When standing or running rigging carries away, prompt action must be taken to prevent further mischief.
In choosing the remedy, select that which is most likely to save endangered spars, even at the risk of lost or split canvas.
Carrying away weather braces will generally occur at the first burst of a squall, on a wind, nearly all the reefs out and, consequently, no preventer braces aloft. The yard or parrel will be the next thing to go, for the yard flies fore-and-aft at once. Left in that position it will either carry away in the slings or part the parrel and endanger the lee rigging and fore-and-aft stay.
Luff then, first of all, to check the forward movement of the yard; next ease the lee topsail sheet; haul up the course to admit of bracing aback. Then, with the remaining weather brace and lee top bowline, back the topsail and clew down to take the strain off the lee rigging, or lower stay in the case of a lower yard.
Having eased the lee topsail sheet, and hauled up the course, the ship may bear up to repair damages if preferred. But do not bear up before this, for, as the wind came abeam, it would act with still greater force on the sails and consequently make it still more dangerous for the spars.
In substituting new running rigging for old, when the run of the lead is not lost, the ends are spliced or married together, and as one is unrove the other enters its place, otherwise men must be sent aloft to reeve it.
BY THE WIND, WEATHER MAIN BRACE PARTS.
Luff! EASE OFF MAIN SHEET AND LEE MAIN TOPSAIL SHEET! Weather main clew-garnet! Let go the tack, HAUL UP! Weather topsail brace, topsail clewlines and buntlines! Clear away the main top bowline! settle away the topsail halliards, BRACE ABACK! HAUL OUT THE REEF TACKLES, HAUL UP THE BUNTLINES! HAUL FORWARD THE LEE MAIN TOP BO'LINE! Easing away the lee main brace, and hauling up the lee main clew-garnet. This, by throwing the main
topsail aback, would steady the main yard sufficiently to allow hands to lay out with whips for the preventer braces. If the brace has not unrove through the block on the yard, a hand may secure the end to its own part, so that it may be hauled taut on deck.
Should it be blowing too hard to risk backing the main topsail, take in mainsail, clew down main topsail, and haul up the weather clew. Haul the lee reef tackle well taut, and lee main top bowline.
When a brace parts, the yard is first in danger and then the mast; therefore it is necessary to relieve the yard of the sails immediately.
If this accident occurs forward, Mind your weather helm! and after reducing sail, leave the fore yard sharp up to steady it.
BY THE WIND, WEATHER MAIN TOPSAIL BRACE PARTS.
Luff! Check the lee topsail sheet! Weather main brace! Main clew-garnets and buntlines! UP MAINSAIL! BRACE ABACK! Settle away the topsail halliards! CLEW DOWN! HAUL OUT THE REEF TACKLES, HAUL UP THE BUNTLINES! Square the main yard, and haul taut the lee main-top bowline. The ship is now "hove to," with the main topsail to the mast.
If not possible to get the topsail aback, clew down and haul up the weather clewline.
With the wind quartering, if the weather main-topsail brace goes, Hard up! brace in, up mainsail (lee clew), and clew down as before, easing off lee main-topsail sheet as necessary.
WEATHER REEF TACKLE CARRIED AWAY.
This occurs generally while reefing, in consequence of undue strain produced by want of skill in not placing the yard so that the wind will nearly be thrown out of the sail. The men should be ordered in off the yard instantly; the weather clewline, and as much as can be got of the buntlines hauled up, and enough of the sheet clewed up to admit of bracing the weather arm aback or nearly so; the men may then venture out, and pass a sea-gasket working from the arm inward, until the reef-cringle is reached, when the tackle can be rove afresh. Starting gear with men on the yards is one of those fearful blunders which always inspire topmen with such distrust of the officer who commits them, that they never work well aloft in his watch on deck.
WEATHER TOPSAIL SHEET AND CLEWLINE CARRIED
When this happens on a wind, the clew flies forward and may be steadied by the bowline. Relieve the yard by checking a couple of fathoms of the lee sheet. The lee clew, buntlines, and reef-tackles must then be hauled up, the yard lowered and squared, the bowline being eased away as the sail comes aback; when so it will lie quiet, and the bowline may be sent with a hauling line from the foretop into the main, rove before the sail through a leading block on the topmast, and the leech thus hauled in along the yard, so that the sail may be handed if needful, and new gear rove; an attempt to "hand the leech in" before lowering, clewing up and squaring, would not only be useless but dangerous.
If the course is not set, check lee sheet as above, round in weather lower and topsail braces, lower and throw the sail aback, easing away the bowline.
LEE TOPSAIL SHEET CARRIED AWAY.
A not unfrequent occurrence when the course is taken in, in a fresh breeze, without hauling taut the lee lower lift.
Haul in the weather brace, settle the halliards, clew down and get the sail aback. When on the cap, haul up the weather clewline, then the lee one.
FORE OR MAIN TACK GONE.
Ease off handsomely the sheet, man the weather gear and lee buntlines; up the weather clew as soon as possible, then the lee one. Do not luff until the gear is well manned, as the spar is not in danger, and it is quite possible to get the sail under control with the means described, while avoiding the risk of splitting it.
MAIN TACK AND CLEW-GARNET GONE.
Check main sheet to ease the yard. The danger of the sail being split will depend much on the position of the mainstay. In many ships it would bring the tack up, so that it could be steadied by the weather sheet, and a new tack rove; if not, the topsail would have to be clewed up, and then the course, the main yard squared, and the weather sheet gathered in at the same time; or, circumstances permitting, bear up and haul weather, sheet aft.
FORE OR MAIN SHEET GONE.
Keep away until the wind is abaft the beam, steadying the clew with the lee tack. Haul up the sail when free, and reeve off a new sheet.
TOPSAIL BRACE AND PARREL CARRIED AWAY.
In a strong breeze, where the yard is nipped by the lee rigging so that it cannot be got down by the clewlines, send an anchor strap aloft, pass it around both tyes and the top mast, hook the upper block of the top burton into both bights of the strap, lower block and fall sent on deck abaft the top and taken well aft. Haul down on the clewlines and burton, easing away the halliards until the yard is on the cap; clap on the new parrel; lash the yard by the quarters to the topmast rigging, and then repair the braces.
When this accident occurs under low sail, the yard would fly so far forward as to suggest considerable danger to it and the mast from the force with which the yard would fly aft, if the sail were thrown aback by squaring the main yard. This latter mode is, however, recommended by some of the best seamen, who, having tried it successfully, are best able to judge of its merits.
If the wind is aft, clew up, hoist the yard close up to the gin-blocks and haul the lifts taut. This will keep it steady until the strap is passed round the tyes.
TOPGALLANT BRACE AND PARREL GONE.
Luff, let go the lee topgallant sheet to spill the sail, brace by the lower and topsail yard.
When the topgallant sail catches aback, haul home the lee sheet again to steady the sail, then let go the halliards and haul down on both clewlines. When the yard is down, secure the slings to the mast and clew up. If the yard is unsteady, haul taut the lee brace to bind the yard against the lee rigging. Brace up the lower and topsail yard, and repair the damage to the brace and parrel.
BOBSTAYS CARRIED AWAY.
In 1881 the U.S.S. Constitution carried away the iron straps of her bobstay hearts in a gale off the Capes of the Chesapeake. The fore topgallant mast was sent on deck, pendant tackles hooked from the foremast to bolts in. the deck well forward, and top burtons from the fore and
main topmast heads set up for fore and aft support. It was deemed unsafe to strike the fore topmast on account of the heavy sea and motion of the vessel; but the amount of sail forward was reduced as much as possible (fore storm staysail and fore trysail).
A short length of stream chain was taken well out on the bowsprit and several turns taken with it, with stout cleats abaft to prevent slipping. The ends of this chain (crossed) were shackled into a large link, hung under the bowsprit, thus forming a strap. The link also received ends of the stream chain passed out through the sheet hawse pipes. The inboard ends of the chains were hove taut with deck tackles on the gundeck.
Double straps of wire rope were fitted for the bobstay hearts, long enough to go around and lash on the upper side of the bowsprit, and were cleated on the sides and top of the same. With these the bobstays were then set up. Wire rope was used for the straps, as it fitted in the scores of the hearts without altering them.
When temporary staying from sheet hawse holes would fail to give efficient support, it has been proposed to use a hawser from the bowsprit cap to a chain passed under the keel, setting up the hawser inboard. Having taken all unnecessary strain from the bowsprit, get up as much of the stream chain as may be required to reach under the ship from a port abaft the fore rigging to the corresponding one on the opposite side. Pass one end of the chain out under the bowsprit clear of all. To the middle of the chain secure one end of a hawser rove through a viol block at the bowsprit cap, the hauling end of the hawser being inboard. When ready, ease the bight of chain down under the bows and set up the ends through the proper ports, the bight being under the keel. Then clap a tackle on the hawser and set it up as a temporary jumper until the bobstays are repaired.
JIB STAY CARRIED AWAY.
The jib would probably split. If not, check the sheet enough to spill the sail; bear up, and when the sail is becalmed haul it in, hoisting the fore topmast staysail.
Replace the jib stay temporarily by the top burton, which should in all cases be long enough to form a spring stay in case of accident.
TOPMAST STAY CARRIED AWAY.
Keep the ship away, shorten sail, overhaul down, hook and haul taut the top burton, and replace the stay with a hawser.
JIB SHEET CARRIED AWAY.
Steady the sail with the weather sheet. Mind your weather helm! haul down the jib; ease off the spanker sheet, and clear away and hoist the fore topmast staysail.
TILLER-ROPE CARRIED AWAY.
When this occurs, it may be assumed to be blowing fresh. The first thing to be done, therefore, is to steady the rudder, which, in a seaway, would fly from side to side with great violence. The quickest way of doing so will be by means of the remaining rope; and, as the chances are that the weather wheel-rope will be the one to go, jamb the helm down, shorten sail, and heave to with the head yards abox, if you do not want to come round. Otherwise, if there is a ship close astern of you, for instance, haul the mainsail up, and square the main yard in stays. Should the lee rope go, put the helm up, heave to on the other tack, and shorten sail as soon as possible. If unsafe, from the position of the ship, to do either, man the head sheets and cross-jack braces, and steer the ship by the sails. In moderate weather, the relieving-tackles will probably be hooked before it will be necessary to touch anything. In all cases, send hands down to hook and work them, and reeve new wheel-ropes.
The senior class of midshipmen on board the practice ships are recommended to prepare themselves for working ship without the assistance of the helm.
JIB DOWNHAUL CARRIED AWAY.
This would probably occur in taking in the jib to a squall. Check the jib-sheet to relieve the stay, hoist the sail again and steady the sheet enough to keep the sail from flapping.
Send the downhaul aloft by a hauling line, make a bowline knot with it between the halliards and stay, and haul down.
If topgallant bowlines are fitted, knot them together between the stay and halliards, and haul down.
BY THE WIND, TOPSAIL PARREL CARRIES AWAY.
Luff to, man the weather braces, and brace the yard aback; haul up the mainsail; clew down the topsail, and
hook a tackle to the burton straps on each side from the top, to steady the yard. See that the braces bear an equal strain. Fit a temporary parrel with a pair of slings and make sail again.
Clew up the sail if thought necessary; otherwise, haul out the reef-tackles and up the buntlines.
If the mizzen topsail parrel goes, the ship must be luffed so as to catch the sail aback before touching the lee braces. Let a hand take aloft a pair of barrel slings, and passing the bight round the tye, toggle both parts abaft the mast; shove the bight down over the tye-block (if there is one on the yard), and lower the sail. Be careful to put the barrel slings below the traveler of the main topsail brace.
If before the wind, haul taut the topsail lifts; clew up the sail if blowing fresh, and hoist the yard chock up. Either fit a temporary parrel, as with the mizzen topsail, before lowering; or, if in a large ship, use the anchor strap and top burton, as already described. Snatch as far aft as possible, and walk away as the halliards are lowered. Lash the yard to the topmast rigging.
In a case of this kind, the officer of the deck must first relieve the yard with the means at his immediate command, such as bracing aback or clewing up; afterwards, the safety of the yard will depend upon the activity of the watch in getting up other appliances.
Spars are lost too often by the time lost in considering "what's best to be done." One of the essentials in seamanship is to be always ready.
LOWER OR TOPSAIL LIFT PARTS.
Overhaul down the burton, and hook it to the burton-strap. Haul taut and reeve new lift. Topsail lifts are only hauled taut after the second or third reefs.
THE TRUSS IS CARRIED AWAY.
Say the main-take in mainsail and main topsail. Hook and haul taut rolling tackles; send aloft the end of a hawser, take several turns round the mast and slings and haul it taut.
If by the wind, the main topsail may be clewed down and braced aback, hauling out the reef-tackles, &c., &c.
A couple of stout burtons from the mizzen pennants, hooked to straps on the main yard just outside of the slings, would answer every purpose while repairing the truss.
FUTTOCK BAND ON THE MAINMAST CARRIES AWAY.
This endangers the topmast, as the topmast shrouds have ceased to support it. Wear ship, if possible; if not, clew down the topsail; and if breast-backstays are carried, these, with the addition of the burtons, will support the mast while repairing the damage. If blowing hard, or if no breast-backstays are carried, send a hawser up to the masthead, take the end round and pay down on deck. Clap luffs on both ends and set up; frap both parts of the hawser together below the cross-trees.
If unable to repair the band, either fit a rope one, or bring together all the futtock shrouds that require securing, shackle them to a spare anchor shackle, and set them up with a couple of pendant tackles hooked at the partners; then frap them into the mast aloft, wedging the frapping to tauten it, and cleating below to prevent slipping. Or if unable to frap aloft, hook the pendant tackles to bolts in the water-ways on opposite sides; the starboard one, for example, being hooked in the port water-way.
NOTE. In all cases of carrying away the weather standing rigging, go round on the other tack if possible.
LOWER STAY CARRIED AWAY.
Run before the wind, send aloft and hook the pendant tackles; hook them well forward and haul them taut. Use the stream cable, if hemp, in fitting new stays, otherwise a large hawser. If the fore stay, shorten sail to take the strain of the main topmast off the foremast.
WEATHER LOWER SHROUDS CARRIED AWAY.
Wear ship, or take all sail off the mast. Then secure it with the pendant tackles and stream cable or largest hawser.
THE GAMMONING IS CARRIED AWAY.
Run before the wind, haul down the head sails. Hook the fore pendant tackles and set them up well forward-say to straps round the cat-heads, or to the heavy ring-bolts generally placed near the knight-heads. Come up the head stays; bring the fore topmast and jib-stays in at the hawse-holes, and set them up. Set the main topmast stays up on deck, and house the main topgallant mast. Send down the fore topgallant mast, unbend head sails, and rig in the-head booms.
Pass the end of the stream cable out of one hawse-hole, over the bowsprit, and in at the other. Put a heavy cleat on the bowsprit to prevent slipping. Belay one end of the stream cable to the bitts, take the other to the capstan and heave it well taut. New straps would be fitted at the earliest opportunity; or, in the absence of these, a rope or chain-gammoning could be passed around the bowsprit and through a suitable hole cut through the stem head above the cheek knees. If the fid to which the gammoning sets up is still standing, pass the lashing around each end of the fid and over the bowsprit.
BOWSPRIT SHROUD CARRIED AWAY.
Go on the other tack if possible; not, haul down the head sails, and keep away. Secure the bowsprit by hooking a stout tackle from the bows to a strap round the bowsprit, and fit a new shroud or repair the old one.
SLACK LOWER RIGGING AT SEA.
It is sometimes necessary to set up the lower rigging at sea. If by the wind, and nothing to prevent going about, set up the lee rigging; tack or wear ship, and set up the other side. If the stay requires a pull, it must be first set up.
It may be, however, that the vessel is rolling heavily and no wind to steady her. In this case, measure the distance from dead-eye to dead-eye, decide on the quantity necessary to take down on each shroud, and cut the measuring battens accordingly. Take one mast at a time and get up at least eight luffs-four of a side-and put them on the four forward shrouds. Hook four pendant tackles-two on each side; have straps, &c., ready; brace in the lower yard and furl all the sail on the mast on which you are at work. Send the topgallant masts on deck.
Set up two shrouds (one pair) on each side at a time, keeping them adrift as short a time as possible. Shift the luffs from the first to the third pair of shrouds, while setting up the second pair.
Never come up all your lower rigging at sea, no matter how smooth the water nor how light the wind.
SCUDDING IN A HEAVY GALE.
SWIFTERING IN LOWER RIGGING.
On the passage out to China, the "Minnesota" encountered a typhoon of unusual violence, in the Indian Ocean.
For about eight hours it was not only impossible to carry sail, but the men could hardly be induced to show their heads above the rail.
The standing rigging, which was of Kentucky hemp, had always given much trouble by stretching; and the mainmast, which was stepped upon a beam over the shaft, had been evidently settling in its step.
These defects combined with the violence of the gale and rolling of the ship to render the position of the mast a very insecure one, and the officers finally became fearful, at every lee lurch, that the mast would go over the side.
The order was accordingly given to swifter in the weather main rigging. A piece of a broken topmast studding-sail boom was got up and lashed outside the rigging, about six feet above the rail. Another spar was placed outside the opposite spar-deck ports, and a heavy hawser pointed up from below, and the end taken alternately around the spar in the rigging and the spar outside the ports, until five or six turns had been taken, when each part was hove taut in succession, and frapped to the next one with selvagees.
On arriving in Hong-Kong, the dead-eyes were turned out, and the rigging refitted, when it was found that the main rigging had stretched down two inches in circumference.
CARRYING AWAY MASTS AND SPARS.
ACCIDENTS to the lower masts and larger spars are fortunately of rare occurrence in the navy, owing to the care with which vessels of war are fitted out, and the very liberal allowance made for each in everything necessary to their equipment.
But it is probable that ships would be still more effectually prepared to resist the severest trials, if they were, in all cases, fitted out under the immediate supervision of the officer who is to command during the cruise, the first lieutenant who is to he the executive officer, and all the officers and crew who are to serve in them.
The good state of the rigging will not be the only advantage attendant upon this; a thorough knowledge of her state, and intimate acquaintance with her resources, would enable each and every one to bring them to bear when necessary.
Light yards and masts are occasionally carried away or sprung in a fresh breeze but smooth sea-topgallant masts by not having their backstays well set up, and yards by not having their weather braces sufficiently taut when braced up. Topsail and topgallant yards are also sometimes carried away by not letting go the lee brace in tacking ship, in a good swing of the after yards, when the lee brace not being properly attended to, neither the strength of the yard or brace can resist the force with which they are impelled; and if the brace holds, the yard must be carried away in the slings.
Another cause for carrying away topgallant yards may be found in the neglect to take off the lift-jigger after the topgallant studding-sail is taken in, when attempting to clew down the yard with the jigger fast in the top.
No explicit rule can be given for sending down broken spars. The first thing to be attended to is their being steadied and prevented from falling on deck or tearing the sails; then sling and guy them clear and send them down.
If the screw is in motion, guard against fouling it by the wreck.
BOWSPRIT CARRIED AWAY OR SPRUNG.
All the masts forward are deprived of the support of their stays, and there is imminent risk of losing the three topmasts (with their topgallant masts), in consequence of an accident to the bowsprit.
Should the wreck be in the water under the bows, you have no alternative, but must heave to and get clear of it. Should the wreck hang by the stays, &c., clear of the water, and you can control it in any way to prevent it from thumping a hole in the bows, get before the wind until the masts are secured, and then heave to as before.
With the Wreck in the Water. Heave to at once under the shortest possible sail, as trysails and spanker.
Clear. away the wreck, and if a kedge with a hawser bent to it can be dropped on the debris so as to hang, thus converting it into a sea anchor, the ship may ride to leeward of it under low canvas, and save most of the wreck when the weather moderates.
Proceed meanwhile to secure the spars still standing; send down the topgallant masts, house the fore topmast, secure the foremast with a hawser middled and clove-hitched around the mast-head, and set up at the knight-heads or through the hawse-holes on the main deck. Clove-hitch in like manner another hawser around the fore topmast-head, and set up the ends as far forward as possible. Bring the main topmast stays down to the deck and set up.
With the Wreck hanging Clear of the Water, try to get it under temporary control with tackles hooked to straps around the lower part of the foremast, smaller purchases from the cat-head, the fish-boom and tackle, &c.
If these means will keep the wreck up clear of the bows, put the ship before the wind until the masts are secured. The strain on the masts when before the wind is taken off the fore and aft stays, and you thus get a better chance of saving these spars, and when these are secured, heave to and ride by the wreck as before. Rig a jury bowsprit with the spare jib-boom or a topmast. Secure the fore topmast well and set fore topmast staysail on a stay to the jury bowsprit.
If the bowsprit is sprung, take all strain off of it. Fish the bowsprit and set up the stays again.
If very badly sprung, rig in the jib-boom until the heel rests against the stem. Place the flying-jib-boom on one side and a topmast studding-sail boom on the other, and woold all together, wedging and chocking up between. Set up the head stays again, and make what sail the spar will bear.
LOWER MAST CARRIED AWAY OR SPRUNG.
Say the foremast is carried away. Secure the main topmast if it still stands, clewing up the main topsail; and house main and mizzen topgallant masts, if still standing; the main topgallant mast and main topmast, however, would probably go. Clear away the wreck and try to bring it on the weather bow, and ride to leeward of it under storm staysails if possible. Cut the rigging clear of the head spars still standing.
If the main mast goes over the side, wear ship if possible, and bring it to windward.
When a mast goes over the side, first, get clear of the wreck; secondly, secure spars still standing, and then think. about rigging jury masts.
If a foremast is sprung, say near the hounds, take all sail off the mast, reeve the top pendants, send down fore topgallant mast, secure main topmast, and hook the fore jeers. Lower the fore yard and house the topmast until. the heel comes below the defect; hang the heel in a chain from the tressle-trees; fish the mast with side fishes, and woold round all. Wedge well the woolding; turn in the topmast rigging afresh and set it up. Sway the fore yard up as high as it will go. Set the foresail and fore topsail with as many reefs as necessary.
If sprung lower down, first take in all sail set on the mast, and relieve it from all the strain possible; and then fish it with the fishes allowed. Iron bands are furnished in the outfit large enough to take the mast and fishes. They open with a hinge, and can be quickly put on, in case of a mast being badly wounded in action, for example.
The U.S.S. "Benicia" having sprung her foremast near the hounds, fished it very neatly with a trysail mast lashed and woolded abaft the mast.
TO RIG A JURY FOREMAST.
Take the main topmast, rest its heel against the stump of the foremast, and launch its head over the knight-heads. Put on the cross-trees and bolsters; fit the rigging and stays from hawsers, or what is saved of the old rigging. Lash the heel to the stump, and cleat on either side sufficiently to prevent slipping while raising. Hook a couple of tackles to the jury mast-head and take them to the sides. Raise the mast with a tackle hooked well aft, and the main pendant-tackles, or a small pair of sheers. When up, lash the heel to the stump, and put heavy cleats before and on either side of it. Set up the rigging and head stays. Send aloft the topmast cap and topgallant mast, fit a topsail yard for a lower one; a topgallant for a topsail yard, and bend
main topsail and topgallant sail for foresail and fore topsail.
Use, if possible, the spare lower cap, fitted on the stump, to assist in holding the topmast.
Shore up the deck under the jury mast to take the downward thrust when the rigging is set up.
MAIN TOPMAST CARRIED AWAY.
Reeve the pendants through the top-blocks; secure the mizzen topgallant and royal mast; up mainsail if set; bend the lee pendant to the wreck to leeward; cut the topsail yard clear if possible and send it down, first clewing up the top sail. Send the wreck down, assisting with the main pendant-tackles and lee fore topsail halliards. Cut the laniards of the stays and rigging at once, if necessary.
Send the stump down next, and proceed to send aloft a new topmast.
If a topmast is sprung, lower it as in the case of a sprung lower mast, until the defective part comes below the lower tressle-trees, then woold as there described.
If sprung near the head, it can be fished with the topgallant mast and light fishes, &c., as before. Reef the topsail and set it.
TO SEND DOWN THE WRECK OF A TOPMAST.
A frigate in the Mediterranean, some years since, had her main topmast so shattered by lightning, that it was impossible to slack any of the rigging without the greatest danger of the mast falling, when the following plan was adopted: A light spar was attached to each side of the topmast; these spars were then lashed every three or four feet, round the spars and topmast together; when done, the mast was unfidded; two carpenters were then stationed on the lower cap to cut away the splinters, that they might not impede the lowering of the mast, and at the same time to cut the spars placed on each side of the mast, and a seaman to remove the lashings as the ends came near the cap. The mast was again lashed to a hawser in its descent, by hands stationed under the main top for that purpose; the mast was then received on deck with the greatest safety. Whereas, if the mast had been allowed to fall, much injury must have been done to the rigging, and perhaps to the ship.
TOPGALLANT MAST CARRIED AWAY.
Reeve the mast-rope through a block at the topmast-head, and send down the wreck as convenient. By hooking a snatch-block at the mast-head, and snatching the topgallant
yard rope, it may be used in sending the wreck down. If a topgallant mast is sprung, send it down and send up another.
NOTE. All sprung spars should be shifted if possible.
THE JIB-BOOM IS CARRIED AWAY.
Set the fore topmast staysail, heave to or reduce sail. If running free, bring by the wind. Send down fore topgallant mast. Get the wreck in with the top-burtons, or pendant-tackles on fore stay, assisting with staysail halliards, fore clew-jiggers or lee fore buntlines, as necessary. Gather in the jib and unbend it, as soon as possible. If the wreck cannot be hoisted on board, and is thumping under the bows, cut it away at once. Reeve heel-rope and send in the stump.
The fish-boom and tackle will be found useful in handling the wreck.
On board the Congress, a heavy tackle on the fore yard and the fore pendant tackle were used in getting in the wreck of a jib-boom.
TOPGALLANT YARD CARRIED AWAY.
Secure the unsupported inboard end to the topgallant rigging or at the cap. If the sail cannot be clewed up, the easiest way to dispose of it is as follows: Cut a few mid-ship robands, and shove down the end of the royal yard rope between the sail and the yard, carry the end up forward of the sail (by taking it out on the topsail yard and dipping it forward of the clew, if need be), and hook the end into the standing part, thus forming a sort of sail strap around the middle of the sail. Have a tripping-line to the deck, forward and to windward. Cut adrift the clewlines from the clews, cut robands and head earings, and lower on the royal yard rope, hauling on the tripping-line. When the sail gets down forward of the topsail, hands on the topsail yard-arms cut adrift the sheets.
Send down one part of the topgallant yard with the royal yard rope as soon as rounded up, and the other piece with the topgallant yard rope.
If a yard-arm hangs so low that the lift cannot be got off, lower the wreck, large end first, hauling in on the lift till the yard-arm end is nearly up-and-down, lash it then to the yard-rope, cut stops and take off the lift and brace, then lower away.
Be careful to have the tripping-lines well attended, to keep the pieces of wreck from tearing the topsail in their descent.
TOPSAIL YARD CARRIED AWAY OR SPRUNG.
Clew up and unbend the sail, send it on deck or gather it up in the top. If the yard is broken in two, send the smaller piece down with the burtons, and then with hawser from topmast-head, send down the other piece.
If the yard is sprung send it down in the usual manner. Studding-sail booms may be triced up and down topmast rigging. Fish old yard or send up spare one.
LOWER CAP SPLITS.
Take all sail off the mast; send down topgallant mast and shift the lower cap if you have a spare one; if not, pass a lashing round the topmast and lower mast-head, which wedge; afterward, woold and wedge the cap and make sail.
THE TRESTLE-TREES ARE SPRUNG.
Take all sail off the mast; send down the topgallant mast; reeve top pendants and hook top tackles. Sway up on them until all strain is off the fid, when rack and belay. Pass a lashing round the topmast and lower mast-head, and make sail.
MAIN CHAINS CARRIED AWAY.
Go round if possible. If not, take all sail off the mast, steady it with the pendant-tackles and set the shrouds up with luffs to the cradle-bolts.
Replace what chain-plates require it with spare ones, and keep them out in place with a chock of wood between them and the ship's side; then set the rigging up properly.
MAIN YARD SPRUNG.
To send it down across the nettings and fish it, proceed as follows: Unbend and send down the sail, and send the studding-sail booms on deck if any are on the yard. Reeve the jeers and hook them, hook the burtons to the burton straps.
Hook a tackle from forward to keep the yard clear of the mast: Take the jeers to the capstan. If the ship is rolling heavily, have tackles from the mizzen pendants hooked to straps at the slings on each side to keep the yard from getting adrift after the truss is unkeyed.
Heave round and pull up on the burtons; when high enough unshackle the slings, unkey the navel bolt, and lower away, carefully tending the braces, thwartship and fore-and-aft tackles. Land the yard across the nettings and lash it. Strip it of everything in the slings, and knock off the battens. Fish the yard with the fishes on hand supplied in the vessel's outfit.
TO GET A LOWER YARD DOWN INSIDE THE RIGGING.
If the lower yard must be landed on deck to work on it, say in the port gangway, we may prepare to land the starboard yard-arm forward, dipping the port yard-arm inside the rigging; or by topping up, slueing the starboard yard-arm inboard forward of the mast, and landing the yard with the starboard yard-arm aft, and the port yard-arm forward.
The latter method is so much easier where smokestacks, boats, &c., are in the way, that it will be described here as performed with the main yard of the "Colorado" on the Asiatic station, Fig. 508.
The mainsail is unbent and sent down, main topsail furled, and the main yard stripped of leechline blocks, boom-irons, &c. Hang the upper jeer block in a long lashing from the topmast-head, lashing the lower jeer block to the yard at the slings, having the purchase outside the collar of the lower stay and on the port side of the stay, yard to land in the port gangway.
Hook a fore-and-aft tackle at the slings, and the port top-burton to the port yard-arm. Single the starboard lift; take off the port lift as soon as the burton is taut.
Haul taut the jeers, untruss and lift the yard a few feet, so that the starboard yard-arm will clear the rail in swinging in, then top up on the port top-burton, overhauling the starboard lift.
When the starboard yard-arm swings in clear of the rail, hook to it a thwartship tackle from the port waterways, and take off the starboard lift and brace. Rouse the starboard yard-arm over to the port side; when over, point it aft, hook the port main and mizzen pendant-tackles to this yard-arm to keep it clear of the deck, and guy it aft, Fig. 509. Lower on the jeers and port top-burton, letting the port yard-arm go forward.
When low enough, hook the port fore pendant-tackle to the port yard-arm. Landed where it is, the yard would be partly on the quarter-deck. By letting the fore and main pendant-tackles take the weight at their respective ends, and tending the jeers and mizzen pendant-tackle, a fore-and-aft purchase will land the yard as far forward as desired.
In sending this yard aloft, without landing it on the nettings, use the same tackles as before, with a fore-and-aft
tackle on the after yard-arm, to get the yard aft. When far enough aft, walk away with the jeers and then with the port top-burton as soon as the starboard yard-arm will clear the deck. When high enough, unhook the main and mizzen pendant-tackles from the starboard yard-arm, rouse that yard-arm over to starboard, place the lift and brace, and hook also the starboard top-burton to assist in squaring.
Sway up on the jeers, ease out the starboard yard-arm, and commence topping it up as soon as clear, tending the port top-burton. The yard being across, key the navel bolt, hook the slings, shackle the port lift and brace block, square the yard by the lifts and braces, and send down the purchases.
When the yard comes on deck, have casks or solid chocks ready to land it on.
It is well to stop the port fore brace out of the way, to avoid fouling the upper yard-arm.
In sending the yard aloft again, it may be desired to get it athwartships, reeve lifts and braces, and then sway aloft. In that case, as soon as the starboard yard-arm has been pointed out clear, stand by to lower on the jeers and port burton, pulling up on the starboard burton.
The mast-head pendant-tackle (jeers) used on board the Colorado was of six-inch rope.
SENDING DOWN AND FISHING A LOWER YARD.
In March, 1880, the U. S. frigate Constitution, Captain O. F. Stanton commanding, while beating up the Caribbean Sea, carried away her fore yard in the slings. The account of the measures taken to repair damages has been kindly furnished by Captain Stanton the accompanying plate is taken from drawings made by Carpenter J. S. Thatcher, who effected the repairs.
"The yard broke short off about seven feet from the slings, on the starboard quarter. The ship at the time was on the starboard tack, under three-reefed topsails, whole foresail, main trysail, spanker and fore topmast staysail; the trade wind blowing very fresh and the sea high. The part of the yard where the break occurred swung to the deck, being eased down in a measure by the drawing of the staples of the bending jackstay, and was secured to the fore topsail sheet bitt. The lee clew of the topsail was taken in at once, the fore lift was hauled taut, and weather topsail sheet kept fast to keep the yard-arm aloft till it could be secured to the top-rim. This done, the weather clew of the topsail was hauled up, and also the lee clew of the foresail, neither sail being injured. The topsail sheets were unrove,
the weather one taken to the fore tack bumpkin, the lee one to the gangway, and the fore topsail set flying with the three reefs in. The fore trysail and the fore storm staysail were set. A top-burton was hooked on the yard-arm at the top-rim, and the piece lowered to the deck. The lee part of the yard remained in place, being supported by the truss, lee lift and lee brace; a water-whip was put on as a forward brace, and the foresail sent on deck with the buntlines. The upper jeer block was slung with a long strap from the topmast-head, so that it hung on a level with the lower cap. The lower jeer block was lashed to the yard as usual, and a stout fore-and-aft tackle put on the yard; this part of the yard was then squared by the forward brace, swayed up till high enough to dip the yard-arm inside the lee rigging, and lowered into the lee gangway with the yard-arm aft. The truss was taken off. The starboard piece of yard was lifted with pendant-tackles, placed with the other, end to end at the break, and chocked to keep the pieces in line.
"A strong double purchase with luffs was clapped on each portion of the yard, and the parts hove closely together, cautiously at first, to insure the splintered portions taking the right direction, and then as taut as they would bear. By this means the pieces were forced back to within a quarter of an inch of their original positions.
"Fishes of yellow pine plank four inches thick, eight inches wide, and twelve feet long, were spiked on the yard over the break (each piece being slightly saucered on the underside), except on the under forward quarter of the yard, where space was left for a long fish made of a spare fore gaff. Iron mast and yard fishes were then put on over the wooden ones. The woolding consisted of the boats' anchor chains, each turn of chain being hove taut by small tackles across the deck and nailed through the links to the wooden fishes.
"Plate 121, Fig. 510, shows the yard fished and ready for woolding, and the dotted line is about where the yard was broken off. Fig. 511 shows the fishes woolded with chain, and the whole re-enforced with a spare trysail gaff. Fig. 512 is a transverse sectional view. The parts marked 2 show the position of the fishes. The parts marked 3 show the position of the chocks fitted snugly between the fishes, and spaced about nine inches apart (see Fig. 510). These chocks held the fishes in place and made the whole more rigid. The part marked 4 shows position of spare gaff. At the points m, m, m, under the woolding chain, are the positions of the iron fishes. These, while serving to strengthen the wooden ones, caused the chain to render easily as each turn of the woolding was hove taut. They were of the kind usually furnished to ships of war. Fig. 512 also shows a full turn of the chain around the yard and a full turn around the spare gaff.
"The parts marked 5 show how the space between the chain around the yard and the chain around the gaff was filled in.
"In sending the yard aloft, the lower jeer block was lashed to the slings, the upper one remaining slung from the topmast-head, burtons were hooked to the quarters and yard-arms, and thwartship and fore-and-aft tackles hooked and tended.
"The jeer fall was taken to the spar deck capstan, and a good strain kept on the forward yard-arm and quarter bur-tons. As the yard moved forward, the forward yard-arm was raised by the burtons over the starboard bow, and the port yard-arm canted outside the port fore rigging; the yard was then lowered a portoise. The truss was hoisted up and bolted on, and the lifts and braces rove and the yard swayed up by the jeer fall, burtons and lifts; tending the fore-and-aft tackle. The foresail was bent and set. Two top-burtons were kept on the broken side of the yard, and a jumper tackle put on when blowing fresh. The chain woolding was afterwards covered with canvas and painted, to prevent rust getting on the foresail. The enlarged part of the yard took against the fore stay on the starboard tack and against the fore rigging when the ship was on the port tack, but could be braced within about a point of the original amount, and the ship worked to windward almost as well as usual. The yard was ready for sending up the morning following the day of the accident, and stood perfectly well during very heavy weather experienced on the passage North.
"When the ship arrived at Hampton Roads, the steam-launch, which stowed inboard on the starboard side, was hoisted out with the fished fore and the main yard, and no signs of giving way could be detected."
To Make a Temporary Lower Yard. The two topmast studding-sail booms are equal in length to the lower yard.
With these for the length, the yard is made up by the most convenient spare spars, woolding all together with a number of well-stretched lashings.
SHIFTING SAILS AND SPARS.
SAILS, when split, should be taken in and repaired aloft if possible; if not, then shifted. The new sail should be ready on deck, and can be sent up to windward as the old one goes down to leeward. If the sail splits so as to be of no further use, unbend and send down at once. If not, keep it on the ship until the new one is ready.
A reef-tackle-cringle, or any part of the leech, can readily be repaired aloft by the sailmaker, in moderate weather. The officer of the deck need only clew up the clew requiring repairs. Men on the yard gather the sail up, the yard being, of course, clewed down. In chase, or being chased, it is absolutely necessary to shift sails (if required to do so at all) quickly. If carrying studding-sails on one side only, the others can be shifted over and set if anything happens to those already set.
If the jib splits, set the fore topmast staysail, cautioning the man at the helm to "mind his weather helm;" take in spanker if necessary.
If the foresail or fore topsail splits, take the sail in, repair it aloft or shift it. Reduce after sail to balance the ship. Caution the helmsman as before.
If a topsail splits across the head, or if, in turning out a reef, the sail is torn, and it is not convenient to shift it, take the reef in again.
TO SHIFT A JIB.
Haul the sail down-gather it on the boom, and put on good stops.
Unhook the tack, unshackle the sheets, and bend a rope's end for an inhaul to the clew, passing it out to leeward.
Hook the halliards to a strap round the sail, cut adrift the hanks, or untoggle them.
Pull up the halliards! Ease away the downhaul!
When high enough, ease in the sail on the lee side-haul in on the inhaul.
When on the forecastle, shift the gear to the new sail.
Pull up the jib halliards! Haul out on the jib downhaul.
Lower the jib down to the boom, hook the tack and shackle the jib sheets; secure the hanks to the head of the sail, and the downhaul and halliards to the head cringle; take off the strap, cut stops, and when ready: Let go the downhaul! HOIST AWAY!
TO SHIFT A TOPSAIL
(BY THE WIND, UNDER ALL PLAIN SAIL).
Hook the sail burton to strap on the topmast stay.
The new sail (say the main topsail) is in the weather gangway ready for bending. Clew up the main royal and topgallant sail.
Man the main topsail clewlines and buntlines! Weather main topsail brace! Let go the main to'bo'line!
Haul taut! Clear away the sheets! CLEW UP! Settle away the main topsail halliards! Round in the weather brace!
Lay the yard nearly square, and set taut the braces. ALOFT TOPMEN! Man the boom tricing lines!
TRICE UP! LAY OUT! FURL AND UNBEND!
Unreeve the first and second reef-earings from the sail (supposing them to be bull-earings).
Unbend the topsail sheets, clewlines, bowlines, reef-tackles, robands, and head-earings, securing the bunt-robands to the buntlines. Bend a top bowline around the bunt to guy the sail clear of the top. A whip from the weather topsail yard-arm bent also at the bunt will keep the sail from going too far to leeward, if any such trouble is expected.
Lower the sail down to leeward by the buntlines.
Send up the new sail, with the sail burton before and to windward of the stay. Bend a bowline to the sail strap as soon as it can be reached from the top.
When the clews are above the top-High enough!
See the turns out of the sail.
Hook the reef-tackles, carry out the head-earings from the bunt to the yard-arms, and haul out. Bring to and bend the sail. Shift the reef-tackles to their own cringles, bend the sheets, clewlines, bowlines and buntlines, the latter being rounded up. Loose the sail. Reeve the bull-earings; when the forepart of the top is clear of men, Stand by! LET FALL!
SHEET HOME! LAY IN! DOWN BOOMS! (secure boom-ends with the strap and toggle). LAY DOWN FROM ALOFT!
Man the main topsail halliards! Tend the braces, let go and overhaul the gear! Haul taut!
HOIST AWAY THE TOPSAIL!
Set the topgallant sail and royal; steady out the top bowline.
TO SHIFT A COURSE (MODERATE WEATHER).
The new sail (mainsail) being ready, stretched across the deck forward of the mast, yardarm-jiggers on the yard, lee lift taut-
Main clew garnets and buntlines!
Haul taut! UP MAINSAIL!
ALOFT MAINYARD MEN!
LAY OUT! FURL AND UNBEND!
Furl the sail; unhook reef-pendants; stop buntlines to head of sail. When ready
Stand by the earings! EASE AWAY! Lower away the buntlines!
All the gear coming down with the sail. Unbend and. bend to new sail, stopping buntlines and leechlines to the head. When ready-
Man the yardarm jiggers, buntlines and leechlines!
Buntlines and yard-arm jiggers are manned best, a few hands on the clew-garnets and leechlines, hands to light up tacks and sheets.
Haul taut! SWAY ALOFT! HAUL OUT AND BRING TO!
The yard-arm jiggers are run out, leechlines hauled up; bend the sail, loose it and hook the reef pendants.
Man the main tack and sheet! and set the sail.
UNBENDING SAILS IN BLOWING WEATHER.
Previous to the order being given to unbend sails, let every man stationed on the yards be provided with a sail-tie, or a length of spun-yarn, sufficiently long to go twice round the sail. Every man takes his stop aloft, and when he has seen his robands clear, he then passes his stop twice round the sail, keeping his yard-gaskets fast until the sail is quite ready for easing in. Sails may be unbent in this manner without danger almost in any weather, in case the gaskets are not secured to the sail, as they should be; but in any event, the additional stops are valuable.
TO SHIFT A COURSE IN A GALE.
Suppose, for instance, that you have split a reefed course, and wish to replace it by another.
Haul it up as in blowing weather; cast off a few of the reef-points and robands along the yard, and clap on
several good stops around the sail; secure the buntlines around the body of the sail, and then cast off all the reef-points, robands, reef-earings, and leechlines; cast off the lee head-earing and rouse the lee clew, by a line from the top, into the body of the sail, and secure it to the buntlines; then, having a line from the deck forward attached to the body of the sail, ease off the weather-earing, and lower away.
Having the other sail in readiness, stretched across the deck, and properly furled for bending; bend the gear, and proceed as described for a course in "Bending Sail, Port Exercise." Man buntlines, leechlines, and yard-arm jiggers. SWAY ALOFT! Bring the sail to the yard square, with a taut head, hook the reef-pendants, hook the clew jiggers to them, and rouse them well up; bend and reef the sail, shackle the tacks and sheets, hook the clew-garnets, and set it as in blowing fresh.
If the bunt jigger is led temporarily through a bull's-eye or slip-rope secured to the chain slings of the yard, and then hooked to its glut and stopped to the centre of the head, it will help materially in getting the midship roband opposite its proper place.
TO SHIFT A CLOSE-REEFED TOPSAIL IN A GALE.
Having split, say a close-reefed main topsail, in a gale, to shift it.
Proceed as in taking in a close-reefed topsail, lay out, furl and unbend.
The men on the yards cast off the reef-points of the close-reef, and untoggle beckets of other reefs. Pass the gaskets around the sails, and use sail-ties in addition, cast off the reef-earings, retain first and second reef-earings on the yard (bull-earings), the others go with the sail.
Brace in the main yard till it is square. Send down the sail by the buntlines; unbend all the other gear. Reeve a line from the weather side of the deck well forward, over the lower stay, through the lee head-earing cringle, make fast to the weather head-earing cringle.
A whip from the weather yard-arm to the bunt (topmast studding-sail halliards) will, in this case, be a necessity.
When ready for sending down, ease away the lee-earing, haul away on the tripping-line, rousing it over the stay. Ease away the weather earing, hauling on the tripping-line, and tending the yard-arm whip. When both earings are well clear and pointing to windward of all and forward, ease away on the buntlines.
If the main yard cannot be squared (mainsail set), prepare to send the sail down to leeward; lead the tripping-line through the weather head-earing cringle to the lee one, and
get the weather part of the sail to leeward of the stay first. Then ease away the lee Baring.
In this case we will need a top bowline to the bunt as a forward guy, the lead of the tripping-line being too much up-and-down to answer that purpose.
Were the tripping-line carried far forward in sending down to leeward, it would give the sail too much swing.
The topmen aloft now put on yard-arm jiggers, and have everything ready for bending the new sail.
The latter is sent aloft by the sail burton, and if properly fitted, made up as furled, it is bent as under ordinary circumstances; when the gear and sail are bent, loose the sail, shackle the reef-tackles to their proper cringles, haul them taut, the clewlines and buntlines hauled up snug, take any number of reefs required. Send the men in and down from aloft, sheet home and sway the yard clear of the cap.
REEFING ON THE FOOT.
But should the topsail not be fitted with gaskets, to be sent aloft as furled, the old custom may be followed of reefing on the foot, before going aloft, as follows:
Stretch the close-reef band taut along the deck, take the clews as near where they will haul up as possible, trace the clews down clear to the foot of the sail, haul the foot taut without moving the clews out of their places; gather up the foot as near the close-reef as possible, tie the close-reef points around the foot, keeping the reef knots near at hand to be ready for casting off; use rope-yarn stops to secure all the other reefs in succession around the foot, the yarns going from the forward jackstay of each reef-band around to its after jackstay; roll up the sail snug, clews and buntline toggles out, and send it aloft by a sail burton with a strap around the bunt.
When bent, take each reef in succession, cutting the rope-yarns that secure the forward and after reefing jack-stays of each reef together around the foot; for the close-reef cast off the points.
In this manner the sail is bent without exposing more than one reef at a time, until the close-reefed sail is set.
Topsails with French reefs are very convenient for sending up reefed in this manner.
In sending the new sail aloft, use the yard-arm guy to keep it well to windward.
All being ready for setting, Man the lee sheet, tend the gear! Haul taut! Ease down lee clewline! HAUL HOME TO LEEWARD! Ease down weather clewline! HAUL HOME TO WINDWARD! Hoist the yard clear of the cap and steady it. Haul taut reef-tackles to relieve the close-reef earings. The
main yard is braced up sharper than the topsail yard before sheeting home.
Reefing on the foot is rarely practised, the method of making up the sail as furled being preferred.
NOTE. In sending down a topsail, it is all-important to point it fair, before lowering. Therefore, try to keep it well to windward, clear of the lower stay.
The fore storm-staysail can be hauled down and storm-mizzen set if necessary to keep the ship to.
In sending a sail down or up when running with the wind abaft the beam, first heave the ship to if it can be done.
If a main topsail splits, when lying to, of course it must be unbent immediately, and the other sent up when ready; but if we wish merely to shift the sail, have the new one ready before starting anything aloft.
TO SHIFT A COURSE WHILE THE OTHER IS SET.
If, in chase, you are unwilling to lose the effect of a course, while replacing it by another, you may perform both operations at once, thus:
Get the one you wish to bend (which we will distinguish as the new one), stretched across the deck under the yard; get up the yard-arm jiggers, and hook them to the first reef-cringles of the new sail; unbend the buntlines from the foot of the old sail, haul up the ends, and send them down between the yard and the old sail; bend them to the new one, stopping them to the head. Stopper the clews of the old sail, and shackle the tack and sheet blocks to the clews of the new one; the topmast studding-sail halliards may be bent to the head-earings of the old sail to lower it by.
While this is doing, the men on the yard will hook the bunt-jigger and stop the leechlines to the head of the old sail; cast off the robands.
Man the yard-arm jiggers and buntlines, and run the new sail up to the yard abaft the old one; while bringing the head of the former to the yard, the fatter is lowered on deck by the bunt-jigger, leechlines, and head-earings, lines being attached to the head cringles to lower by; after the old sail is down, bend the leechlines to the new one.
SHIFTING A TOPSAIL
WHILE THE OTHER SAIL IS STILL SET.
This evolution can only be practised when the ship is going free, with any benefit to her speed. It has been done by some good officers in the following manner: We will
suppose the fore topsail the one to be shifted; middle the sail to be bent across the fore stays, stopper the clews of the topsail, unbend the fore topsail sheets and buntlines, have the burtons on the fore topsail yard-arms, and well boused taut. Have good whips on the topsail yard-arms, overhaul them down, bend them on to the first reef-cringles of the new sail; the head earings should be hitched to the whips. Send a light burton down before the old sail, and hook it in the centre of the head of the new sail; single the topsail sheets, and bend them to the clews of the new sail, bend the buntlines to the proper places on the foot of the new sail, but do not make fast the robands to them; bend a tripping-line to the head of the new sail by the robands, about half way out on the head of the sail, so as to keep the sail going up clear of the one bent. When all is quite ready, man everything together, and send the sail up as a flying sail; be careful to get a good pull of the reef-tackles, before the men lay out on the yard to unbend and bend sails. It will require the greatest care in displacing the earings of one sail, and passing the earings of the other; when the robands are fast, you may let the old sail hang by the reef-tackles, then run the clewlines up high enough for sending the sail on deck, with the help of the burton at the mast-head, which must be shifted abaft the topsail yard for the purpose.
Use topmast studding-sail halliards for the yard-arm whips, in case the studding-sails are not set.
TO SHIFT A TOPGALLANT SAIL OR ROYAL.
Take in and furl the sail, unbend the gear, send the yard on deck, shift, cross the yard, bend the gear, and set the sail.
On board of a first-rate, a topgallant sail may be unbent aloft, sent down by the royal yard-rope or topgallant studding-sail halliards, and the new sail sent aloft by the same means, and bent, hauling the earings out by hand.
TO SHIFT A TOPMAST STUDDING-SAIL BOOM.
Having carried away the starboard boom, to replace it by the port one, the latter being rigged in.
The topmast studding-sail would of course be taken in as quickly as possible, and the outboard end of the boom with it. The inboard end would probably be lowered on deck with the boom tricing-line and a whip from the lower lift.
Put a whip on the port lower lift, secure its end to the port boom outside the quarter-iron. Have a guy from forward secured to the boom at the same place as the whip. Take
off the lower studding-sail halliard block and tack block, unless the latter is permanent, in which case unreeve the tack.
Launch the boom in clear of the boom-iron, the tricing-line being hooked at the heel, set taut the whip on the lower lift and trice the heel of the boom above the lower yard, unclamping the quarter-iron. Lift the boom out of the quarter-iron and lower on the yard-arm whip, hauling forward on the guy.
There should be a backlashing from the whip outboard to keep it from slipping in. When the boom is up-and-down, the heel hung by the tricing-line, cast off the guy and port whip, carry the outboard end of the spar over to starboard, and bend on the whip from the starboard lift; also a guy from forward, starboard side. The usual back-lashing will be needed on the whip to keep it from slipping inboard. Haul on the whip, tend the forward guy, and land the boom in the starboard quarter-iron, clamping it. Launch the end out through the boom-iron, rig the end (tack and studding-sail halliard block), take off whip and guy, and prepare for rigging out and setting the studding-sail. If not intending to set the lower studding-sail, rig the usual jumper with the lower studding-sail halliards.
TO SHIFT JIB-BOOM. (Figs. 513 and 514.)
The forecastlemen and fore topmen prepare for housing fore topgallant mast, and for rigging in flying jib-boom. In addition, the men stationed on the jib-boom, lay out; carry out and hook the cap block, and reeve the heel rope; hook jiggers to topmast stay and whisker ends; cast adrift topmast staysail and jib, and hook jib halliards to jib-boom end; hook tackle from topmast stay to light in boom by; hook fore clew-jiggers to heel of jib-boom. The forecastle-men on deck place the new jib-boom on the forecastle ready for going out; ease up back ropes, jumpers, guys and jib-stay, take a turn and tend jib halliards, man fore clew-jiggers and jiggers on the topmast stays.
If the wythe is fitted to unclamp, the stays rove through the flying jib-boom need not be unrove. Otherwise, and in the absence of funnels on the head booms, the stays reeving through them must be unrove and stopped up.
Rig in the flying jib-boom, and house the topgallant mast: then-
A turn with the mast rope! Haul taut the jib heel rope! Tend the jib halliards! unclamp the heel of boom, ease up the jib halliards to allow the boom to clear the saddle; a few hands man the fore clew-jiggers and jiggers on the whiskers. When ready-
Ease away! RIG IN! easing the heel rope until the band
is close to the bowsprit cap; the jib halliards and fore clew-. jiggers are hauled on sufficient to keep the heel of the boom high enough to just clear the knight-heads; the whiskers are triced up to the fore topmast stays, the jib and flying-jib are roused in alongside the topmast staysail. As soon as the boom is housed close in
A turn with the heel rope! let go the jib halliards; lash the bands to the bowsprit cap; hook the tackle from the fore topmast stay to a strap around the jib-boom just inside the bowsprit cap, haul it taut, take a turn.
Tend the stay-tackles! Walk away with the fore clew-jiggers! at the same time ease away on the heel rope, and land the boom on the forecastle; cast off from bowsprit cap and unreeve the heel rope and reeve it on the new boom; shift the stay-tackle and fore clew-jiggers from the old to the new boom.
Man the heel rope and stay-tackle; tend the fore clew-jiggers; when ready-
Haul away the stay-tackle and heel rope! walk the boom out until pointed.
Avast hauling; tend the stay jiggers and jib halliards! The band is placed; the stay-tackle is cast adrift, the jib halliards are hooked to the boom end, hauled taut and tended; the stay jiggers on the whiskers are tended; when the boom is rigged, stay rove, &c., order-
RIG OUT! the men walk away on the heel rope; ease away on the fore clew-jiggers until the boom is clear of the knight-heads, and when clear, let go and cast them off; ease away the jib halliards and stay jiggers; when the boom is far enough out to take in the saddle, pull up the jib halliards and secure the clamp.
Point the flying jib-boom; at the same time the men proceed to take off stay-tackle and jiggers, and to set up guys, jumpers, back ropes and jib stay. Man the topgallant mast rope as soon as the jib-boom is in place, fid the topgallant mast, rig out and secure the flying jib-boom. Bend jib and flying jib.
Instead of sending down the topgallant mast in ordinary weather, lash the light yards aloft, overhaul the yard ropes (the long ones) down well forward; toggle them abaft their sheaves in the mast, and set them up with jiggers, forward.
TO SHIFT A TOPGALLANT MAST.
Send down the royal and topgallant yard, unreeve the yard ropes rove through the mast sheaves, come up topgallant and royal rigging and Jacob's ladder laniards.
Start and attend backstays and stays, hanging the back-stays in the top.
Pass the lizard as the head of the mast comes below the cap.
Bear the heel off the topsail yard.
Lower the mast on deck-heel aft, and after side up. Shift the mast rope and lizard to the new mast, taking care to see it clear of turns. Have jiggers ready on the backstays.
Cast off the lizard as soon as the mast-head enters above the topmast tressle-trees.
Clamp the gate.
Place the royal rigging and truck, and reeve the royal yard rope
Place the jack and topgallant funnel-reeve the topgallant yard rope
Enter the preventer-fid as soon as possible-light up all the rigging. SWAY TO FID!
When the fid is entered, Launch!
Steady taut the stays and rigging.
Cross the topgallant and royal yards.
At sea, when under close-reefed topsails, the mast is
sent down abaft, and to windward of the topsail yard.
As before stated, a hole should be bored in the heel of
the topgallant mast above the proper fid-hole, for the preventer-fid, as a mast rope frequently carries away in the final pull.
TO SHIFT A TOPSAIL YARD.
For a yard tackle, to send down the yard, use the top-burton, if good; otherwise, trice up and. hook at the top-mast-head any luff purchase with a four or five-inch fall, long enough to reach from the topmast-head to the deck. The lower block of the yard purchase hooks to the slings of the yard.
Hook the quarter blocks to the lower cap.
If there is but little wind while shifting the yard, hitch the bight of the buntlines and one bowline around the sail amidships.
Unbend the gear, man the buntlines on deck, and at the order to "ease away, lay in," run the sail up nearly to the topmast-head, and keep it clear of the yard purchase by the bowline; let it hang till the yard is sent up and crossed, then lower and bend in the usual manner.
But, if blowing fresh, the quickest way will be to furl and unbend, send the sail on deck by the buntlines, and sway it aloft again after the yard has been shifted. The
sail may be left in the top, but will probably be found very much in the way.
Trice up the fly-block with top jiggers, unshackle the tye-blocks from the yard.
Take the tack-blocks off the topgallant studding-sail booms, hitching the tack round the strap of the block.
Get the studding-sail booms up and down the topmast rigging, with the boom tricing-line and topgallant studding-sail halliards.
Unreeve the topgallant sheets and topsail reef-tackle. Knot the end of the studding-sail halliards and round them up.
Having hooked the yard purchase at the slings, hook the port top-burton (yard to land in starboard gangway) to the port burton strap, which is an iron band on the yard well out on the port quarter.
Bend a top bowline to the slings of the yard, as a fore-and-aft guy to keep the jaws clear of the topmast and of the top, while sending down.
Tend the topsail lifts and braces, cast off the parrel, and sway away, pulling up on the yard purchase, hauling f or-ward the guy. When the jaws are clear, trip the port yardarm by hauling on the burton. Lower away on yard purchase and burton.
Unrig the lower yard-arm on deck, and the upper yardarm in the top. Put a swab or grating under lower yardarm.
Steady the lower yard-arm well forward, to keep the upper yard-arm close to the top while taking off the gear aloft.
Take off the boom-irons, jewel-blocks, first and second reef-earings, and unshackle the lifts and braces.
When the rigging is taken off, keep it clear for the new yard. Have a marrying line for the starboard lift.
Finally, lower the yard on deck, lower yard-arm aft, easing the burton. This leaves the yard pivoted on the yard purchase, and easy to manage. If the yard must be transported, use tackles from the fore and main.
Shift the burton and yard purchase to the new yard, and SWAY ALOFT!
When up-and-down, rig the new yard as the old one was unrigged.
A bowline bent to the upper quarter of the yard will keep it clear of the fore part of the top.
Attend the lifts and braces, SWAY ALOFT! Have the starboard burton hooked to its burton strap to assist in squaring the yard. As the yard rises above the cap, pull up on the starboard lift and burton, slacking the port burton. When the jaws are fair, slack away the fore-and-aft tackle. Pass the parrel, secure the lifts, take off the burtons.
Reeve the reef-tackles and the topgallant sheets.
Replace the studding-sail booms and their tack-blocks.
Secure the quarter-blocks, the standing part of topsail
clewlines, and shackle the tye-blocks. Take off the yard purchase.
Sway aloft and bend the sail.
Haul home the topsail sheets and hoist the topsail.
In shifting a yard at sea, send it up or down on the
weather side. Take the course in and square the lower yard.
After crossing the new yard, if the jaws have fallen to leeward, or the yard does not rest fairly on the cap, and
consequently will not allow the parrel to be passed taut at
once, use a rolling tackle to rouse it over to windward and the top bowline to haul it forward.
TO SHIFT A TOPMAST.
Send up both top-pendants and two tackles.
One top-pendant, say the port one (at the main), reeves through a top-block on one side of the lower cap, through the
dumb sheave in the topmast, and its end is secured on the
opposite side of the cap. The other top-pendant reeves through a block on the opposite side of the cap, then
through the thimble of a lizard with two good tails, through
the live sheave of the topmast, and its end is secured to a bolt in the lower cap on the opposite side.
The fid-hole being athwartships; each of the sheaves is at an angle of 45° from it, and they are at an angle of 90° from each other.
Send the topgallant studding-sails down out of the top. Any ropes or whips which may be wanted must be hung from the top rim, to prevent their getting under the topmast rigging as the mast comes down. Hang all the backstays abreast the top, or from the lower mast-head.
Send down topgallant yard and mast, getting them both on deck.
Secure the topgallant and royal funnels, and the truck on the fore part of the cross-trees.
Cast off the catharpin lashings on one side.
Secure the topgallant studding-sail booms and the bunt of the topsail to the topsail yard, bend the top bowlines to
the slings, cast off the parrel, attend the topsail halliards, braces and lifts, haul forward on the bowlines. Let go the reef-tackles and topgallant sheets, and when clear of the lower cap, lower the topsail yard across the fore part of the top, lashing it there. Clear away the topmast rigging, backstays, and stays, starting all the laniards, except one stay and the weather backstays, which are attended as the mast is swayed. Man the top tackle falls. Let go the topsail halliards and lifts, and all the ropes that go to the topmast-head. SWAY AWAY!-out fid-LOWER AWAY!
The top pendants now supplied are long enough to lower the mast on deck. After the mast is unfidded, take a turn
with the top pendants, and unhook the top tackles, taking their straps off the pendants. The upper blocks of the top-tackles remain hung aloft ready for use in fidding the new mast. In all cases where the top-tackles are clapped on the pendants, keep a turn with the pendants themselves. Lower the topmast by the top pendants, bracing up the lower yard if necessary.*
When the tressle-trees are a few feet above the lower cap, stopper that pendant which reeves through the live sheave, and have about two fathoms of it abaft the stopper clear for surging, then belay it well. Overhaul the other pendant, which will drop clear of the dumb sheave. If the hanging blocks are not taken off, haul them and the topmast rigging taut out under the cross-trees. Have lashings from the lower cap to steady the cross-trees. See all the men clear.
Let go the stopper on the top pendant, surge the topmast.
If the tressle-trees hang the mast, take the top pendant to the capstan, or clap the top-tackle on it, heave the mast up and surge as before. If need be, hang the topmast rigging by stops to the cap.
When the mast-head is clear, secure the topmast cross-trees, funnel and cap on top of the lower cap. Pass the two tails of the lizard round the topmast, below the hounds, taking two round turns with each tail and then knotting them together; hang the lizard with a small rope from the topmast-head to keep it from slipping down. If there is a sheave in the head of the topmast, hang the lizard from there.
Lower the topmast with the heel down the hatchway forward of the mast until the head is clear of the tressle-trees. Bend the end of a whip from forward to the mast-head and haul forward; when the head is before the top rim, take the top pendant to the capstan, or clap a deck-tackle on it. Hook a burton from aft to the heel; when the heel is above the coaming of the hatchway, haul aft on the burton, lower on the top pendant and land the mast on deck.
Suppose the new topmast (main) to be stowed on the starboard side of the booms, head forward. Launch it aft till the hounds are about on a line. with the foot of the mast. Reeve the starboard top pendant through the live sheave, secure it to its own part, forming a long bight or strap from the heel, and lashing the bight around the topmast well below the hounds. Clap a top-tackle on the pendant, and pull up, tending the heel of the topmast, get the mast up-and-down, and point the heel down through the
* With the latest patent truss, the topmast is sent down through it. If the truss is otherwise fitted, the yard must be untrussed and hauled forward, and braced out of the way if necessary. In this case the lift on the side braced up will take against the topsail yard; hook a top-burton to the lower cap, and to the lower yard forward of the topsail yard, steady it taut and overhaul the: lower lift abaft.
scuttle, lower away till the head is clear of the collar of the stay, point the head fair between the tressle-trees, and pull up on the top-tackle. Just before the hounds enter between the tressle-trees, snatch the other top pendant in the dumb sheave, clap the port top-tackle on it, and when it takes the weight of the mast, secure the end of the starboard top pendant to its eye-bolt at the cap. Walk away with the top-tackles, the mast taking the weight of the rigging, topmast cap, &c., as it goes aloft. When the yard-tackles are nearly two blocks, stopper and belay the ends of the pendants on deck, overhaul down whips (lower clew-jiggers) from the top, hook them on to the upper top-tackle blocks, and fleet these purchases and their straps as far up on the pendants as possible. Now sway up to fid, lighting up the rigging as necessary, and with tackles on the backstays to steady the mast.
When the mast is fidded, square the lower yard and truss it if untrussed; stay the topmast and set up the rigging; get the topsail yard into place, and sway aloft and fid the topgallant mast. After setting up the topgallant rigging, send up the light yards.
Send down top pendants, blocks and top-tackles as convenient.
TO HOUSE TOPMASTS, AND SEND DOWN LOWER YARDS.
The topgallant masts and yards having been sent down, send aloft the top pendants, top tackles and jeers. The, lower yards are sent down first, and then the topmasts. If the ship is rolling, use thwartship tackles on the lower yards. Hook fore-and-aft tackles; single the lower lifts and hook the burtons to the burton-straps. Be prepared aloft to unkey trusses and unhook slings. Come up topmast rigging and stays, but be careful in easing the fore-and-aft stays, not to ease more than absolutely necessary.
The jeers may be worked on the gun-deck of a frigate and taken to the capstan. Have seamen to lower.
When the top-tackles are hauled taut to unfid, the topsail lifts, buntlines, and reef-tackles must be well overhauled, especially if this gear has been thoroughly wet, and has consequently shrunk; the laniards of topmast rigging must be overhauled. It is a good plan to hang the backstays and halliards aloft from the lower cap, as in swaying up much weight is saved.
The lower booms must be gotten alongside before the lower yards are sent down, and the flying-jib and jib-booms must come in with the topgallant masts and topmasts.
Some seamen think lower yards hold less wind aloft, and braced up; and others disapprove of sending down lower yards and housing topmasts both; and the evolution at present is seldom performed.
If at anchor where you might be required to get under way to save the ship, do not strike the lower yards or house topmasts.
When the top-tackles are swayed upon, we must not forget to overhaul the topsail halliards, and the halliards of the head sails; in fact, everything leading to the topmast-heads. The gear of the courses, such as leechlines, &c., must be attended.
Everything being manned and attended, the command is. given to sway up and heave round; the braces, lifts, fore-and-aft tackles, burtons, thwartship tackles, topsail sheets, are either manned or tended as required. The topmen tend stays, backstays, and laniards of topmast rigging, and overhaul all other rigging necessary. Lower away when the trusses and slings are clear, and fids out. Rest the lower yards on blocking in the nettings, and lash the heels of the topmasts to the lower masts. Keep a strain on the jeers, so that the yards will not sag amidships.
The bights of the topmast rigging are hung over the edge of the top. The whiskers and dolphin striker are triced in, the ends of the former lashed together. Stop the parts of the head stays above the bowsprit to the fore stays, and the parts under the bowsprit to the bowsprit shrouds.
The topsail yards are lowered across the tops.
TO FID TOPMASTS AND SWAY UP LOWER YARDS.
On the moderating of the gale, the topmasts must be fidded and the lower yards sent up.
Before starting top-tackles or jeers, all rigging, such as backstays, halliards, &c., &c., should be well overhauled and hung from the top, and have jiggers and luffs on the stays and backstays, to steady the masts as they go up, and to be ready for setting up. The fore-and-aft stays, topsail lifts, &c., should be overhauled beyond the old nips, so as to leave the masts free for going up. All running gear, such as reef-tackles, buntlines, and head-halliards, must be well overhauled.
If there is not force enough in the ship, fid the topmasts first, then send up the lower yards.
When all is ready, having top-tackle falls manned, and jeer falls led to capstan, luffs, &c., tended, sway up and heave round, fid and stay topmasts, key trusses and hook slings. Having set up the stays, backstays and topmast rigging, get the topsail-yards in place, and send up the topgallant masts and light yards.
HANDLING SHIP IN COMING TO ANCHOR.
GENERAL REMARKS ON ANCHORING.
SHIPS, on getting within signal distance of the senior officer, are required to show their number, and on this being recognized, that officer gives his number in return.
Local signals, or temporary additions to the signal books, general orders, and copies of the squadron routine, should be procured without delay after joining company.
Shortening all sail together, in coming to anchor, however well done aloft, cannot but crowd the decks at a time when you want silence and the power of carrying out a sudden alteration in your plans. Except when you want to "charge" into a station with great way, or catch breezes over the land with your lofty canvas, the seamanlike way to come to is under topsails, after the courses and upper sails have been taken in and the upper yards squared. You can then feel your way with the topsails, deaden it with a check of the braces, freshen it with a small addition of canvas, or stop it by heaving aback.
When about to shorten sail, get the marks on the lee lower lifts down; clew up; man all the braces, and lower and square all together.
In coming in, while blowing hard, get as much sail reefed and furled as you can spare with prudence, and the cables double-bitted. If running, round to before letting go, and have hands by the second anchor ready for letting go.
Always double-bitt before anchoring in deep water, as at Madeira, and similar anchorages.
Should you use a buoy, do not part with it until veering obliges you to do so.
The rolling motion may be checked, when at anchor, provided there be not too much wind, by making sail and bracing by. This is no unimportant object, especially in handling boats.
No one who could help it would moor in a roadstead. At single anchor a ship is ready for sea, and her remaining anchors are disposable for a gale from any quarter.
The common rule for giving the proper scope to ride by, in moderate weather, is six times the depth of water.
In coming to an anchor, it is desirable to run the cable out straight, clear of the anchor, after letting go. To do this we must either wait for sternway before letting go, or else let go while there is headway on, and pay out roundly.
For the former there must be wind enough (if there is no tide) to force the ship astern. In the latter, there is the chance of damaging the copper and snapping the chain, and thus of running on board a vessel which we had reckoned on clearing. It is evidently an unnecessary risk in strong breezes, and therefore only adopted in light ones, where the risk is small. The mizzen topsail is often set aback to give the ship sternboard.
The object in thus laying out the cable is, that not only will the anchor be clear, but that (except in strong breezes and tides) the ship will ride far from her anchor by the mere weight of the chain, where it rises from the bottom.
PREPARATIONS FOR ENTERING PORT.
It will be assumed that the ship has had a long and boisterous passage, and that she is approaching her port of destination under favorable circumstances, pleasant weather, and with a reasonable prospect of making a speedy
On striking soundings, bend chains and get the anchors off the bows. A day or two before making the port, send down any extra rigging that may be aloft, scrape and grease spars, get the upper masts in line, and see that all the square marks are on the lifts and braces. Scrub paint-work inside and out, and if found necessary give the ship a light coat of paint outside, by rubbing off with rags steeped in oil and lampblack. Touch up all chafes on the spars aloft. The morning before going in, holystone decks, and scrub boats, spars, and oars. Sling clean hammocks the evening before.
As you near the port, send down all chafing gear, lower the boat davits and square the boats, having them all ready for lowering, have all the half ports squared, and see that no lines are towing overboard. Have sentry boards placed, and sentries ready for posting, the accommodation ladder scrubbed and ready for shipping. All sheets snug home, and sails up taut; clew-jiggers hooked, if used. If anticipating a long stay in port, the studding-sails may be unbent, the gear unrove, tallied, and stowed away. If intending to moor immediately after anchoring, rig the capstan for the chain of the anchor first let go, unless the bars will be in the way. The officers and crew should be dressed in the uniform prescribed by the captain. Every preparation should be made for firing a salute, and the flags to be used in readiness.
Sometimes the topsail sheets and fore and main tacks and sheets are singled to facilitate shortening sail.
If coming in under steam alone, have all the sails neatly furled, yards squared, and rigging hauled taut.
On approaching a port at any time, day or night, have the colors set. If it has been too dark to make out the colors
upon the ship's entering port, they are usually ordered to be hoisted at daybreak the next morning.
Upon nearing the anchorage, the officer of the deck, when so ordered, directs the boatswain to call "BRING SHIP TO ANCHOR! The first lieutenant then takes the trumpet, and officers and crew repair to their stations. The officers, following the executive, repair in the order of rank to the forecastle, main deck, starboard and port gangways and mizzen mast. The navigator, or other officer assigned to this duty, will see that both anchors are ready for letting go, that the chains are bitted and clear for running, compressors thrown
back, with men to man the falls, hook-ropes, stoppers, &c., at hand.
Should the navigator have charge of the ground tackle, he returns to the bridge, to pilot the ship in.
The junior officers are distributed about the ship to the best advantage.
The principal stations of the crew are at the wheel, lead, anchors, conn, signals, clew-jiggers and buntlines, down-hauls and brails, and weather braces. Hands by tacks and sheets, halliards, outhauls, bowlines, lee braces, and on the lower yards to overhaul the topsail sheets. Also hands by the compressors, and hook-rope on the main deck.
Only those men stationed aloft will go there; all others must keep below the rail, out of the chains and clear of the ports. Care should be taken that the general appearance of the ship is neat and seamanlike.
For detail of duties of the men stationed at the anchors at the order LET GO! see Chapter XIV., page 247.
If a senior officer's ship is lying in the port, observe the disposition made of his light spars, and, if need be, make the usual signals and all preparations for sending down light yards and masts, should his be on deck. Sway at the
order LAY DOWN FROM ALOFT! after furling sail, but lower carefully while men are in the rigging.
A vessel entering port with light yards in the rigging should make similar preparations for crossing them on anchoring if the senior officer has his light yards across.
As soon as the sails are furled, lay down all but the
square yard men, send a boat ahead, square yards haul taut and stop in rigging, and pipe down.
Get the lower booms out, rigged for port, and lower boats according to circumstances. When coming in under steam alone, the former are generally rigged out as soon as the anchor is let go. At the same time, circumstances permitting,
run up the jack if the topgallant yards are across, and fire the first gun of the salute.
The catamaran should be ready, so that the copper may be scrubbed and oiled the morning after coming to.
Immediately after anchoring, the navigator gets bearings of the prominent objects in sight, that the ship's position may be plotted on the chart. These bearings must be entered in the log.
On piping down, the first lieutenant gives up the deck to
the officer of the watch.
HAVING A LEADING WIND,
TO RUN IN AND ANCHOR. (NO TIDE.)
BRING SHIP TO ANCHOR! See that all the officers and crew are on deck and at their stations. TOP-GALLANT AND ROYAL YARDMEN IN THE TOPS! Stand by to take in all the studding-sails and royals! After the men are stationed, take them in, giving the order, Haul taut! IN STUDDING-SAILS AND ROYALS! Or give the order for the stun' sails in detail. Rig in and get alongside the studding-sail booms, make up and stow away the sails, trice up the gear, take the burtons off the topsail yard, and jiggers off the top-gallant lifts, if
Man the top-gallant clewlines! Fore clew-garnets and
buntlines! and when ready, Haul taut! IN TOP-GALLANT
SAILS, UP FORESAIL!
FURL THE TOP-GALLANT SAILS AND ROYALS! The moment this order is given, the light-yard men should lay aloft from the top, and after furling the sails snugly, lay down on deck.
Square the lower yards by the lifts, and let the captains of the tops square the top-gallant and royal yards.
Man the topsail clew-jiggers and buntlines; jib downhaul! spanker outhaul! At this order hands lay out on lower yards to overhaul topsail sheets. Have hands stationed by the topsail sheets and halliards, jib halliards and spanker brails, and to attend the braces. Bear the spanker boom over on the quarter.
When near the anchorage, put the helm to starboard or port, as the case may be, having allowed for head-reach in bringing her to the wind. Then give the order, Haul taut! Let go the topsail sheets! CLEW UP! HAUL DOWN THE JIB! HAUL OUT THE SPANKER! As soon as the sails shake, having the wind abeam, Settle away the topsail halliards! SQUARE AWAY! Take in the slack of the braces as the yards come down, keeping them square. The buntlines are hauled up above the yard, the clews hauled forward by the clew-jiggers.
She comes to the wind by the effect of the helm and spanker, and as soon as she loses entirely her headway give the orders, Stand clear of the starboard (or port) chain! LET GO THE STARBOARD (or port) ANCHOR! Spanker brails! and as soon as she swings to the anchor, BRAIL UP THE SPANKER! Direct the navigator * as to the scope to be given, he reporting the order carried out when the chain is secured; furl sails, square yards, haul taut rigging, and pipe down.
If coming in before the wind, or with the wind well aft, the head sails may be down, or hauled down before shortening sail.
If the crew has been well drilled, all the studding-sails, top-gallant sails, royals, and foresail may be taken in together; and this, when well done, has a fine effect.
The best command to give on such occasions, where everything is started together, is:
Haul taut! SHORTEN SAIL!
This should be done in time sufficient to admit of getting the sails, booms, and gear out of the way before taking in the topsails.
The top-gallant sails and royals should be furled at once, when clewed up. To this end it is well to have the light-yard men on the jack and cross-trees ready to lay out the moment the yards are down.
It is not advisable to attempt to reduce a cloud of canvas at once, unless the crew and rigging are in such a state as to insure success.
TO COME TO "HEAD ON."
If there is not room to take the necessary sweep, in coming to anchor with the wind aft, check-stoppers may be put on the cable to deaden the headway. Having clewed up the sails in good time, furl them, that you may approach the anchorage with as little headway as possible. The anchor being let go, the checks, breaking one after the other, serve to stop her headway before the range is veered to. If no cable is ranged, have careful hands at the compressors.
TO STAND IN ON A WIND AND ANCHOR.
Coming to anchor with the yards braced up, you must have the weather braces well manned, and have hands ready to square the lower lifts, before the topsails are clewed up; and the moment the order is given to clew up, let the braces be hauled in, and the lower lifts hauled taut to the
* As before stated, the duties of the navigator in connection with the chains in coming to or getting under way are frequently performed by a watch officer, the navigator remaining on the spar-deck to pilot the ship.
square mark. Some officers square the yards by the braces before they clew up the sails. This hastens to stop her headway, and it is necessary in some cases, as, for instance, in coming to in a crowded harbor, or where you have little room. But it renders the operation of clewing up difficult, from the sails being aback and binding against the rigging. Others clew up the topsails, and then, manning all the weather braces, order, Settle away the topsail halliards! SQUARE AWAY! When circumstances permit, this is preferable.
As soon as the cable is taut and the anchor ahead, "veer to" on the cable, giving it to her as she will take it.'
Standing in on a bowline under all sail, the most approved method is to shorten sail to topsails, jib, and spanker, and to come to under that sail.
Everything being in readiness, give the command-
Man the fore and main clew garnets and buntlines!
Top-gallant and royal clewlines, flying jib downhaul!
Aloft top-gallant and royal yard men!*
Having hands by the tacks, sheets, halliards, and lee braces, and weather top-gallant and royal braces manned, order, Haul taut!
The sails are clewed up, yards clewed down, and squared in by the braces.
FURL THE TOP-GALLANT SAILS AND ROYALS, STOW THE FLYING-JIB.
Man the topsail clew jiggers and buntlines!
At this order the men stationed there lay out on the lower yards to overhaul topsail sheets, and a few hands are sent to the spanker sheet.
Stand by the starboard (or port) anchor!
When it is judged that the ship can be luffed up into her berth, order the helm
Let go the jib halliards! HAUL DOWN!
Clear away the topsail sheets! CLEW UP!
The spanker sheet is now hauled over till the boom is amidships; the jib is hauled down snug, and the topsails clewed up. Then-
Man the weather braces! Stand by the topsail halliards!
Settle away the topsail halliards! SQUARE AWAY!
At this order the topsail halliards are settled away
roundly, and the braces hauled in to the square marks.
The quartermaster in the chains, judging by his lead, will
report when headway ceases; as soon as the ship
* This presupposes the light-yard men have already been sent into the tops.
commences going astern, Stand clear of the starboard chain! LET GO THE STARBOARD ANCHOR! If a buoy is used, first,
Stream the buoy!
When head to wind, put the wheel amidships and secure it, and brail up the spanker.
Let her take the chain from the locker if she will, and do not pay it down in a lump under the forefoot. If the wind is so light that, even with the mizzen topsail set, she will not take the chain, you must wait either for the tide or a stronger breeze to send her astern.
The anchor being down-
STATIONS FOR FURLING SAIL!
Man the bunt-jiggers, have hands by the clew-jiggers and buntlines, &c., and proceed to furl. Should it be found, after clewing up, that the ship head reaches too much, and is in danger of fouling another vessel, sheet home and hoist the mizzen topsail. Should this prove insufficient, drop the foresail.
TO ANCHOR WITH A SCANT WIND.
Running in with a scant but good working breeze, a ship, by a series of half-boards, might work up in a crowded harbor to a position not otherwise attainable, the manoeuvre being attended with greater success with a favorable tide.
Or having the yards braced sharp up, and everybody at their stations, Clear away the topsail sheets! CLEW UP! and keeping fast the halliards that the yards may remain pointed to the wind, stand on under jib and spanker, luffing all she will. Man all the weather braces! Jib downhaul! Hands by the topsail halliards! Lee fore and main lifts! and when up to your berth, HAUL AFT THE SPANKER SHEET! Hard down! HAUL DOWN THE JIB! Settle away the topsail halliards! SQUARE AWAY! When she loses headway, let go the anchor, furl sails, square yards, haul taut the rigging, and pipe down.
TO ANCHOR HEAD TO WIND IN A NARROW CHANNEL.
Stand in close to one side of the channel, and when nearly abreast of the berth clew up the fore and main topsails, at the same time hauling down the jib. Put the helm down, haul out the spanker, and brace the mizzen topsail sharp aback. When head to wind, let go the anchor and clew up.
Anchoring in a narrow channel or harbor, with the intention of mooring, you will let go the first anchor on the weather shore, and moor with an open hawse, either in or out of the harbor, to the prevailing wind.
The necessity of these precautions will appear evident if
you should ever find yourself riding to a gale of wind with a cross or elbow in the hawse, cables chafing each other and injuring the cut water.
BEATING IN ON A FLOOD TIDE, TO ANCHOR.
If, having a head wind, and tide favorable, you work up, you will, when near the anchorage, put the Vessel before the wind; and, keeping her under the management of the helm, with sufficient sail set to stem the current, you may, by reducing or making sail, drop with the tide, shoot ahead, or sheer to either side with the helm, until you have arrived at the proper spot for anchoring.
Always come to, however, with the head of the ship to that which is the stronger, either the wind or the tide. Let the last tack be that which will bring you close to the weather shore; reduce sail to the jib; put the helm up, and wear short round till the ship's head approaches the flood tide (should the tide prevail), then down jib; let go the anchor and furl sails; otherwise anchor as if no tide.
Unless the wind be very light, sail should be furled as it is taken in, lest she overrun her chain.
FREE WIND AND EBB TIDE, TO ANCHOR.
Having the tide running out, with a fresh breeze in your favor, and having, by sufficient sail, forced your way through the water to the anchorage, reduce sail until she becomes stationary, when you may let go the anchor. Furl sail at once.
In a tideway you usually moor with one anchor up and the other down the stream.
RUNNING UNDER DOUBLE-REEFED FORE AND MAIN
TOPSAILS AND FORESAIL, TO ANCHOR.
After bending the bower chains, rouse up and bend both sheet chains; get the upper yards on deck; send down the top-gallant masts, send the studding-sails out of the tops; get up and reeve top-pendants and jeers, and make all preparations, before coming to, to house topmasts, and send down lower yards immediately after anchoring, if required. Weather-bit the chains and have the compressors well manned. As you near the harbor, haul up the foresail, and take in and furl the fore-topsail.* Have reefed spanker or storm mizzen ready for hauling out.
* The main topsail might be clewed up at this time and a head sail hoisted, which would suffice to give the necessary headway, and decrease the chances of broaching to.
Clew up the main-topsail when some distance from your berth, and when near it put the helm hard down and haul out the spanker. Send the men aloft to furl the foresail and main-topsail, and as she rounds to, with the wind on the bow, let go the weather bower and veer away roundly. When out to a good scope, from forty-five to sixty fathoms, according to the depth of water, let go the lee bower, and when head to wind, brail up the spanker. Bring her up gradually, veering to from ninety to one hundred and twenty fathoms on the first, and forty-five to sixty on the second.
Bring an equal strain on both cables and stopper well. Now house topmasts, &c., &c., if necessary.
ANCHORING OFF A COAST,
OR IN A ROADSTEAD, WHERE IT WILL BE NECESSARY TO GET
UNDER WAY IN CASE OF BAD WEATHER.
In anchoring off coasts, or in exposed roadsteads, preparations must immediately be made for slipping and going to sea in case of bad weather. In coming to in such a case, we would let go that anchor from which we expect to cast when slipping. If anchoring off Tampico, for example, let go the port anchor, as, if we slip, it will be in a norther. Before furling sails, single-reef the courses and double-reef the topsails. Have storm sails bent, and be prepared for a gale at any moment. Make all preparations for slipping.
While lying at anchor under these circumstances, hoist boats, stowing inboard, every night if you are using them; all the davit boats will, of course, be hoisted. The officer of the deck, at night, should see the topsail sheets clear, unless the ship has steam up ready for going ahead at short notice. Have a hand by the drift lead.
Upon the first indication of bad weather all hands will be called, and, if time, the anchor hove up; otherwise the chain must be slipped. All anchors are kept ready for letting go; for something might occur to prevent slipping.
IN EXPECTATION OF BEING FOULED
BY ANOTHER SHIP DRIFTING DOWN FROM AHEAD.
Send hands aloft to drop the foresail, screw down the forward compressor, unshackle the cable, bend on a hawser, and, as the vessel approaches, slip, and give her a wide berth. A head sail hoisted, with the sheet to windward, may assist in canting your vessel clear of the danger. In a fresh breeze, stand by to veer instead of unshackling.
If collision is unavoidable, get the swinging boom alongside, lower the quarter boat and lower deck ports, overhaul lower lifts, and brace the yards up on the tack opposite to, the side the ship is on.
If a vessel gets athwart your hawse in a strong tide, probably the easiest way to clear is to send a kedge astern, set taut the hawser, and wait for the tide to turn. When it does, you will swing by the stern, and the other vessel be drifted clear of you.
For tending ship at single anchor, see Appendix K.