulic pressure. It is vented and blown through a single pipe leading from the blow and vent manifold in the control room. The tank is connected to the trim line and may be flooded or blown, and pumped through
that line. A vertical capacity gauge is installed similar to the one used on the forward trimming tank for the purpose of indicating the quantity of water in the tank.
Located between the inner bottom plating and shell, separating the forward and after main tanks between frames 66 and 74, capacity 32.10 tons of sea water. The auxiliary tank provides the principal adjustment for variable weights placed on board and for changes in specific gravity of the water of flotation. After the main tanks are filled and the proper trim obtained by means of the trimming tanks, it is ordinarily the last tank to be filled and brings the vessel to the diving condition without altering the fore and aft trim. It is of sufficient capacity to insure submerged running in water varying in specific gravity from 1.37 to -.006. By reducing the amount of water in the trimming tanks, submerged work can be carried on in fresh water. The auxiliary tank is equipped with a lever stop valve screw type kingston valve. Two valves are necessary because of the fact that auxiliary is a variable tank and leaks cannot be permitted. The two valves are always left securely closed on a dive. The normal way to flood water into the tank is by way of the trim line to which it has a connection. The tank is also fitted for blowing and venting at the blow and vent manifold in the control room in the same manner as the main ballast and other variable ballast tanks. The tank has in addition a larger vent in the overhead near the after bulkhead of the control room. This vent is equipped with a stop and a quick operating vent and is installed primarily to permit rapid entrance of water in flooding the tank while the boat is on the surface. The auxiliary tank is fitted with pressure gauge and water float type gauge in same way as are the two trim tanks.
Located on the starboard side of control room at about frame 77. The capacity is .24 tons of sea water. This tank is the strongest tank on the boat being built to withstand a pressure of 150 lbs. per sq. in. It is a separately built tank, not
a structural tank. As regards flooding, it has to be flooded and pumped through trim manifold and the same method of blowing and venting as trim tanks, the controls being located in the control room. The tank is also fitted with pressure gauge and column type water gauge. Regulator tank was designed for the following purposes:
As a tank strong enough to permit blowing water to sea against heads of water up to 300 ft. Attempt to blow main ballast at such a depth would rupture the tank tops. A boat on the bottom at depth below 200 ft. should pump water from ballast tanks to regulator and then blow overboard. Water can gradually and safely be ejected in this manner with no excessive strain placed on any pump.
As a measuring tank-The tank being small the amount of water taken from it or into it can be definitely determined.
As a tank used to obtain a fine trim as the change in water can be definitely determined.
As a tank from which a definite amount of water can quickly be blown in event the submarine is heavy on a dive or in case the boat is to be taken down to greater depth. In the same manner regulator can be also flooded quickly thus admitting a controlled amount of water into the boat.
DRAINAGE AND TRIM LINE
Extending along the bottom of the vessel and serving as a drainage pipe between frames 24 and 78 is a duct keel. This section of the duct keel which is water tight is called the main drain. Forward of frame 78 it is filled with wood or necessary permanent ballast and protects the bottoms of the vessel against damage due to grounding. In way of the heavy bottom plate, frames 701/2 to 78, drain valves from main ballast tanks and from the auxiliary tank open into it. At the after end between frames 24 and 25, a valve is located inside the ship with a connection to the centrifugal low
pressure ballast pump and on the starboard side to the high pressure pump with which main ballast or auxiliary tanks can be pumped. The main drain has a connection to the trim line in the control room and a small one inch vent line in the motor room. This small vent is to permit venting of the main drain when flooding it on rig for diving.
Auxiliary Drain and Trimming Line:
The trimming line extends from the forward to the after trimming tank with branches for draining the bilges, midship well, torpedo tubes, main drain, and conning tower. A manifold located in the central compartment is connected to this line this manifold is in two parts, each part being connected to the sea, the trimming line and a reciprocating pump, known as the trim pump. In addition to these connections one section has a connection to regulator tank. It will be clear that with the arrangement as described a great many different uses may be made of this system. The water drawn from any compartment through one side of the manifold may be discharged to any of the pipes connected to the other side, and in addition by cutting out the pump, water may be transferred directly by means of air. The trim line being a very essential portion of a submarine will be discussed in detail in a future section.
There are two ballast pumps both located in the motor room. The larger of these two pumps is called the low pressure pump and is designed to expel large volumes of water to sea from the main drain against a low head of water. The other pump, commonly called the high pressure pump, is located in the starboard side of the motor room and is designed primarily to pump the ballast tanks or other tanks and compartments to sea against a high head of water. Both pumps are of the centrifugal or rotary type each driven by its own independent motor. Both pumps may be put on the trim line by means of water manifold in the motor room.
This is a small pump located in the control room on the
starboard side adjacent to the water manifold. The trim pump is a reciprocating pump driven by an independent motor. It is connected to the water manifold by suction and discharge lines through two way cock. The purpose of the trim pump is to eject small amounts of water overboard from the tank or bilges and to pump water from any tank connected to the manifold to any other tank connected to the manifold. Because of this ability it is used to shift water from tank to tank or expel it overboard in the process of trimming the boat during submerged operation. This pump is capable of pumping water against a head of water of 300 feet at the rate of 20 gallons per minute.
There are three ventilation systems in an S-boat, namely; the ship's ventilation, normally called the main induction system, the battery ventilation system and the auxiliary induction.
The ship is ventilated by incoming air drawn into the boat by suction blowers through the main and auxiliary induction line. This main induction runs horizontally from frame 116 1/2 to frame 28, outside the pressure hull on the port side and has a vertical standpipe connected to the horizontal line at frame 74-75. This vertical line extends up to the top of the periscope shears and has at the top the outboard valves through which fresh air is drawn. The main induction line is built to withstand a pressure of 88 lbs. per sq. in. and is made of 7" galvanized steel to torpedo room, and is a 10" line to motor room.
There are two connections from the main induction line to the compartments inside the pressure hull; in the torpedo room and in the motor room. These connections are made through a steel casting which contains flapper valves. The flapper valves operate on a single lever and when closed prevent water or air from entering the compartment from the main induction line and vice versa. A securing dog is fitted to
each operating lever which allows the flapper valves to be locked closed. The flapper valves are normally in the open position when on the surface and closed when submerged. When the Commanding Officer so orders, the flappers may be opened when submerged to allow air to be circulated through the boat ' and outside in main induction. This cools the air and prevents stagnation of air in any particular compartment.
Attached to the inlet casting in the torpedo and motor rooms are suction blowers. Air is pulled in from outside the boat into the main induction and discharged into the torpedo and motor room by these blowers, which are not reversible.
The main induction valve (outboard valve) is operated by pneumatic gear which is located in the control room. The valve can be operated manually and is closed on making a dive when the engines have stopped.
Drain lines from the main induction are provided at each ventilation inlet casting into the compartment bilges. The drain valves are kept open to allow condensate to drain from the lines and also to show on a dive whether the main induction valve is closed or if there is any rupture or leak in the line outside the pressure hull. In rough weather, when it may become necessary to close the conning tower hatch to prevent taking water aboard, the air to run the main engines is drawn through the main induction inlet. The auxiliary induction line leads from a stand pipe between No. 1 and No. 2 periscopes to forward battery room, the arrangements of valves are the same as main induction.
There are one hundred and twenty storage battery cells in the boat, which provide the motive power when the submarine is maneuvering or submerged. These battery cells are divided into two groups of sixty cells each, one group under the deck in the forward battery and one group under the deck in the after battery.
The battery cells are of the lead-acid type and give off
hydrogen gas when being charged. Hydrogen is explosive when mixed with air with a concentration of 4% hydrogen. It is therefore necessary to have a ventilation system to provide fresh air to the cells and exhaust the gas given off by the cells. The battery ventilation system accomplishes this. Air from the battery compartment goes through two standpipes in the forward part of the compartment and down into the space between the top of the cells and the battery deck. On each cell are two breather pipes made of hard rubber through which air is drawn to the top of the electrolyte from which the hydrogen is given off. This air, which is now mixed with hydrogen is pulled through a small standpipe in the middle of the cell and through a rubber hose connection to a hard rubber duct which runs the length of the batteries, fore and aft. The after end of the hard rubber duct is connected to a lead line air tight box which extends athwartship at the after end of the battery compartment. From the lead line box the gases are drawn through two exhaust lines going up through the battery compartment and overboard. The exhaust lines have the following valves named in order from the battery outboard:(1) chlorine flapper valve, (2) damper valve, (3) combined flapper valve and inboard exhaust valve, (4) outboard valve. The damper valve is constructed like a damper valve in a stove pipe. The combined flapper and inboard exhaust valve is operated by a lever. When the flapper is closed the inboard exhaust valve is opened which exhausts the gas into the compartment. This is the method of venting when the boat is submerged. The outboard valve for the forward and after battery is located in the superstructure just abaft the bridge and is operated from below in the after battery room. Between the damper and flapper valve are the blowers-two for each battery compartment. These are rotary impeller or fan type blowers and they provide the suction and exhaust for the entire battery ventilation system. There is a battery induction line 9 1/2" in diameter which runs outside the pressure hull between the outboard exhaust lines from the forward and after batteries. This line allows either battery to be exhausted
outboard or aft, into engine room through a flapper valve. The battery induction line also allows either battery to be exhausted into the forward or after battery compartment depending on the open or closed position of the flapper valve. The exhaust lines inside the boat are made of copper, lead lined. The battery induction pipe out side the pressure hull is made of galvanized steel, which is painted inside with acid resisting paint and is tested to 88 lbs. per sq. in.
Ventilating inboard means that batteries are being ventilated into the boat with the outboard exhaust valve closed.
The air system of a submarine is installed to furnish air for blowing tanks, to supply air to compartments in case of damage, to supply air for breathing during long dives and to furnish air for torpedo firing. The system as installed in S-class submarines consists of the following major sections which will each 7)e described in general at this time.
High Pressure Air Line.
100 lb. Air Line.
Each boat is fitted with 2 three stage air compressors, located in the motor room. The compressors are fitted with clutches which enable each to be engaged with its adjacent main shaft permitting them to be driven by the main motors or by the main engines. The clutches are of the friction type thus permitting them to be operated without stopping the main shafts. Each compressor has a rated capacity of 20 cubic feet of air at 2800 lbs. per sq. in. delivered in one hour. They should not be run over 300 R.P.M.
For the storage of compressed air, 45 steel flasks are provided, thirty-nine located in the air bottle well in the torpedo room and six in the engine room bilge. The flasks are grouped to form six banks with a total capacity of 273.59 cubic feet. These flasks when first installed are tested to 5,600 lbs. per sq. in., the actual maximum pressure to which they are charged in service is 2800 lbs. per sq. in. Each flask is fitted with a drain connection which runs to the bottom in order to permit drainage of any accumulated water or to bleed down the flask. The flasks in each bank are connected to a common high pressure pipe which runs along the port and starboard side of the boat back to be cut off or put on the air distribution manifold. The valves controlling the high pressure air are of the screw type well packed by means of stuffing box and reinforced by means of a yoke to prevent blowing out.
High Pressure Air Line:
There are two lines normally referred to as the port and starboard charging lines. The starboard charging line runs from the starboard compressor forward along the starboard ride of the boat into the air distribution manifold. From this manifold the air can be directed into the tanks. The port charging line runs from the port compressor forward along the port side of the boat to the torpedo room where it has an outlet from torpedo charging. The port and starboard lines are cross connected, at the motor room and at the control room thus enabling the function of each line to be performed by either or both compressors. In order to permit an air charge to be taken from outside sources as from a deck of another ship, two outside charging side connections are fitted, one coming through the pressure hull at the torpedo room and
the other on the port side by the conning tower into the control room. The forward connections joins the port charging line in the control room. The port high pressure line has a connection in the engine room to engine spray air bottles and manifold. The high pressure line have outlets in torpedo room,
control room, engine room and motor room, that are used as emergency outlets so that an escape can be affected from these compartments.
The 100 Lb. Air Line (Ship's Service Line):
This line is installed to supply the many needs for low pressure air on the submarine. It takes off the H. P. line in the .control room and is at this point reduced to 100 lbs. pressure by a reducer. The line then runs forward to the forward part of the torpedo room and aft to the after part of the motor room as well as supplying air to the control room. In order to increase the volume of the line and thus keep a supply of air for operation, a volume tank of 8 cubic feet is located in the after part of the control room bilge tank. It is equipped with a relief valve and a drain. The volume tank may be bypassed should it be ruptured. In event of failure of the 100 lb. reducer a 100 lb. by-pass valve is located on the air distribution manifold to permit high pressure air to be bled directly into the 100 lb. line. Because of defects of the present type reducer and the fact that pressure in excess of 100 lbs. is required for some purposes the use of the 100 lb. by-pass is almost universal. Relief valves on the 100 lb. line are set at 125. The connections from the 100 lb. line in each compartment are as follows:
To blow valve each torpedo tube.
To strainer blows for sea chests of fuel oil manifold.
To fuel tank blow manifold.
Crews water closet emergency connection.
To conning tower blow.
To fresh water blow. To whistle valve.
To blow and vent manifold. (It is from this manifold that that blowing and venting of all main and variable tanks is done.)
To depth gauge.
To internal salvage air line.
To signal gun.
To officers water closet.
To fuel tank blow manifold.
To strainer blow for sea chest of fuel manifold.
To strainer blow for sea chest of circulating water suction from sea.
From 1st stage of each air compressor.
Main Motor circulating water sea chest.
FUEL AND LUB OIL SYSTEMS
The fuel system comprises the forward fuel group consisting of four tanks (Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4) and the after group consisting of five tanks (Nos. 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9) with the necessary piping for transfer of oil. In addition on some boats the
No. 2 and 3 main ballast tank is fitted for carrying fuel in order to increase the cruising radius. To prevent the necessity of building excessive large variable tanks in order to take care of change of weight of boat due to burning of fuel, the submarines are fitted with what is called the compensating system. In this system as oil is used it is replaced by sea water. The four tanks of the forward group are connected by jumpers at the top and number four is connected to a small settling tank. When the system is in use sea water is brought in to the bottom of No. 1 F. 0. tank forcing fuel from No. 1 to No. 2 to No. 3 to No. 4 to the settling tank then through the transfer line to the gravity tank in the engine room where it can be sent to the engines. Water for this compensation is introduced either from sea through the sea valve on the fuel manifold in the torpedo room; or from the main engine circulating water system. The after group operates in a similar manner. We thus have the boat getting heavier as fuel is used, for the sea water is about one pound per gallon heavier than the replaced fuel.
The fuel tanks are all structural tanks the hull forming their outer boundary. They are tested individually to 15 lbs. hydraulic pressure and by groups to 40 lbs. hydraulic pressure. On submergence the tanks have no internal pressure as they are disconnected to the sea. The forward group is located between frames 110-122 the after group between frames 30-49. The filling lines connect with the transfer line in the torpedo and engine rooms. Each group is fitted with a blowing connection from the 100 lb. line, but no connections for pumping are provided.
The lubricating oil is stored in a main lubricating oil tank located at the forward part of the engine room between frames 49-51. There is also a sump tank between frames 47-49, the purpose of which is to provide a plentiful supply of oil in the system of both engines while they are in operation. Oil drains from the crankcases of the engines to the sump tank
from which it is pumped through coolers into the lubricating system of each engine. Any impurities gathered in the oil are removed by strainers or by settling to the bottom of the sump tank. An oil purifier is used. No. 5 fuel oil tank if fitted for carrying lubricating oil and is so used in event a large amount of lubricating is required as when carrying fuel in No. 3 main ballast tank. The main lub. oil tank and sump tank are not structural tanks and not being required to stand pressure are not tested except for tightness which is 10 lbs. air pressure only.
GENERAL SAFETY INSTRUCTION AND OPERATING NOTES
Never attempt to blow a partially filled tank to sea while submerged.
Water will flow into the tank before air pressure v ill be built up in excess of that outside, with result that negative buoyancy will be obtained. Exception-Blowing of small regulator tank of 0, R and S class permissible regardless of amount of water in tank.
While operating either surfaced or submerged, have all water tight doors free for quick closing.
In event of collision, any obstruction to the doors may prevent rapid closing of doors with resultant spread of water.
While the engines are operating, never close any doors between the control room and engine room.
To do so will permit the engines to be supplied with air only by the main induction. This line is normally not large enough to supply sufficient air with result engines will pull a vacuum in the boat. The vacuum and the
rush of air when it is filled will produce physical hardship such as nose bleed, ruptured ear drums, etc.
While the engines are operating never close the main induction.
If with main induction closed, a door between the control room and engine room were closed, the engines would have no air supply and would pull such a vacuum in the engine room that it would probably be fatal to all personnel present.
Never ventilate the battery outboard in any weather rough enough to put spray on the deck.
Even a small amount of salt water mixing with the battery acid will cause a large amount of chlorine gas to be given off. The gas is not only deadly to personnel, but injurious to the battery. Ridding the battery of the chlorine compounds formed in the plates is a slow process during which the boat must be laid up.
If during a battery charge a blower should stop, no attempt should be made to start it. Always secure the charge and keep remaining blower running.
A battery being charged gives off a gas called hydrogen, the greatest amount being given off when the battery is gassing heavily toward the end of the charge. Hydrogen is a highly explosive gas which will rapidly accumulate in the battery ducts should the blowers stop. On restarting blower, a spark may be caused by the reforming of the moisture films within the ducts which igniting the hydrogen would cause an explosion disastrous to both personnel and material. Therefore, if
blower has stopped or is running improperly, stop charge and make no attempt to restart blower until one hour after gassing has stopped.
During a battery charge, especially while gassing, permit no smoking or any naked lights in battery compartment or in vicinity of battery exhaust.
Danger of hydrogen explosion.
After a battery compartment has been sealed for any appreciable time due to fire or any other reason, remember that hydrogen will be present in the compartment. The amount will depend upon the working of the battery prior to or during sealing of the compartment. In any case, after unsealing, permit no naked lights either in or in vicinity of the compartment. Do not start battery blowers or any other machinery in the compartment. Allow battery to ventilate naturally. After four hours, provided tests indicate low hydrogen content, danger may be considered to be over.
On rig for diving, see by visual examination that all hull openings except main induction are securely closed. Don't place all your faith on indicators.
To be certain beyond all doubt that the openings are closed.
Never enter tanks which are normally closed, such as fuel tank and main and variable ballast tanks, until they have been thoroughly aired out. Then, all men working inside must be watched by men outside tank. Also, attach line to men going into large tanks.
Such tanks may contain air lacking in oxygen or
harmful gasses which may produce unconsciousness and death. Fuel tanks may in addition contain explosive gasses.
Before starting machinery see that it is clear for operating.
Obstructions in the way of gears, shafting, etc., will cause serious damage if not removed prior to turning machinery. This applies to the main machinery as well as the various auxiliaries.
All diving stations must be kept manned until they have been secured on order "secure from dive".
To be ready to dive again.
Never flood torpedo tubes from sea without first seeing all tube drain valves and forward trim flood valve secured.
Water flooded into tubes and passing into forward trim will produce negative buoyancy.
When underway, always keep all gear in superstructure, especially mooring lines, secured in such a manner that it cannot get out of the lockers.
A line wrapped around a propeller will disable that shaft. Other gear striking the propeller will do it more or less damage causing vibration.
While submerged, never set up on the dogs of the deck hatches.
The pressure of the sea during the dive will make the
hatch dogs appear to be loose because the hatch has been forced down. If tightened in this condition, the hatch upon surfacing may be so tight that it cannot be opened.
Avoid touching electric cables or antenna wires while hands or decks are wet.
Dampness increases the possibility of grounding the current through the body.
Never use water from battery tank for drinking or cooking purposes.
Tank is lead lined and may cause lead poisoning.
Never permit smoking or naked lights while handling ammunition on or taking on fuel oil.
Fumes given off may be readily ignited, resulting in an explosion or bad fire.
Never drill, strike or deform any flasks or piping carrying compressed air or any other gas.
A rupture would result in explosion with attendant danger to personnel and material.
Never allow charged air flasks, such as torpedo air flasks or oxygen bottles, to be exposed to the direct rays of the sun or to any heat.
Pressure within flasks will be increased by heat and may be raised sufficiently to cause rupture.
Never allow ammunition of any kind to be exposed to the direct rays of the sun or to any heat.
Causes deterioration of powder which may produce instability or improper ballistic qualities.
After surfacing, hull openings, except (1) the conning tower hatch and (2) the main induction, shall be left closed until the boat has finally been rigged for surface.
Boat cannot be considered in an entirely stable condition until main ballast tanks have been pumped dry and vents, kingstons, drains and pumps are secured.
Never open the inner door of a torpedo tube until check has been made to see (1) that tube is dry and (2) that outer door is closed.
To prevent outer and inner door being opened at the same time, which if it happened, would result in the loss of the boat. Mechanical interlocks are provided to prevent this from happening, but check just the same.
Before opening up any tank, vent to relieve any pressure and inspect to see all valves through which water could possibly enter tank are securely closed.
When order to surface is given all main ballast tank vents should be closed whether or not specifically ordered closed.
To prevent air used for blowing from passing overboard without blowing water from tank.
When using a fire extinguisher in an enclosed space, wear a gas mask which protects against CO2.
Fire extinguishers have as their principle the smothering of the fire by excluding the air. It will do the same to humans, producing suffocation.
The use of water to extinguish fires in a submarine should be avoided.
To avoid electrical shocks; to avoid spread of oil; to prevent formation of chlorine.
Never hang clothing on battery ventilation suction or discharge lines.
Flow of air through battery will be restricted, causing increase of hydrogen present with danger of explosion.
Small drains of main and battery induction lines shall habitually be kept open. Drains should be frequently tested to see that they are clear.
So that if leaks occur in the line, their presence will be known immediately. Drains will frequently become plugged by the lead sulphate formed by the action of the acid gas on the lead lining of the battery induction piping. This lead sulphate lying in the pipes will eventually work its way into the drains and plug them up.
No one except necessary personnel shall be permitted on the bridge from the time "rig for diving" has been ordered until "rig for surface" has been ordered.
Boat during this period must be ready to dive at a moments notice.
PROCEDURE AT RIGGING FOR DIVING (S-CLASS)
Close torpedo room hatch observing gasket seating properly on knife edge. If hatch already closed inspect it.
Close main induction flapper and dog. -Examine loading hatch to see properly secured.
If no torpedoes are in the tubes, the tubes shall be flooded. To do this expeditiously see inner doors closed tight, then open outer doors a small amount and open inboard vents wide. After tubes have been flooded as determined by gauge and water coming out of vents close outer door. In event boat is alongside the dock or in water covered with debris it is better practice to flood tubes via trim line and drain valves to prevent any foreign matter from becoming caught between outer door and its gasket. In either case after flooding check to see outer door closed, tube drains secured and outboard vents secured (these latter are commonly referred to as torch pot vents.)
Check to see that gag in internal salvage line is out.
Check following valves to determine that they are fully closed.
Magazine flood valve.
Forward bilge well (see bilges dry).
Air bottle well suction from trim line.
Sea valve on fuel manifold (must be closed with knowledge and consent of engine room).
Open stop on F.T.T. blow and vent line. See local vent closed.
See all gear in torpedo room secured.
See men at their stations.
Report to Control Room "Torpedo Room rigged for diving".
FORWARD BATTERY COMPARTMENT
Ventilate the battery into the compartment.
Operate chlorine flappers. Do not close but feel it operating properly.
Open "A" and "B" vent stop wide then back off 1/8 turn.
See W.T. door to T.R. and C.R. free for closing with no obstruction in gear mechanism.
See gag in internal compartment salvage line out.
See drains for battery induction line are wide open (two drains).
See men at station.
Report to Control Room "Forward Battery rigged for diving".
Put three (3) banks with air pressure over 2000 lbs. each on the manifold.
Build up pressure on 100 lb. line to 100 lbs. and maintain this. Use 100 lb. by-pass if reducer does not operate satisfactorily.
Test bow and stern planes by hand to see shafting clear. This -need be only a few turns of hand wheel. Then test by power. This shall be only a small movement. Put stern planes on zero and bow planes folded. Do not rig out bow planes until directly ordered to do so.
Set moveable hand of barometer in line with hand operated by atmospheric pressure.
Test main induction by closing on order from bridge then
open again fully.
See battery induction line drains open.
See sea valve to depth gauges open. This valve is just behind depth gauges. In addition each gauge has shut off valve.
Put trim pump on C.R. bilges pumping to sea. This tests pump and will also clear bilges.
Unlock kingston valves and see free for opening. This applies to auxiliary stop as well as those of M.B.
Crack main drain valves about 1/4 turn then close tightly but do not jerk.
On many S-boats it is customary to flood regulator full on rig for diving and then leave valves on trim manifold. Open to permit quick blowing in case of necessity.
Test periscope by raising about a foot then lowering. (Not done until permission has first been obtained from bridge.)
Secure air to whistle valve.
See both upper and lower conning tower hatches free for closing.
See gag in internal compartment salvage line out. See power on kingston and vent indicator light box.
Take reading of auxiliary and regulator and obtain report of reading of F.T.T. and A.T.T.
Test internal compartment salvage line by opening stop and blowing short shot of air through line.
Receive reports from other compartments.
See men at stations.
Ventilate battery into the compartment.
Close battery overboard discharge valve.
Operate chlorine flapper. Do not close but feel it operating freely.
See drains from battery induction line open.
See breakers thrown to series. CAUTION: Consult man on motor controls before doing this.
Open "C" stop wide then back off 1/8 turn.
See door to C.R. and door to E.R. unobstructed for quick closing. CAUTION: Do not close these doors because to do so would cut off air supply to engines causing the engines to pull a vacuum with possible danger to personnel.
Close galley sink discharge.
See gag in internal compartment salvage line out. See men at their stations.
Report to Control Room "After Battery rigged for diving".
Close engine room hatch watching gasket seating properly on knife edge. If hatch already closed inspect for condition of gasket and tightness.
Pump bilges dry.
See gag in internal compartment salvage line out.
Close sea valve on fuel manifold. Since forward fuel group has also cut off from sea it will be necessary to compensate fuel over by circulating water.
See door to motor room free for closing.
See men at diving stations.
Report to Control Room "Engine Room rigged for diving."
Get permission from bridge to put H. P. pump on bilges if necessary and upon engine room bilges if requested by engine room. When bilges are dry see H. P. pump discharge to sea closed and pump secured. Upon completion of pumping line up two-way cock on trim line.
See motor room hatch closed. If already closed inspect for conditions of gasket and tightness.
Flood the main drain when directed by control room. This is done by cracking L. P. pump suction and discharge valves and venting by vent in motor room. Secure L. P. pump suction and discharge valves and vent when drain if flooded.
Open stop to A.T.T. See local flow and vent line vent closed.
Test main induction flapper for freedom to close. Leave flapper open. CAUTION: This flapper shall not be closed until second blast of diving alarm, i.e., when engines have been stopped.
See circulating water valves to air compressor secured.
See gag in internal compartment salvage line out.
See stations manned.
Report to Control Room "Motor Room rigged for diving".
After joining your submarine one of the most important duties that you will be given will be the anchor watch. The anchor watch is a man in the duty section who is assigned a topside watch whenever the submarine is anchored or
moored. The anchor watch is directly responsible to the Commanding Officer for the safety of the ship and crew. For this reason it is absolutely necessary that the anchor watch be a reliable man who knows his boat and his job. One thing should be thoroughly impressed on your mind when you have the anchor watch-if anything extraordinary happens or any emergency arises DO NOT HESITATE to call the duty officer, the duty chief and the duty section. Smart and quick action on the part of the anchor watch has prevented many a casualty in the submarine service. Whereas on a large ship the anchor watch is more or less a messenger, on a submarine the anchor watch is in reality officer of the deck. You must be able to assume the trust that is given you when you take over the anchor watch-otherwise you will never be a good submarine man and if you are not a GOOD submarine man you will not be retained in the submarine service. When you stand your first few anchor watches you will be under the critical eye of the duty officer, and the duty chief. Be VIGILANT then and continue to be vigilant every minute of every anchor watch that you ever stand.
The following instructions were taken from the ship's orders of an S-boat. They are used as a guide to students. Each particular submarine has its own orders and instructions to the anchor watch. Assure yourself that you know and understand the orders and instructions before taking over the watch.
The Specific Duties of the Anchor Watch are as Follows:
Enter in the Quartermaster's notebook all items required for entry in the log. This shall be at times indicated by the quartermaster.
Report movements of ships and unusual occurrences to the duty chief and duty officer.
Keep informed of the ships present and the Senior Officer present afloat.
Meet and salute at the gangway all officers boarding or leaving the ship. The anchor watch shall attend such officers until told to carry on or his duties require him elsewhere.
Keep a sharp lookout for signals and approaching boats. Inform the duty officer and commanding officer when any senior officer approaches the gangway.
Receive and take charge of packages coming on board, turning them over to the addressee or the commanding officer.
Keep informed as to the whereabouts of the duty section, duty chief, duty officer, and the ship's officers. Report to the next senior officer when the commanding officer leaves the ship.
Visitors will not be allowed on board without the permission of the duty officer.
Keep men topside in the uniform of the day except at night and during working hours.
See that ship's routine and any special orders are carried
See that colors are made and anchor lights turned on and off promptly.
Sound attention for passing ships, barges or gigs passing close aboard with flag or colors flying.
Report to duty officer the arrival of all stores and provisions.
Return all salutes to the colors by officers and men corning on deck or leaving the ship.
Report any fire hazards immediately to the duty chief and investigate thoroughly any condition that seems unusual,
BELOW DECK WATCH
In All Compartments:
Listen for the sound of dripping water or escaping air.
Note any unusual odor.
Note any smell of smoke.
See that electric heaters are clear of clothing and bunks.
Note anything unusual in the compartment.
See that ship's ventilation system is operating properly.
All sea and stop valves secured.
Bilges are dry.
Note reading on forward trim tank gauge.
Note pressure readings on torpedo tube gauges, (should never exceed five (5) pounds).
Trim line valves closed.
Note pressure on forward fuel group, (should be 0).
Inspect by placing hand over the two intakes that there is a suction of air into the battery ventilation system.
Determine that the battery ventilation blowers are running as prescribed by Engineer Officer.
Inspect to see that dampers and lower and upper flapper valves on the battery ventilation are secured in the open position.
Inspect to see that the 1 and 2 main ballast tank vent and stop valves are closed.
Note the pressure readings on all main and variable ballast tank gauges-this pressure should never exceed 5 lbs.
Note the reading in degrees of the inclinometer (athwart-ships trim) and the degrees on the fore and aft trim indicator.
Note the pressure readings on all air bank gauges. See that at least one air bank having a minimum of 1500 lbs. pressure is connected up to the manifold.
Note and clearly determine that the control room bilges and periscope wells are dry.
See that all sea and stop valves are closed, including the conning tower flood valve.
See that valves on trim manifold are secured. See that kingstons are closed and locked.
Inspect by placing hand over the two intakes that there is a suction of air into the battery ventilation system.
Determine that the battery ventilation blowers are running as prescribed by Engineer Officer.
Inspect and see that the dampers and the lower and upper flapper valves on the battery ventilation system are secured in the open position.
Inspect and see that outboard battery ventilation flapper valve is secured open.
Inspect to see that the after main ballast tank vent and stop valves are closed.
See that all sea and stop valves are closed.
Note that ice machine is running properly.
Note and clearly determine the height of water in the engine room bilges. If over a safe height report same to duty chief immediately.
See that sea valves on head are closed and not leaking. See that all sea and stop valves are closed.
Note and clearly determine the height of water in the motor room bilges. If above a safe height report same to duty chief immediately.
See that all sea and stop valves are closed.
See that trim line valves are closed.
The Following Shall Be Checked Frequently About The Topside:
See that the battery ventilation exhausts in the fairwater are clear.
Reading of draft marks.
When moored-inspect the mooring lines; at anchor-inspect the anchor chain and drift lead.
See that topside is clean and neat with no loose gear, newspapers, etc., about.
The check-off list shall be kept in accordance with the form furnished. The items thereon shall be checked by actual inspection and not as a matter of form at the end of each watch.
The anchor watch will call his relief fifteen minutes before the end of his watch, and he will not be considered as properly relieved unless the watch is relieved on deck with both men in complete uniform.
Pressures in the main or variable ballast tanks, fuel groups, or torpedo tubes shall not be vented. Whenever the
pressure in any one of these reaches 5 lbs. the duty chief shall be called and he will be responsible for taking appropriate action.
In case of doubt as to what to do, or in case of anything that appears unusual the anchor watch will call the duty chief at once and a thorough investigation shall be conducted. Do not hesitate to call the entire section if it appears that the conditions warrant it. In the case of electrical casualties, such as failure of battery ventilation, call the electrician's mate of the watch and the duty chief. In the event of any condition that cannot be handled easily and immediately by the anchor watch, the duty chief shall be called. Constant supervision by the entire section is necessary at all times.
DRILLS AND EXERCISES
The instructions for emergencies are issued for information and guidance. All hands must realize that the laying down of implicit instructions to cover each and every situation is impossible. Therefore all hands are reminded that the successful handling of emergencies must depend upon the cool logical action of men who know their submarine and who have ingrained in them the basic actions demanded of them by each emergency. The cardinal principle of all damage control is-as quickly as possible prevent the spread of damage. With that one principle in mind an intelligent man who knows his boat can do little wrong. Know then, what to do, when to do it, how to do it, and why you do it.
All persons discovering leaks, chlorine, fire, etc., shall immediately pass the word as to nature and location and then shall take every action to combat the situation. Passing the word is necessary to bring others to assist; quick action may prevent a dangerous situation from developing.
The emergencies which may be encountered in the normal operation of submarines are:
Collision-The greatest threat to the submarine is collision on the surface.
Fire-Oil or electrical fires are the most probable.
Chlorine-This is the evolution of a deadly gas produced when salt water is mixed with sulphuric acid.
Abandon Ship-May be either necessary with boat on surface or when boat on bottom by the use of the lung.
The boat must expect a large inflow of water which if not confined will be sufficient to rapidly produce negative buoyancy and take the boat under. In general, to prevent this, seal up the affected compartment and make the pressure hull tight as for diving:
Close doors to affected compartment. Close all deck hatches.
Close main induction and flappers.
Close battery overboard discharge valve and seal battery tanks.
Put gags in compartment salvage line in unaffected compartments.
Put three banks of air on the manifold. Keep 100 lbs. air built up. Stand by to turn on salvage air.
Put high pressure pump on trim line.
Stand by low pressure pump.
Stand by to put any tank or bilges on the trim line or main drain or to blow any tank including fuel oil tanks or tubes to sea.
Stop motor (if ordered) and put batteries and motors in highest power combination, i.e., batteries in series, motors in parallel.
Expect any orders to motors or engines. If collision is imminent maximum speed ahead may do more good than attempted backing. CAUTION: If continuing ahead on the engines, alter collision alarm standby W. T. doors and main induction but do not close.
Close all small openings between compartments, as battery compartment drains and voice tubes.
The decision as to whether or not to surface or go deeper must rest with the commanding officer.
In general provisions given above apply equally well submerged as on the surface for the main thing is to restrict flooding to affected compartment.
If Order "Surface" Is Given:
Blow all ballast tanks hard.
Close all W.T. doors.
Put H.P. pump on trim line.
Put L.P. pump on main drain.
Put batteries in series. Go ahead full speed on motors.
Hard rise bow and stern planes.
Stand by to put any tank or bilges on trim line or main drain or to blow any tanks including fuel oil tanks and tubes to sea.
Put gags in unaffected compartments.
Seal battery tanks by securing ventilation and closing flappers.
Close all small openings between compartments as battery compartment drains, voice tubes, galley ventilation.
Stand by for chlorine if collision is in a battery compartment.
If Order "Surface" Is Not Given:
Close all W.T. doors.
Put gags in unaffected compartments. Put H.P. pump on trim line.
Stand by to put any tank or bilges on the trim line or main drain or to blow any tanks including fuel tanks and torpedo tubes to sea.
Seal battery tanks by securing ventilation and closing flappers.
Close all small openings between compartments as battery compartment drains, voice tubes and galley ventilation.
All hands be ready to bring boat to surface.
Expect chlorine if collision is in battery compartment.
Orders regarding speed will come from Commanding Officer.
If along side dock or other vessel make preparations for getting underway.
If submerged, surface provided it can be done in safety.
Fight Fire and Attempt To Extinguish It By Cutting Down Air Supply Or By Physical Smothering As Follows:
Shut off ventilation system.
Turn off fans.
If in control room or aft of it stop main engines.
Remove detonators from affected compartment.
Secure battery charge-CAUTION:-
Whether or not to secure the battery ventilation if charging batteries will depend upon officer in charge.
Securing the ventilation of a gassing battery may produce a situation of more danger than a fire.
Stand by to close doors to adjacent compartments.
Beat out fire by smothering with blankets or mattresses.
If above does not succeed use fire extinguisher.
Fire extinguishers have as their principle the generation of a gas which acts to smother the fire by excluding the air. It naturally will also, in a confined space, exclude air from humans and produce suffocation. Therefore, when using extinguishers in a confined space as will always exist in a submarine, the persons applying the extinguisher should wear gas masks or leave the compartment.
The use of water should be avoided because of the attendant danger of severe electrical shock. Never use water to extinguish an electric fire.
Use only fire extinguisher which has carbon tetrachloride as its agency against electric fires. With other liquid types severe electric shocks may be suffered.
Never use water on an oil fire.
If fire is in compartment where explosives are stored stand by to flood magazines on orders from officer in charge. Explosives not in magazines shall if possible be removed from the scene of the fire but if too large to be moved, protect by cooling water or tarpaulin.
If fire is in battery compartment take load off that battery.
If in spite of the above, the fire cannot be controlled, or in event of a rather serious fire submerged and boat cannot be surfaced, seal up the compartment with no one inside and fire will eventually be smothered.
This is poisonous gas, a few breaths of which will produce
serious injury to the lungs or death. It has very powerful
odor and is pea green in color. These characteristics make it
very easily detected. The gas is heavier than air and has a tendency to settle down into the bilges or the decks.
In Event of Chlorine Proceed as Follows:
When occurring on the surface:
Close watertight doors to affect compartment (stop engines as ordered by bridge; the W.T. doors of after battery cannot be closed until they are stopped).
Close battery compartment drains to torpedo, control, or engine room as appropriate.
Close main induction flapper (after battery).
Close galley vent in engine room in after battery.
Secure battery ventilation.
Take load off affected battery.
Secure battery charge.
Officer and electrician enter compartment wearing gas masks to determine cause of chlorine and having discovered it, attempt to remove the cause. Then open battery ventilation lines and ventilate outboard at full speed.
When Occuring While Submerged:
Seal the battery compartment.
Surface and proceed as above. In surfacing, never blow
the tank under the affected battery because the existence of chlorine may be caused by a leak in the tank top of the main ballast and blowing will drive more water into the tank. Blow other tanks and close kings-ton of the tank under battery. Commence pumping tank as quickly as possible.
Stop motors and cut out affected battery, then use but one battery for propulsion. Passage of current through a sea water affected battery greatly increases the emission of chlorine.
In event it is not possible to surface, seal the compartment and cut out the affected battery. Surface and clear the boat as soon as circumstances permit.
All hands except watch proceed quickly up conning tower to deck.
After these men are clear, the watch pass life jackets up hatch. In order to render life jackets readily available, men should bring them from other compartments en route to control room and deposit them on deck of control room.
Watch secure ship as for collision if time permits, then follow up hatch.
Mattress, deck grating, etc., should if possible be thrown overboard to provide floating material to which men in the water may cling.
The following procedure is copied from "Doctrine to Govern Submarine Escape Operations". In an emergency necessitating the abandonment of a vessel the following steps should be taken in effecting escape:
Make all necessary preparations for flooding the
compartment. Secure the bulkheads for watertightness. See that the hatch skirt is in position and secured. Un-dog the hatch and secure with a stout line to some solid fitting in the compartment. Open the valves in the oxygen line and set the reducer to exceed by 20 lbs. the depth pressure when the compartment is flooded.
Break out lungs. Remove from cloth bags. Remove cellophane from flutter valves. Put on lungs, adjusting neck strap so that the lung can be held comfortably in the mouth. Adjust strap around waist, leaving about two inches of slack. Secure trouser clips well taut.
Flood the compartment. Open every available sea connection. Remove bonnets from valves backing up sea valves and open sea valves. In the motor room the bonnet on the L.P. ballast pump suction valve should be removed and the discharge valve opened. The outer doors of torpedo tubes may be opened and the compartment flooded through the inboard vents and through the drains after the valve bonnets are removed.
Wrenches suitable for all nuts which must be removed should be stowed in each compartment; also a maul and pinch bar. Flooding once begun should be done as quickly as possible as danger from exposure to pressure depends upon the time for exposure. As flooding proceeds men must clear their ears by swallowing, or working their jaws as in chewing, or by holding the nose and blowing, thereby putting a pressure on the inner side of the ear drums. Inability to clear the ears will be painful but will not result in permanent injury. When the pressure inside the boat equals the outside water pressure, flooding will automatically stop. The line holding the hatch should then be cut. The hatch spring and a slightly greater pressure on the lower side of the hatch should cause the hatch to open completely. A heavy stream of water will enter until the trunk is flooded and the water level in the compartment reaches the bottom of the
hatch skirt. In depths such that the pressure is not equalized by the time the water reaches the bottom of the hatch skirt, compressed air, if available, should be admitted into compartment. If the hatch is not completely opened, a man equipped with a charged lung can go up the ladder and push the hatch open. This man then re-enters the compartment.
When the hatch is open, stream the buoy; when it watches, secure the line to a rung of the ladder or other secure object.
With the shut-off valve in mouthpiece closed, and with flutter valve submerged, charge lung with oxygen.
Put mouthpiece in mouth, exhale completely through the nose, put on the noseclip, open mouthpiece valve and commence breathing.
Breathe oxygen for about two minutes before beginning the ascent. This can be accomplished by having men who are standing by charge their own lungs from spare oxygen containers. No delay in making ascents should be caused by waiting for this two-minute interval. During this time see that there is no marked resistance to breathing, either inhaling or exhaling. If soda lime dust is drawn into the mouth and throat it should be spat out before the man enters the water.
The mouthpiece should be gripped properly; the teeth clamped down, not too tightly on the rubber lugs; the rubber flange between the lips and the teeth, forming a seal.
Men should follow one another out of the compartment at intervals of 15 or 20 seconds.
On reaching the surface, close the mouthpiece valve. Then the noseclip and mouthpiece may be removed. If the lung is to be used as a life preserver, fold over the flutter valve and clip it with a trouser clip. The lung
may be re-inflated as necessary with the breath (but only for renewing its buoyancy when using it is a life preserver.)
The Following Precautions Should Be Kept In Mind When Making Ascents:
If for any reason it is impossible to breathe through the lung (mouthpiece knocked out of mouth, stuck valve) the ascent must be continued, as if using the lung, but exhaling slowly to relieve the pressure as the air in the lung expands.
If the noseclip comes off the nose, it may be replaced by using one hand while the other hand maintains a hold on the line, or the nose may be held with one hand. The man must never let go the line with both hands. If a man does let go the line with both hands he must back water to retard as much as possible his rate of ascent. If a shot of soda lime dust is drawn into the mouth (practically impossible with the latest types of lungs) it may be swallowed without harm. The tendency to cough, must, however, be stifled so the mouthpiece will not come out of the mouth.
Anyone seeing a man fall overboard shall pass the word in a loud clear voice toward bridge "Man overboard starboard (port) side."
Throw out life rings with torches attached.
Word will be passed from bridge "man overboard." Rig out bow planes. Men on deck with life jackets.
Men will stand by on deck with heaving lines and boat hooks. A good swimmer should be designated to stand by to go after man if he cannot assist himself.
Quartermaster and lookouts keep continuous watch on man and life buoys.
Ship will be handled by conning officer either by backing or circling to put bow planes near man in water. The bow planes can then be used as a working platform close to water. Men going out on planes should have lines attached to them.
QUALIFICATION FOR SUBMARINES
The following is a ship's order on an S-class submarine regarding submarine qualification. On the completion of the course at the submarine school, each student should be prepared to answer all general questions as listed below. Keep your school notebook, for it will be of great value to you when you join your first submarine whether it is an O, R, S or newer type boat.
Questions are given here as a study guide.
All men attached to this vessel, not previously qualified for submarine torpedo boat work will be examined as hereinafter prescribed, after completing the required preliminary period of six (6) months' service in submarines.
All unqualified men shall, during the preliminary period, prepare a notebook for submission to the examining officer at the time of examination. This notebook shall cover the entire installation in detail and shall include the care and operation of all important machinery, as well as the duties of his department and the ship as a whole. It will be made up in accordance with instructions furnished by the Executive Officer.
The candidate will be examined on the following points in addition to this notebook:
Familiarity with name, function and location of all valves and pipe lines.
Familiarity with Watch, Quarter and Station Bill, Ship's Orders, Safety Orders.
Operation of safety and salvage gear and proper procedure in case of casualty or accident.
Knowledge of care, operation and preservation of all machinery, appliances and equipment which may be assigned to him by virtue of the rate he holds.
Upon successfully completing the examination by the Examining Officer, the candidate shall be recommended for qualification to the Commanding Officer, who, if satisfied that his record and conduct warrant it, will act upon the recommendation and direct the men be qualified.
No man attached to this vessel, having completed six months' duty in submarines, will be recommended for advancement in rating unless qualified for submarine work.
Continued failure by any man to qualify, will result in his transfer to general service.
This order is designed to produce capable and competent submarine men. It often happens that the safety of the vessel and the entire crew is in the hands of a single man. His knowledge and training, his ability to act quickly and correctly are the sole protection standing between safety and disaster. The training for and qualification of men for submarine work is not a task that can be undertaken lightly. It is of the gravest importance, as the penalty for the improper performance of duty is the loss of human lives. For these reasons the examination for qualification is not a routine matter but a searching test to determine the individual's ability to meet the standards and responsibility required of submarine men. The retention of men unable to meet this standard in submarines is a menace to the safety and efficiency of the vessel concerned. They will not be retained in this vessel.
Longitudinal section of hull showing the location of all tanks, bulkheads and openings in hull.
Trimming line with all connections.
Main drain with all connections.
Diagram of high pressure line.
Diagram of low pressure air line.
Diagram of salvage air line.
Air manifolds (high and low pressure.)
Emergency air line.
100 pound air line.
Ship's ventilation system.
Battery ventilation system.
General information and dimensions.
Displacement, surface and submerged.
Length over all.
Draft (in diving trim.)
Speed, surface and submerged.
Horsepower, engines and main motors.
Capacities of tanks in tons, (main and variable.)
Capacities of fuel oil tanks in gallons.
Capacities of gravity tanks in gallons.
Capacities of main lubricating oil tanks in gallons.
Capacity of lubricating oil sump tank in gallons.
Give location of all tanks and test pressure of each.
Give test pressure of compartments and conning tower.
Give external test pressure applied to hull.
Give test pressure of air banks and H.P. piping.
Give number, location, and capacity in cubic feet of each air bank.
What must be condition of air banks in the boat when diving?
What is the volume tank? How is it drained and how often?
What is the purpose of the air salvage line and how is it used?
Describe and give the purpose of the following valves:
High pressure reducing valves; low pressure reducing valves.
How is the pneumatic head operated? Name all the valves.
What is the purpose of the emergency air line and where are the openings located?
Name valves operated to flood from sea the following tanks: Nos. 1 and 2 main ballast tanks. Auxiliary and Regulator tanks. Forward and After Trimming Tanks. Main drain.
Name the valves operated to pump the above tanks to sea with main pumps (high pressure and L.P.P.)
Name the valves operated to pump the above tanks with trim pump.
Name the valves operated to blow these tanks from the low pressure air manifold.
What is the purpose of the main drain? Where does it begin and end?
What is the purpose of the regulator tank?
What tanks are always full when submerged?
How pump water from forward trimming tank to after trimming tank? Name valves operated.
How pump water from regulator tank to auxiliary tank?
Give precautions to take in blowing or pumping a ballast tank.
What precautions for men at kingston in blowing partially filled tanks?
Give name, location, capacities, test pressure and purpose of each salt water tank.
Where are the inboard and outboard vents on main ballast tanks located? Give precautions in operating these vents.
From what line does the air for blowing tanks come?
Name all valves on air manifold. On trimming manifold.
How are fresh water tanks filled? Name valves opened to fill regulator tank with fresh water.
In going from the light condition to the submerged condition, what is the least stable conditions of the boat?
How is the boat secured upon order "rig for diving?" Give duties at each station.
Torpedo tubes: Material and dimensions? Test pressure? How drained? Enumerate valves operated; precautions. How blown? Enumerate valves operated. How operated? Enumerate valves operated. Get one tube ready for firing. What safety devices are installed? How many firing stations? What and where are the impulse tanks? Give test pressure. What normal firing pressure is used in impulse tanks? In tubes?
Give weights of anchors, length and size of chains or cables.
How weigh anchor by hand, no power available?
What precautions should be taken in anchoring? In weighing anchor?
Give method of letting go submerged anchor. Deck anchor?
What is the duty section? What are their duties? Who is in charge?
What are the duties of the submarine anchor watch?
How often shall he inspect below decks and for what?
Why is inattention or neglect of duty by the anchor watch a very serious offense? Name two submarines that sank due to neglect of duty by the anchor watch?
Why is it important that no man on board a submarine operate or dismantle any apparatus with which he is not fully familiar and qualified to handle? Name one submarine that was completely disabled through failure to obey this rule?
What is the purpose of partial bulkheads in the boat? What is the purpose of complete bulkheads?
How shift from electric to hand steering gear? How shift from electric to hand diving gear?
Give number, location and capacity in cubic feet of each oxygen bottle? Give formula for amount of oxygen to be used and when?
Give the standard orders and procedure for the following emergencies: Man overboard. Collision. Chlorine gas submerged; on the surface. Abandon ship (1) surface (2) submerged (a) through escape hatch (b) through deck hatch. Failure of battery ventilation during charge. Battery explosion. Battery fire. Electric steering gear failure. Bow planes jammed at hard dive while running at high speed submerged. Conning-tower knocked off or holed by shot. Volume tank blows up. Hatch lifts, or develops bad leak.
High pressure air lead to air banks rupture. Bad leak in hull from depth charge; from shot hole. While at anchor, submarine takes list or increases draft.
How is the presence of chlorine gas discovered? Hydrogen? Lack of oxygen?
What causes battery explosions? How can you tell if there is a complete circulation of air in a battery compartment.
What precautions should be taken when using a fire extinguisher at any time? How should you extinguish an electrical fire.
When are lungs stowed? Describe the use of the lung in escaping from a sunken submarine.
What are the other uses of the lung? Describe the operation of the lung for each.
Give names of each U. S. Submarine lost while in submerged condition and the probable cause of each casualty. Same for submarine lost from the surface.
Describe the operation of the bow planes, stern planes and vertical rudder. How are they lubricated and how often?
How is the towing pendant secured? How released?
What type of submerged signaling is used on submarines?
What it title "B" equipage? How is it accounted for? What are the duties of the custodian of any article of the ship's equipment?
The work to be accomplished in the Basic Submarine Course is as follows:
(1) Sketch a longitudinal section of an S-boat hull indicating the location of all compartments, bulkheads, ballast tanks, variable tanks, fuel tanks, air flasks and general arrangement.
(2) Sketch the head and all lines and valves used in blowing same.
B. Write the questions and answers to the following:
(1) Into how many compartments is a submarine divided? List all the important gear in each.
(2) What is the pressure hull?
(3) What pressure is the pressure hull built to withstand?
(4) What pressure are the bulkheads between compartments built to ,withstand?
(5) Describe the keel of the boat.
(6) Which hatches are fitted with escape appliances?
(7) What are and where are the rubbing strakes or fenders?
(8) What are rolling chocks?
(9) What are the stub masts, what purpose do they serve?
(10) Describe how the underwater body of the hull is protected from rust and corrosion?
(11) What is the purpose of zincs placed at various places on the underwater body of the hull? Name several places where they are located.
(12) What is the thickness of the pressure hull?
(13) Where is the submerged anchor hawse pipe?
(14) Name the purpose of the anchor motor in the torpedo room.
(15) Describe the manner in which the submerged anchor cable is housed? Deck anchor chain?
(16) How to tell how much cable is out (1) deck anchor, (2) submerged anchor?
(17) What is the purpose of the pawl (1) on the deck anchor wildcat, (2) on the submerged anchor drum?
(18) What is meant by the term "periscope shears"?
(19) What is meant by the term "conning tower shears"?
(20) How shift to hand control on bow and stern planes?
(21) Explain why the compartment doors from the control room back to the engine room must be kept open while the main engines are running.
(1) Make a sketch of the pressure hull of an S-boat look-down on the top, showing all gear on the pressure hull, hatches and all hull openings.
(2) Make a cross section sketch of No. 1 main ballast tank, showing raisers, equalizers, vent and stop valves, kingstons and drain valves and main drain, naming all parts.
B. Write the questions and answers to the following:
(1) In what compartment are emergency rations and water stored?
(2) Why is it necessary to see all deck lockers and all gear stored in the superstructure well secured when going to sea?
(3) Give a brief description of the main machinery of an S-boat.
(4) What is the horse power of each engine? Each motor?
(5) What is the purpose of the tail clutch?
(6) What is the purpose of the engine clutch?
(7) What is a stern tube bearing?
(8) Describe how you would drop (1) the deck anchor, (2) the submerged anchor?
(9) Describe how you would back out the deck anchor?
(10) Describe how you would pick up (1) the deck anchor, (2) the submerged anchor?
(11) In event you are required to steer by hand for a long period, what may be done to make the steering easier?
(12) Prior to starting up any machinery what must be done?
(13) What precautions must be taken prior to allowing a man to enter one of the variable ballast tanks?
(14) What precautions must be taken in fighting a fire in a confined space?
(15) What bad effects may result from using water to extinguish electric fires?
(16) In event of fire in a compartment containing explosives, what shall be done to protect these explosives?
(17) To what pressure are the following tanks tested:main ballast, auxiliary, regulator, forward and after trim, fuel and lub, main drain, torpedo tubes, battery water tanks and volume tanks?
(18) Describe how you would test the torpedo room for tightness?
(19) Describe how you would test forward trim for strength?
(20) What is the purpose of the main drain?
(21) Describe the main drain. What pumps may be connected to it and how?
(22) List the connections which all tanks must have.
(23) In what units are the tank water gauges calibrated? What type of gauge is used?
(24) Why is auxiliary tank fitted with both a kingston and a stop?
(25) How does auxiliary kingston differ from those of the main ballast tanks?
(26) What feature of construction of the main ballast tanks enables the kingston valves to be all located under the control room?
(27) What is the purpose of the drain valves of the ballast and auxiliary tanks?
(1) Sketch the entire trim line and main drain of an S-boat, showing all connections, valves, pump and manifold.
B. Write questions and answers to the following:
(1) Describe the H.P., L.P. and trim pumps. State their purposes and capacities.
(2) Describe how to start and stop the trim pump.
(3) What is the purpose of the trim line?
(4) Describe how to use the water manifold in the control room. What are the main things to remember in its operation?
(5) Name all the trim line connections in each compartment.
(6) Describe exactly how you would pump from auxiliary to sea with trim pump.
(7) Same-forward trim to after trim.
(8) Same-Auxiliary to F.T.T.
(9) Same-regular or to auxiliary.
(10) Describe how and with what pump you would pump torpedo tubes. You must handle all valves, etc., in all compartments by yourself.
(11) Same-No. 1 main ballast tank to sea.
(12) Same-auxiliary to sea (do not use trim pump.)
(13) Same-engine room bilges to sea.
(14) Describe exactly how to put H.P. pump on main drain.
(15) Same-with L.P. pump.
(16) How flood the magazine when so ordered?
(17) On rig for diving, how is main drain flooded?
(18) While down on a dive, how vent main drain (not from motor room)?
(19) Are any drains provided in the trim line? If so, why?
(20) How put F.T.T. on the trim line?
(21) On surfacing, describe exactly how the pumps, kingstons, drains and vents of the main ballast tanks are operated.
(22) Describe how you may flood the auxiliary tank via the kingstons on No. 1 main ballast tank. (You are on a dive at the time.)
(23) Regulator tank is completely secured with 600 lbs. of water in it. You are ordered to blow it to sea. State exactly how you would do it.
(1) Sketch entire main and auxiliary induction lines, showing all openings and drains.
(2) Sketch entire battery ventilation system, showing path and direction of air through one cell.
B. Write questions and answers to the following:
(1) How rig the torpedo room and motor room hatch skirts for abandon ship submerged?
(2) What is the purpose of the shafting running from rudder quadrant forward to control room?
(3) What are the three ventilation systems?
(4) To what pressure is the main induction tested for strength?
(5) What is the purpose of circulating air through the main induction while submerged?
(6) You are ordered to circulate air through the main induction from torpedo room to motor room. Describe exactly what you would do?
(7) Where are the drains for the main induction located?
(8) Why are the flappers in main induction outlets fitted with dogs?
(9) Are the blowers in the main induction outlets in motor and torpedo rooms capable of being reversed?
(10) Should the drains in the main induction line be left open or closed during a dive?
(11) On the order "rig for diving" what is done with main induction line flappers?
(12) At just what part of the dive is the main induction valve closed? Explain your answer.
(13) Describe the battery ventilation system.
(14) What is the purpose of the battery ventilation?
(15) Describe the flow of air of the battery ventilation from the time it enters the suction pipe until it passes overboard.
(16) Describe how the battery well is made water-tight.
(17) How may the battery well be made dry if water should get into it?
(18) Describe just what you would do if directed to "ventilate outboard". "Ventilate inboard." "Ventilate into after battery."
(19) Where are the drains for the battery ventilation line located? What are the purposes of the drains? Where do they drain?
(20) Are the battery ventilation line drains left open or closed on a dive? Explain your answer.
(21) Describe how you would stop the battery blowers in event of chlorine?
(22) Describe how you would seal up battery tank in event of chlorine.
(23) To what pressure is the battery ventilation line tested?
(24) Describe the valve used for the main induction and the battery overboard discharge valves.
(25) Regarding hydrogen: (1) describe it, (2) when is it generated, (3) why is it dangerous, (4) how detect its presence?
(26) Regarding chlorine: (1) describe it, (2) how is it formed, (3) why is it dangerous, (4) how detect its presence?
(27) How is chlorine formed in a submarine?
(28) You are an electrician conducting a battery charge, upon
inspecting the blower you find that one of them has stopped. What do?
(29) Why must naked lights, cigarettes, etc., never be placed near the battery exhausts?
(30) What are the three major speed changes of which the electrical power plant is capable?
(31) How may the speed of the motors be varied?
(32) What is meant by "normal parallel," "normal series" and "half-switch combination"?
(1) Sketch the entire pressure air system, showing compressors, banks, manifolds and connections.
Sketch entire 100 lb. line, showing all connections.
B. Write the questions and answers to the following:
(1) How many air bottles are provided and into how many banks are they divided? Where are the flasks located?
(2) What is the purpose of the 100 lb. by-pass?
(3) What is the purpose of the volume tank?
(4) How are air bottles and the volume tank cleared of any accumulated moisture?
(5) Make a list of the 100 lb. air line connections in each compartment.
(6) What is the purpose of the emergency air outlet in some compartments? In what compartments are they located and from what line do they lead? How distinguished at a quick glance?
(7) To what pressures are the various air lines tested?
(8) To what pressures are the air bottles tested? The volume tank?
(9) Where are the outside charging connections located? Into what line do they connect?
(10) You are directed to charge No. 1, No. 2 and No. 5 on the manifold. No. 1 has 2500 lbs. pressure, No. 2 1800 lbs. pressure and No. 5 1200 lbs. pressure. Describe exactly what you would do.
(11) You are directed to charge No. 1 bank with the port air compressor via the starboard charging line. Describe exactly
how to do this naming all valves. A line sketch may be made if desired.
(12) You believe the gauge of No. 4 bank is not calibrated properly. What can you do to check it?
(13) What is the purpose of the blow lines to the strainers of the sea valves?
(14) Describe how the air compressors are driven by the main shaft.
(15) You are stationed on the air manifold during a dive. The 100 lb. reducer is out of order. State what you would do when ordered to blow No. 1 main ballast.
(16) State exactly how you would blow from forward trim to No. 3 torpedo tube.
(17) Explain why a partially filled tank shall never be blown to sea while submerged.
(1) Sketch entire fuel and lubricating oil system.
B. Write the questions and answers to the following:
(1) How many fuel oil tanks are installed? Give the location of each.
(2) To what pressure are these tanks tested individually and as groups?
(3) What are the tanks not tested to same pressure as ballast tanks?
(4) By what means may the fuel oil be forced to the gravity tank?
(5) How tell whether or not tank is full of water and fuel or full of water?
(6) Is it possible to determine amount of fuel in tank by -sounding?
(7) What is the purpose of two gravity tanks in the fuel system?
(8) Describe exactly how you would fuel the forward fuel group.
(9) Describe exactly how you would blow the after fuel group dry.
(10) May No. 2 and 3 main ballast be used as reserve fuel tanks? Discuss.
(11) What is the purpose of the sump tank?
(12) Where is the main lubricating oil tank located? Is it a structural tank?
(13) In event it is desired to carry more lub. oil than sump and main lub. tank can hold, how may it be done?
(14) What bad effect would salt water have if mixed with lub. oil?
(15) How rid lub. oil of impurities which may be present?
(16) Describe how you would get lub. oil from No. 5 fuel tank to sump tank.
(17) Describe provision made to cool the lub. oil after passing from engines.
(18) To what pressure is main lub. oil tank tested?
(19) While submerged, discuss what deficiencies occur in the air and what is done to remedy them.
(20) Describe what you would do to get rid of the CO2 generated during a long dive.