11A1. General. The operator of any piece of machinery should thoroughly understand the various adjustments that are necessary for perfect operation. It is not enough for him to know merely which valve to open and close or the position of maneuvering levers in order to start, stop, and reverse his machine. He must possess knowledge of the functioning of each of its systems when he manipulates this gear. He should be alert to note the difference between efficient and poor performance by the sound, smell, and touch of the machinery. Instruments, such as gages, thermometers, and tachometers, however, should be the guides that the operator uses in detecting the approach of trouble so as to take corrective measures before anything serious occurs.

The modern diesel engine demands greater skill on the part of the designer and builder than any other kind of engine. Likewise in its operation it is far from being foolproof and requires intelligent attention. The adjustments are precise and to narrow limits. Overhaul and fitting of the pistons, rings, bearings, valves and fuel pumps are beyond the capacity of the ordinary machinist and demand the efforts of a skilled mechanic. If it is properly adjusted, a diesel engine, once started, will run until it is stopped. The extent of its reliability over a long period of operation depends upon the intelligence and skill of its operator.

Care must be used when operating oil engines of any make, regardless of whether the engine is of the 2- or 4-stroke cycle, vertical or horizontal, air or mechanical injection. The working principles are the same, and the same care must be exerted to have everything properly adjusted before starting or operating the engine. Otherwise, there may be trouble. Every bearing should be adjusted as tightly as possible. This is a task for the real mechanic and should not be entrusted to unskilled personnel. The upkeep of the engine is an important duty, and one in which the real engineer shows his value. It should be kept in mind that measurements of

  sixty-fourths and thirty-seconds of an inch are not recognized in diesel engine work; the increment of measure for everything is thousandths of an inch.

There should be a regular routine for checking the different systems of the engine and performing upkeep functions. At this time all indications of wear, parts renewed, and adjustments made should be recorded in a systematic log book to be used as a history from which information may be obtained at future overhaul periods. This is always done during submarine refit periods and at any other time when it is found necessary.

11A2. Construction of bearings. The method used in construction of a bearing depends upon the type, the bearing metals to be used, and the type of use required. In the case of precision type bearings, it is necessary that the two halves form a true circle when finished. This requires rather ingenious practice, and shop procedures will vary.

Other than the shop procedure, there are only a few items concerning the construction of bearings that are worthy of mention. The first of these is the question of oil grooves. Bearing lubrication in the 2-stroke cycle engine is more difficult than in the 4-stroke cycle engine, since in the latter, the point of contact between bearing and journals of both main and crankpin journals rotates around the bearing and assists in the distribution of the oil. In the 2-stroke cycle engine, the point of contact swings back and forth across the lower bearing shell and hence, in this engine, it is usually necessary to provide oil grooves on the unloaded side to carry sufficient oil to the loaded half of the bearing. Where bronze or other flat bearings are used as wrist pins, ample grooving must be provided. Grooves may be cut axially, circumferentially, diagonally, or helically across the face of the bearing, but should never extend to the edge since this would allow the oil to spill from the bearing. All grooves should have rounded


edges, as the sharp edge of a groove has a tendency to act as a scraper and may impair the oil film.

In order that the flow of oil between the bearing halves may not be restricted, bearings are beveled for an arc of about 20 degrees at the joints where the bearing halves come together, except for a narrow strip at the ends, where the full thickness of the metal must be retained to prevent the loss of oil. The spaces formed by beveling are called oil cellars.

11A3. Bearing loads. The only bearings in a diesel engine that require careful consideration due to the heavy loads placed upon them are the main, crankpin, and wrist pin bearings. Other bearings are not so limited in size, and little attention need be given them in so far as their ability to carry the load is concerned. The following discussion pertains principally to the above three heavily loaded bearings that are usually limited in size by the space available.

The study of bearing loading brings two things to mind: 1) the temperature at which the bearing must operate, and 2) the maximum pressure per unit area that will be exerted upon the bearing. Too much pressure will squeeze out the oil film and ruin the bearing, and too much heat will reduce the viscosity of the oil until the film can no longer be maintained. Both of these are factors of loading, although the latter is a product of loading and speed of rotation.

In a diesel engine operating at variable loads, the successful bearing design is generally the result of experimentation directed toward the discovery of a satisfactory bearing for all loads. The loads that a bearing can withstand are based upon the assumption that the surfaces of the journal and bearing are smooth and parallel, that proper clearances are provided, and that sufficient lubrication is provided. Too much oil clearance at the ends of a bearing will cause excessive oil leakage and subsequent reduction in load-carrying ability. If the bearing were closed at the ends, the pressure would be uniform over its entire length, and much greater loads could be carried. If the shafting is of in alignment, or vibrates severely, as when running at a critical speed, the faces of the journal and bearing will not be parallel, and the metallic

  surfaces may make physical contact and rupture the oil film.

From the above, it is obvious that an oil film must be maintained at all times in order to carry the load. This condition is called stable lubrication. When the oil film is destroyed and lubrication of the bearing depends entirely upon the oiliness of the lubricant, we have what is known as unstable lubrication. This latter condition exists when the bearing shaft is running at too low a speed to build up an oil film or when the bearing is overloaded.

11A4. Bearing metals. Compared with the journal, the bearing metal should be sufficiently soft so that any solid matter passing through in the oil stream will wear the bearing instead of the journal.

Roller and ball bearings are frequently used in diesel engines for smaller shafts, such as camshafts, and in governors, because they greatly reduce the bearing friction and because their smaller clearances keep the shaft more rigid. In at least one opposed piston type of diesel engine of medium power, ball bearings are used as main bearings. For wrist pins, roller bearings of the needle type are used extensively in other types of large engines. With these bearings, lubrication is made simpler, and the amount of freedom of motion and friction is reduced.

Wood is used in the tail shaft bearings of naval vessels that are submerged in water and constantly lubricated and cooled. Lignum vitae is the wood commonly used for this purpose since it is of a greasy character and extremely hard and dense. Other types of materials used for this purpose include hard rubber strips and phenolic resinous materials.

Bronze bearings are used where the pressures are very high such as at the wrist pin. Here the load on the bearing is the total gas pressure less the inertia of the piston. In most modern diesel engines, bronze is used as the bearing metal for the wrist pin bearing.

There is no material known that is suitable for all types of bearings. There are four general types of alloys used today but each has its own particular uses determined by the maximum unit pressure and temperature at which the


bearing will operate, and by the hardness of the journal.

Bearing metals should be of such composition that the coefficient of friction is low. They should be sufficiently hard and strong to carry the load, but must not be brittle. If they are too soft, they will wipe or be pounded out, destroying the clearance and reducing the bearing area. In grooved bearings the grooves will become filled with wiped metal. When this trouble arises the oil film is squeezed out, the metal is burned, and failure results.

The four commonly used types of bearing linings are: high-lead babbitts, tin-base babbitts, cadmium alloys, and copper-lead mixtures.

The backs for bearings are made either of steel or bronze in the case of the babbitts, while only steel backs are used for cadmium alloy and copper-lead bearings. In some bearings, an intermediate layer of metal is used between the backs and the bearing metals.

The hardness of the above bearing metals naturally varies with the percentage of alloying employed. In general, however, the copper-lead and cadmium alloys are the hardest, while the high-lead and tin-base babbitts are the softest. The temperature at which the bearing metals melt is a rough measure of their degree of hardness, the softer metals melting at the lower temperatures. The softness of the bearing metal is also a measure of the maximum allowable unit pressure. The harder the bearing metal, the greater is the load that a given size bearing will carry without failure.

Where two metallic surfaces are moving in contact with each other, such as a journal rotating within a bearing, wear will inevitably take place. Since it is easier and cheaper to renew the bearing, the journal should "be harder than the bearing. Therefore, when using relatively hard bearing metals, such as cadmium alloy and copper-lead, it is necessary to use a hard alloy steel journal or else to harden the surface of the journal.

The precision type of bearing is rapidly coming into universal use for crankpin and main bearings. There is an increasing use of very thin bearing linings on steel shells. The

  shells are either forged or cast, and the linings are made of lead-base babbitt metal.

In the naval service the most frequently encountered bearing metal used in precision bearings is that known by the trade name of Satco. The composition of this metal is as follows:

Calcium.30- .70
Mercury.40- .90
Aluminum.15- .17
Magnesium0.00- .05

11A5. Bearing installation and adjustment. In order to insure its successful operation, the bearing must fit the journal perfectly; the bearing and journal surfaces must be smooth and parallel, and the bearing clearance must be correct. Too great a clearance will allow the oil to spill out at the ends of the bearing, while too small a clearance will cause the bearing to run hot. In general, the least clearance that will allow the successful operation of the bearing is desirable.

In the modern high-speed engine the precision type of bearing is generally used. No scraping-in is done, and no shims are used between the faces of the two halves. The bearing is accurately machined to the correct diameter and the only fitting necessary is an occasional filing down of the faces of the two halves in order to obtain a close and even fit when the bearing caps are brought together. In connection with the fitting of precision type bearings, too much emphasis cannot be placed upon the importance of having the backs of the bearing shells fit evenly against the bearing support. Recent experience with bearing failures due to this improper fitting has shown its importance. The areas not in contact fill with oil or air, both of which are relatively poor conductors of heat, and the transfer of heat from the bearing is reduced, causing the bearing temperature to increase. In addition, if an even fit is not obtained, a flexing of the bearing shell may result, causing the bearing metal to crack and flake off.


To assure an even fit the backs of bearings should be fitted to their supports in the same manner that the bearings are fitted to the journal. Since the back usually is made of steel, it is necessary to file down the high spots rather than scrape them down as is possible with softer bearing metals.

11A6. Bearing failures. When an engine bearing fails in service it can generally be attributed to one or more of the following causes:

1. Poor operating conditions and improper maintenance such as:

a. Improper or insufficient lubrication.

b. Insufficient cooling water.

c. Grit or dirt in oil.

d. Water in oil.

e. Bearings out of alignment.

f. Installing the bearing with improper clearances or uneven bearing surface.

g. Excessive load on the bearing.

2. Faulty design of the bearing or of the engine itself.

a. Improper dimensions of length and diameter.

b. Improper bearing material.

c. Improper lubrication. The lubricant, free from all foreign matter, must be supplied in ample amounts.

d. Improperly cooled.

e. Improperly grooved.

f. Improperly baffled. Proper baffles must be fitted to prevent loss of oil, or its passage to adjacent parts of machinery, such as generator armature, where damage would result to the commutator. Also in some cases baffles are used to prevent the mixing of water with the lubricating oil.

3. The use of inferior lubricants, or the use of a good lubricant which does not meet the requirements of the piece of machinery.

a. Corrosion of bearings.

4. Inferior workmanship and material in the manufacture of the bearings and engine parts.

A bearing that is not operating properly will overheat. When this occurs, and the reason is not immediately known, the oil supply to

  the bearing should be examined at once. Also the lubricating oil gage pressure to the system and the passage of cooling water through the oil cooler should be checked. Sometimes the overheating may be due to foreign matter in the lubricating oil. The oil should be rubbed between the fingers to detect the presence of grit or dirt. An inspection of the filters will also reveal any abnormal amount of foreign matter deposited there. Since used oil generally is slightly acid, the presence of salt water may be detected by inserting a strip of red litmus paper in a sample of the oil. If salt is present to any degree, the litmus paper will turn blue. If salt water is detected in the oil, the crankcase and sump tank should be drained and refilled with new oil after flushing the system thoroughly. If possible, the cause of the salt water in the system should be determined. At the first opportunity the system should be well cleaned to remove any particles of salt that may have been deposited there.

As a rule, hot bearings may be traced to one or more of the following causes:

1. Improper or insufficient lubrication.

2. Grit or dirt in the oil.

3. Bearings out of line.

4. Bearings set up too tightly.

5. Uneven surface of bearing or journal.

6. Bearing overloaded.

If the temperature of the bearing continues to rise after the oil supply has been increased, the condition known as a hot bearing arises. The danger of a hot bearing lies in the fact that the babbitt expands until it grips the journal, thus causing a constant increase in friction and heat. When the temperature reaches the melting point of the bearing metal, the metal will run or wipe.

The treatment of heated bearings involves two main items: the removal of the cause, and the restoration of the bearing to its normal condition. If the trouble is due to improper or insufficient lubrication and is discovered before the metal has wiped, an abundant supply of oil usually will be sufficient to control the situation and gradually bring the bearing back to its normal temperature. Should the trouble be caused by an accumulation of dirt on the bearing, the abundant supply of oil will generally flush out


the impurities sufficiently to permit operation.

If the trouble is caused by foreign matter in the oil, the oil will have to be renovated or renewed. If the bearings are out of alignment, if they are set up too tightly, or if they have been improperly fitted, the fault cannot be fully remedied until the improper adjustments have been rectified. This usually involves stopping the engine.

In all cases the temperature of the bearing can be lowered by slowing down and thus decreasing the amount of load on the bearing. If the trouble has reached an advanced stage, it may be found necessary to stop the engine. When stopped, the bearing cap can be eased up a slight amount, thus increasing the clearance between the bearing and journal. However, the greatest care must be exercised in easing up on the bearing cap, for if too great a clearance is given, trouble will be experienced from pounding.

When the trouble is inherent in the bearing -as for example, if the machinery is not properly lined up, or the bearings are of insufficient area, or not in proper condition-only temporary relief can be secured from using the various means suggested above. The most effective treatment of a hot bearing is probably the operation of the machinery at a low or moderate power until such time as the needed readjustments, changes, or repairs can be effected.

To summarize the treatment for a hot bearing, the measures to be taken may be selected according to the special circumstances, from the following:

1. Lubrication.

2. Slowing down, and consequent reduction of load, or stopping.

3. Cooling water to oil cooler.

4. Easing up bearing caps.

Even though relief is obtained by the above measures, it should be borne in mind that once a precision bearing has wiped, it is necessary to renew the bearing as soon as possible.

The wear on journals rotating in bearings is seldom, if ever, evenly distributed over the entire surface. Consequently the journal wears until it becomes eccentric or egg-shaped. This

  condition can become serious enough to cause bearing failures, and the only remedy is to machine or grind down the journal until it is again cylindrical. This, of course, will reduce the diameter and necessitate using a bearing of a different bore in order to effect the proper bearing clearances.

Journals should be kept smooth, even, and free of rust at all times. To remove spots of rust or ridges, the journal should be dressed with a fine file and then lapped with an oilstone or with an oilstone powder. Carborundum may also be used. If Carborundum is used, great care must be taken to remove all particles, as these, if allowed to remain, will cause cutting and grinding of bearings.

When bearings have been removed for long periods, such as during a major overhaul, it is customary to wrap the journals with canvas in order to protect them from accidental damage. When this is done, only new canvas should be used. There have been cases where journals were wrapped with old rags or burlap that contained some acid. The action of this acid corroded and pitted the journals and it was found necessary to renew the entire shaft.

Each time a bearing is removed for any reason the journal should be carefully inspected. Any evidence of pitting or general corrosion indicates the presence of acid or water, and the lubricating oil should be analyzed immediately. When a bearing clearance exceeds the allowable tolerance, or when the bearing fails due to scoring, wiping, spalling, or cracking, looseness of the bearing metal, or for any other reason, it must be renewed.

To renew a precision type bearing it is first necessary to have available a spare bearing. These are manufactured to size and are available from the manufacturer. They are bored to correct dimensions, so that only a slight amount of scraping in and filing of the edges of the shell faces is required to produce an accurate fit. There seems to be a tendency to renew Satco bearings before it is necessary. A slight amount of spalling is not necessarily an indication that the bearing properties of the metal are destroyed.


11B1. GM elastic coupling. The crankshaft of the GM 16-278A engine is connected to the generator shaft by means of an elastic coupling. The elastic coupling connects the engine to the generator flexibly by means of radial spring packs. The power from the engine is transmitted from the inner ring, or spring holder of the coupling, through a number of spring packs to the outer spring holder, or driven member. A large driving disk connects the outer spring holder to

Figure 11-1. Elastic coupling cross section, GM.
Figure 11-1. Elastic coupling cross section, GM.

the flange on the driven shaft. The pilot on the end of the crankshaft fits into a bronze bushed bearing on the outer driving disk to center the driven shaft. The turning gear ring gear is pressed onto the rim of the outer spring holder.

The inner driving disk through which the camshaft gear is driven is fastened to the outer spring holder. A splined ring gear is bolted to

  the inner driving disk. This helical internal gear fits on the outer part of the crankshaft gear and forms an elastic drive through the crankshaft gear which rides on the crankshaft. The splined ring gear is split and the two parts bolted together with a spacer block at each split joint. This makes it possible to engage separately the two parts of the splined ring with the crankshaft gear teeth, and to slide them into position with the idler gear in place.

The parts of the elastic coupling are lubricated with oil flowing from the bearing bore of the crankshaft gear through the pilot bearing.

11B2. F-M flexible coupling. The crankshaft coupling on an F-M installation consists of three parts: the engine coupling driving half, the laminated rings, and the generator coupling driven half. The coupling driving half is fastened to the lower crankshaft with fitted bolts, and the coupling driven half is likewise fastened to the generator shaft. Power from the engine is transmitted through the laminated rings by means of a third set of fitted bolts held in place by ring bolt spacers.

Pilot rings between the ends of the generator shaft and the crankshaft form a safety guide in the event of failure of other parts. Tapped holes for jackscrews and drilled holes for body fitted bolts are provided in the lower flanges of the cylinder blocks. To permit fitting of the coupling bolts to the generator shaft, it is necessary to remove the lower and upper halves of the end cover back of the coupling driver half, the lower bearing cap, and the lower crankcase side cover at the vertical drive compartment.

Guards and two jackscrews of different lengths are furnished with the tools by the engine manufacturer for use in removing and installing the coupling bolts. The guards protect the bolt threads and are tapered to facilitate entry of the bolts when fitting.

When installing coupling bolts in either set, the shorter jackscrew should be used for starting the installation and the longer jackscrew for completing it.


Figure 11-2. Crankshaft coupling, F-M.
Figure 11-2. Crankshaft coupling, F-M.
11C1. General. Good engine and generator performance can be obtained only if the original coupling installation is made with the components in correct alignment and with correct clearances. The problem of originally aligning a generator set and subsequent checking arise quite frequently during submarine wartime operations. The original alignment, of course, is extremely important as it greatly influences future operation and adjustment of the engine. During navy yard overhauls it is common practice to take motors and generators out of the ship for overhaul, and the young engineer officer or new leading chief motor machinist's mate is frequently called upon to check an alignment job being done by naval shipyard personnel. It as also become routine to check crankshaft alignment to some degree after an engine overhaul in which many of the engine parts have been renewed. This may be only a checking of the crank cheek deflections with the use of a strain gage, but even this will give the operating personnel a   good idea as to the status of the alignment of the equipment. The most important and most difficult job of alignment is the complete installation, of a generator set. The salient points of these installations will be covered in the following paragraphs. When the principles involved in a complete alignment job are understood, smaller alignment problems become relatively simple.

NOTE. Alignment tests and corrective measures should never be undertaken when a vessel is in drydock because the alignment of the shafting is not the same when the vessel is waterborne as when it is in dock.

11C2. Strain gage readings. The strain gage is basically a micrometer for measuring the differences in distance between the two webs or cheeks of a crankshaft during a revolution of the shaft. As previously stated, one of the basic alignment procedures is the taking of strain gage readings. This is a relatively simple


Figure 11-3. Position of crankshaft for strain gage readings.
Figure 11-3. Position of crankshaft for strain gage readings.
Figure 11-4. Measuring crank check deflection with a strain gage.
Figure 11-4. Measuring crank check deflection with a strain gage.

undertaking but it is important that the procedure be followed exactly for best results. A series of strain gage readings of a crankshaft gives a measurement of the crank cheek deflection for various angular positions of the shaft. The measurement is accomplished by placing the gage between the engine crankshaft cheeks. The gage should be installed with its two endpoints in the crankshaft prick-punch marks. The crankshaft should be turned to its initial position so that the gage will be as close to the top position as possible without touching the connecting rod. The dial of the strain gage is then set on zero, and the crankshaft is slowly jacked over to subsequent positions as shown in Figure 11-3 and the readings taken. When taking the readings, the gage should not be allowed to rotate about its end-points.

After the readings have been taken for one revolution of the crankshaft, they should be compared, and the maximum crank deflection obtained. Large variations in the individual readings indicate some type of misalignment in the installation.

11C3. Alignment of engine crankshaft with one bearing generator. This type of installation is that normally found on F-M generator sets. There are many recognized methods of accomplishing alignment of engine and generator. The following procedure is one method and is discussed more from the standpoint of alignment principles than of a standardized alignment procedure.

Generators and crankshafts that are being coupled together must be in alignment. This condition is attained by moving the shaft bearing supports vertically and horizontally until the two halves of the coupling are true to each other or until the axes of the two shafts coincide at the point where they are coupled. The operation usually involves movement of the entire generator casing.

In the following alignment it is assumed that the engine is already located. Before starting alignment, the amount of crankshaft cheek deflection should be known and recorded in order to be able to make a comparative check during and after the alignment has been completed. The crankshaft cheek deflection readings should agree within approximately 0.002 inches.

  Figure 11-5. Using hydraulic jack to adjust height
of generator body for proper vertical alignment.
Figure 11-5. Using hydraulic jack to adjust height of generator body for proper vertical alignment.

In all modern submarines the engines are attached to a generator rather than directly to propeller shafts. When a generator is being installed, it should be originally placed as nearly as possible in final alignment. Subsequent procedure is as follows:

1. Attach the driven half of the crankshaft coupling to the driver half by installing the outer row of bolts around the coupling. Tighten the bolts evenly.

2. Secure the generator shaft to the flexible coupling by installing coupling bolts through the flange on the end of the generator shaft into the driven flange of the coupling.

3. Check the strain gage measurements to determine whether or not the coupling operation has affected the original reading. If a large change is noted at a particular position of the crankshaft, it indicates that the coupling has placed a strain on the crankshaft.

4. Check the thickness of the flexible coupling with a micrometer. The measurements should be made at the top and bottom, inboard and outboard. Compare the measurements with


Figure 11-6. Using portable block and jack screw to
adjust generator body for proper lateral alignment.
Figure 11-6. Using portable block and jack screw to adjust generator body for proper lateral alignment.

Figure 11-8. Using portable block and jack screw to
adjust generator for proper thrust clearance.
Figure 11-8. Using portable block and jack screw to adjust generator for proper thrust clearance.

  Figure 11-7. Measuring generator thrust bearing
Figure 11-7. Measuring generator thrust bearing clearances.

Figure 11-9. Measuring crankshaft thrust bearing
clearance toward control end of F-M engine.
Figure 11-9. Measuring crankshaft thrust bearing clearance toward control end of F-M engine.


the established dimension stamped on the flange by the manufacturer. For example, the manufacturer's dimension is 5.225 inches. The outboard measurement as made with the micrometer is 5.250 inches. The inboard measurement is 5.200 inches. This indicates that the generator shaft is placing a strain on the inboard side of the coupling and is probably also affecting the strain gage reading on the crankshaft. Therefore, the generator casing and shaft must be moved outboard 0.025 inches to balance the readings on the coupling and to remove the strain from the crankshaft. Normally, this should bring the strain gage readings back to the original readings.

If a difference in the measurement of the coupling, against the stamped dimension, occurs at the top or bottom of the coupling, the generator casing and shaft will necessarily have to be raised or lowered to effect a balanced condition. The height of the generator casing and shaft may be adjusted by means of hydraulic jacks placed under the casing as shown in Figure 11-5. When the proper height is attained, block up the casing, remove the jacks, and install shims between the feet and the permanent pedestals on the deck.

The generator shaft and casing may be moved inboard or outboard by installing a portable block and jack screw against the edge of the side foot mountings of the casing as shown in Figure 11-6. To check the distance of the movement, attach a dial indicator on the opposite pedestal with the indicator pointer touching the edge of the opposite foot of the casing.

5. Remove the generator thrust bearing cap and measure the generator shaft thrust bearing clearances (Figure 11-7). The clearances should measure 0.0075 inch (approximately) at each end and on each side of the bearing in an F-M installation. If it is found, for example, that there is no clearance at the thrust face away from the engine, the generator casing must be moved toward the engine 0.0075 inch with a portable block and jack screw (Figure 11-8). This operation, however, should not be accomplished until the crankshaft thrust bearing clearances have been measured, since it is possible that only one movement of the casing will be needed to correct both crankshaft

  Figure 11-10. Measuring crankshaft thrust bearing
clearance toward generator end of F-M engine.
Figure 11-10. Measuring crankshaft thrust bearing clearance toward generator end of F-M engine.

and generator thrust bearing clearances.

6. Measure the crankshaft thrust bearing clearances by inserting a feeler gage between the crank cheek and the face of the bearing (Figure 11-9), and between the vertical drive gear and the generator end of the bearing face (Figure 11-10). The total clearance should measure between 0.004 and 0.010 inch evenly distributed on both sides. If the clearance on one side is greater than on the other, it will be necessary to move the generator shaft in one direction or the other to balance the measurements.

Any movement of the shaft will affect the clearances at the generator thrust bearing. It may also affect the strain gage readings and the setting of the flexible coupling. Additional movement, therefore, of the shaft, or the casing may be necessary to bring about a balanced condition. A check should be made after every move and steps taken to correct any offset condition which may have been brought about by a previous move.

7. Movement of the generator casing, or


the shaft, will probably have some effect on the generator air gap (the space between the armature windings and the pole pieces). The air gap must be uniform around the diameter of the armature. The clearance should be kept within the limits specified by the manufacturer of the generator. Air gap measurements are taken with long thickness gages furnished for this purpose. The gages are inserted between the armature winding and each pole. When the air gap is found to be greater at the top than on the bottom, the generator casing will have to be lowered by loosening the jacking screws located on the side feet of the casing. If the gap is greater at the bottom, the casing must be raised with the jacking screws, and shims inserted between the side feet and the pedestals.

Assuming that the shaft alignment has been completed and is true, it will be necessary to secure the rear foot of the generator casing to the rear pedestal with a C-clamp. This will hold the alignment of the shaft while the casing is moved for adjustment of the air gap.

After attaining a balanced air gap, correct shims should be installed. A complete recheck of all clearances should be made to verify the alignment installation. This check must include another set of strain gage readings. Before this final check, the generator casing should be rigidly secured in position with a C-clamp to prevent any possible movement of the casing.

11C4. Alignment of engine crankshaft with two-bearing generator. This type of installation is typified by the GM generator set. The GM engine is connected to the generator by means of an elastic coupling. A procedure to follow in aligning a generator to the coupling is as follows:

1. Take strain gage readings to determine the amount of crank cheek deflection. The maximum permissible deflection in a GM engine is 0.0035 inch. The measurement should be re-recorded for reference after completing the alignment.

2. Check the engine crankshaft thrust bearing clearances with feeler gages. Clearance should total approximately 0.030 inch, equally divided on both sides of the bearing. If the clearance is greater on one side of the bearing

  than on the other, the crankshaft must be moved in whichever direction will balance the clearances. This may be accomplished with a pinch bar placed between the crank cheeks and the engine framework. After clearances have been balanced, the crankshaft must be blocked with hardwood wedges placed between the crank cheeks and the framework, to prevent movement of the crankshaft during the coupling operation.

3. Determine the amount of fore-and-aft movement of the elastic coupling. This measurement is made by placing the pointer of a dial indicator against the face of the outer driving disk of the coupling. The indicator may be secured to the upper half of the coupling housing and the pointer should touch the driving disk near the center. The coupling is then forced as far forward or aft as possible, with a pinch bar, and the dial indicator is set on zero. Make a prick-punch mark on the face of the outer spring holder in line with the jacking gear pointer. Then force the coupling as far as possible in the opposite direction and make another mark. The dial indicator reading denotes the full fore-and-aft movement of the coupling, which normally is about 0.0125 inch. In order to divide the coupling thrust evenly between the engine and the generator, the coupling must now be moved to the center of its thrust or 0.0625 inch using the dial indicator as a guide. Make a third prick-punch mark between the two previously made. This mark is the reference mark used to check the center of the coupling thrust after alignment has been completed.

4. Remove the outer driving disk from the coupling and bolt it to the flange on the generator shaft. Check the amount of deflection of the face of the disk with a dial indicator by turning the generator armature one complete revolution. The deflection should not exceed 0.001 inch. Next, place the indicator pointer against the rim of the disk, rotate the shaft one revolution, and check the amount of deflection. This measurement should also be within 0.001 inch. If the amount of deflection, on either the face or the rim of the disk, is greater than 0.001 inch, the condition may be corrected by loosening the bolts and recentering the disk or by cleaning the inner surfaces of both disks.


Figure 11-11. Elastic coupling, outer driving disk
removed, GM.
Figure 11-11. Elastic coupling, outer driving disk removed, GM.

Figure 11-13. Mastic coupling, outer driving disk
mounted, GM.
Figure 11-13. Mastic coupling, outer driving disk mounted, GM.

  Figure 11-12. Elastic coupling, inner spring holder
removed, GM.
Figure 11-12. Elastic coupling, inner spring holder removed, GM.

Figure 11-14. Elastic coupling, outer driving disk
mounted on generator, GM
Figure 11-14. Elastic coupling, outer driving disk mounted on generator, GM


After obtaining deflection readings within 0.001 inch, the bolts, the driving disk, and the generator shaft flanges must be marked so that they may be replaced in their respective positions when the generator is coupled to the elastic coupling. Before removing the flange, the dowel holes must be reamed for the body-bound dowels. Dowels and dowel holes must also be marked so that they will be replaced in their respective positions.

5. Remove the driving disk from the generator shaft and reinstall it on the elastic coupling.

6. Install the upper half of the elastic coupling housing. Move the generator toward the engine. Approximate axial alignment may be attained with the jacking screws on the generator feet. Inboard and outboard alignment may be attained by use of portable blocks and jack screws working against the edges of the generator feet. When an alignment as nearly perfect as possible has been attained, the generator is moved farther toward the engine and the generator shaft carefully inserted into the bore of the driving disk.

Align the marked dowels with their corresponding dowel holes. If the generator is properly aligned, the dowels will slide into their dowel holes. No attempt should be made to force the dowels. If they cannot be inserted by hand, the generator must be moved until perfectly aligned.

After installing the dowels, secure the coupling to the generator shaft flange by installing the tap bolts.

7. Remove the generator thrust bearing cap, then remove the bearing. Carefully inspect and clean the bearing. Replace the lower half of the bearing and check the thrust clearances

  with feeler gages. The thrust should be evenly divided between the two sides. If the thrust clearance is greater on one side than on the other, the generator housing must be moved until a balanced condition is attained.

8. Remove the hardwood blocks securing the crankshaft. Recheck the engine crankshaft thrust bearing clearances and the setting of the elastic coupling in relation to the center prickpunch mark. If either the bearing or the coupling has moved, the condition must be corrected by moving the crankshaft, the coupling, or the generator. If any move is made, it will be necessary to recheck the engine crankshaft thrust, the coupling, and the generator thrust bearing.

When all clearances are correct, a strain gage reading must be taken and checked against the recorded original reading. A change in the strain gage reading indicates misalignment, a condition which, at this point, can be corrected only by moving the generator.

After perfect alignment has been attained, measure the space between the generator feet and the pedestals and install suitable shims. Back off the generator feet jack screws so that the full weight of the generator will be on the shims. Another strain gage reading must then be taken to check whether or not the shims have affected the setting of the generator. If a change is noted, it can be corrected by cutting down or adding to the thickness of the shims. If no change is noted, drill the dowel holes and install the dowels; then drill the bolt holes and install the bolts.

A final check is made by rotating the engine with the jacking gear several revolutions in the direction of rotation and then rechecking all clearances. A slight variation in clearances, if found at this time, is permissible.


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