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Drawing of bottom of periscope, handles down

The Fleet Type Submarine Online


The Fleet Type Submarine manual cover
Folks,

The Fleet Type Submarine, Navpers 16160, is the first in a series of submarine training manuals that was completed just after WW II. The series describes the peak of WW II US submarine technology.

In this online version of the manual we have attempted to keep the flavor of the original layout while taking advantage of the Web's universal accessibility. Different browsers and fonts will cause the text to move, but the text will remain roughly where it is in the original manual. In addition to errors we have attempted to preserve from the original (for example, it was H.L. Hunley, not CS Huntley), this text was captured by a combination of optical character recognition and human typist. Each method creates errors that are compounded while encoding for the Web. Please report any typos, or particularly annoying layout issues with the Mail Feedback Form for correction.

Our thanks to Shelly Shelstad, creator of History on CD ROM for permitting us to use images he has scanned, particularly the oversized images that were meticulously pieced together. History on CD ROM sells a very nice CD or thumb drive version of this manual in PDF format for easy access off the web and for a printing. Thanks also to Bonnie Steigler for her typing services, and IKON Office Solutions (now Ricoh USA http://www.ricoh-usa.com) for scanning services.

Richard Pekelney
Editor


Drawing of bottom of periscope, handles down Search MARITIME.ORG


NavPers 16160
Produced for ComSubLant by
Standards and Curriculum Division
Training, Bureau of Naval Personnel
The Fleet Type Submarine
June 1946
RESTRICTED
 


This is one of a series of Submarine
Training Manuals. The series includes:
 
1. The Fleet Type Submarine NavPers 16160
2. Submarine Main Propulsion Diesels NavPers 16161
3. Submarine Electrical Installations NavPers 16162
4. Submarine Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Systems NavPers 16163
5. Submarine Distilling Systems Navpers 16163A
6. Submarine Air Systems NavPers 16164
7. Submarine Periscope Manual NavPers 16165
8. Submarine Trim and Drain Systems NavPers 16166
9. Submarine Sonar Operator's Manual NavPers 16167
10. Submarine Underwater Log Systems NavPers 16168
11. Submarine Hydraulic Systems NavPers 16169
12. Torpedo Tubes, 21-Inch submerged, Mks 32 to 39 O.P. 1085
 
ii

PREFACE
 

The Submarine School, Submarine Base, New London, Connecticut, and other activities of Submarines Atlantic Fleet, have collaborated in the preparation of this manual. It is designed to serve as both an instruction and an operation manual.

Since, in wartime, changes in design and construction developed rapidly as a result of battle experience, it became increasingly difficult to incorporate into this text all classes of submarines. Therefore, the USS Perch, or SS313, was selected as representative of the class discussed and described in the text. In some instances, however, it was found desirable to make reference to later units and to describe and illustrate these newer installations so that a more complete text would result.

The manual on the fleet type submarine includes descriptive information covering:

a. Submarine history and development
b. Submarine construction
c. Submarine systems
d. Submarine operations
e. Submarine training
 
iii

CONTENTS
 
SUBMARINE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT
 
CHAPTER 1. DEVELOPMENT OF THE SUBMARINE
  A. Early Underwater Devices 1
  B. Early Submarines 2
  C. Modern Submarines 4
  D. General Data 6
 
SUBMARINE CONSTRUCTION
 
CHAPTER 2. DEFINITIONS AND PHRASEOLOGY  
  A. General Definitions 17
  B. Standard Phraseology 19
  C. Common Abbreviations 21
CHAPTER 3. COMPARTMENTATION AND EXTERIOR INSTALLATIONS  
  A. Compartmentation 22
  B. Exterior Installations 38
CHAPTER. 4. TANK ARRANGEMENTS  
  A. Tanks 39
  B. Water Ballast Tanks 43
  C. Main Ballast Tanks 44
  D. Variable Ballast Tanks 46
  E. Special Ballast Tanks 46
  F. Fuel Ballast Tanks 48
  G. Additional Tanks 50
CHAPTER 5. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY
  A. Buoyancy 53
  B. Stability 55
 
iv

SUBMARINE SYSTEMS  
 
CHAPTER 6. ENGINEERING PLANT  
  A. Type of Drive 62
  B. Engines 62
  C. Electrical Equipment 65
  D. Auxiliary Equipment 70
  E. Circuits and Switchboards 73
CHAPTER 7. VENTILATION SYSTEM  
  A. Ventilation Arrangement 76
  B. Air Purification 82
  C. Valves 85
CHAPTER 8. REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEMS  
  A. Principles of Mechanical Refrigeration 95
  B. Mechanical Details of Air-Conditioning System 96
CHAPTER 9. WATER SYSTEM  
  A. Introduction 99
  B. Fresh Water System 99
  C. Battery Water System 101
  D. Galley Equipment 101
  E. Plumbing 102
  F. Heads 102
  G. Distillation 103
CHAPTER 10. TRIM AND DRAIN SYSTEMS  
  A. Trim System 108
  B. Trim Pump 109
  C. Manifolds 114
  D. Valves 117
  E. Drain System 117
  F. Drain Pump 119
  G. Valves and Fittings 119
 
v

CHAPTER 11. AIR SYSTEMS  
  A. General Data 122
  B. Types and Relationships of Air Systems 122
  C. High-Pressure Air and Torpedo Impulse Air Systems 123
  D. The 600-Pound Main Ballast Tank Blowing System 125
  E. The 225-Pound Air System (Ship's Service Air) 126
  F. The 10-Pound Main Ballast Tank Blowing System 129
  G. Salvage Air System 129
CHAPTER 12. MAIN HYDRAULIC SYSTEM  
  A. Introduction 132
  B. Power Generating System 135
  C. Operations 141
  D. Forward and After Service Lines 143
  E. Emergency Steering and Plane Tilting Systems 144
CHAPTER 13. THE STEERING SYSTEM  
  A. Introduction 145
  B. Description 145
  C. Operations 150
CHAPTER 14. BOW AND STERN PLANES SYSTEMS  
  A. Introduction 156
  B. Bow and Stern Plane Diving Gear 156
  C. Operations 157
CHAPTER 15. ANCHOR HANDLING GEAR AND CAPSTANS  
  A. Anchor Handling Gear 161
  B. Capstans 161
  C. Operations 162
CHAPTER 16. FUEL AND LUBRICATING OIL SYSTEMS  
  A. Fuel Oil System 163
  B. Reserve Fuel Oil Tanks 166
  C. Lubricating Oil System 167
 
vi

SUBMARINE OPERATIONS
 
CHAPTER 17. GENERAL SURFACE OPERATIONS  
  A. Officer of the Deck 170
  B. Ship Handling 171
  C. Standard Phraseology 173
CHAPTER 18. GENERAL DIVING OPERATIONS  
  A. Submerging 175
  B. Submerged Operation 177
  C. Surfacing 181
  D. Phraseology 182
CHAPTER 19. COMPENSATION  
  A. General 183
  B. Compensation by Moments 183
  C. The Compensation Curve 186
  D. Compensation by Percentage 188
CHAPTER 20. PATROL ROUTINE  
  A. Introduction 191
  B. Duties of Watch Standers 191
  C. Diving and Surfacing Procedures 196
  D. Approach Officer 199
  E. Torpedo Rooms 199
  F. Standard Phraseology 199
 
SUBMARINE TRAINING
 
CHAPTER 21. SUBMARINE TRAINING DEVICES  
  A. General 201
  B. The Attack Teacher 201
  C. The Diving Trainer. 201
  D. The Torpedo Tube Trainer 204
APPENDIX. COMPREHENSIVE DRAWINGS Back of book
 
vii

ILLUSTRATIONS
 
1-1 The Turtle of David Bushnell, from a drawing by Lt. F. M. Barber, USN, 1875 2
1-2 Fulton's Nautilus, about 1800 3
1-3 The Huntley, one of numerous "Davids" constructed during the War Between the States 4
1-4 The Argonaut Jr. 5
1-5 USS O-7 (1918) 6
1-6 USS R-6 (1919) 7
1-7 USS S-17 (1921) 7
1-8. USS S-46 (1925) 8
1-9 USS Narwhal (1930) 8
1-10 USS Blackfin (1944) 9
1-11 Type of construction, showing arrangement of compartments without the superstructure or tanks 10
1-12. Type of construction, showing the general arrangement of the superstructure 10
1-13. Torpedo tubes 12
1-14. Deck gun, 5"/'25 12
1-15. Anti-aircraft gun, 40 mm 13
1-16. Anti-aircraft gun. 20 mm 13
1-17. Small arms and pyrotechnics 14
1-18. Conning tower, looking aft 14
1-19. Lower portion of a modern periscope 15
3-1. Forward torpedo room 23
3-2. Forward battery compartment 24
3-3. Control room (starboard side) and radio room 26
3-4. Control room 27
3-5. Pump room 28
3-6. Conning tower 30
3-7. After battery compartment and crew's quarters 31
3-8. Forward engine room 32
3-9. After engine room 34
3-10. Maneuvering room, above platform deck 35
3-11. Motor room 36
3-12. After torpedo room 37
4-1. Venting and flooding arrangement 45
4-2. Tank connections 47
4-3. Tank arrangement 49
5-1. Buoyancy depends on volume 53
5-2. Volume of displacement is changed 54
 
viii

5-3. States of equilibrium 55
5-4. The metacenter. 56
5-5. A submarine on the surface 56
5-6. Change of center of buoyancy and metacenter during submergence 57
5-7. The center of buoyancy shifts 57
5-8. The effect of shape and freeboard on stability 58
5-9. Stability increases with lengths of waterline 59
5-10. Effect of free surface on stability 60
6-1. General arrangement of main propulsion equipment 63
6-2. General Electric main propulsion control cubicle 68
6-3. Split type main propulsion control cubicle 69
7-1. Engine induction and ship's supply outboard valve. 77
7-2. Ventilation blower 79
7-3. Battery ventilation 80
7-4. Carbon dioxide absorbent 83
7-5. Oxygen tank 85
7-6. Engine induction hull valves 86
7-7. Bulkhead flapper valves 88
7-8. Ventilation operation condition No. 1 89
7-9. Ventilation operation condition No. 2 89
7-10. Ventilation operation condition No. 3 90
7-11. Ventilation operation condition No. 4 90
7-12. Ventilation operation condition No. 5 91
7-13. Ventilation operation condition No. 7 91
7-14. Schematic diagram of the ventilation system 92
9-1. Ship's fresh water filling valve 99
9-2. Try cocks 100
9-3. Expulsion type head 102
9-4. Gravity flush type head 103
9-5. Kleinschmidt distillers 104
9-6. Distiller controls 106
10-1. Trim pump 110
10-2. Trim pump controls 111
10-3. Priming pump 112
10-4. Trim manifold 115
10-5. Drain pump 120
10-6. Drain pump controls 121
11-1. Compressed air systems 124
12-1. IMO pump 134
12-2. Hydraulic accumulator 136
 
ix

12-3. Main hydraulic control station 137
12-4. Charging the hydraulic accumulator 139
12-5. Accumulator discharging 140
13-1. Waterbury speed gear 147
13-2. Steering stand 149
13-3. Change valve 151
13-4. Stroke adjuster 151
13-5. Shifting steering control 151
13-6. Steering wheel 151
13-7 Starting control 152
13-8 Starting control 152
13-9. Change valve 152
13-10 Stroke Adjuster 152
13-11. Shifting steering control 155
13-12. Steering wheel 153
13-13. Starting control 153
13-14. Change valve 153
13-15. Main cutout manifold 154
13-16. Emergency steering 154
13-17. Emergency steering wheel 154
13-18. Emergency control valve lock 154
13-19. Shifting steering control 155
13-20. Emergency connecting link 155
14-1. Diving control station 158
16-1. Transfer and purifier pump 164
16-2. Lubricating oil purifier 166
16-3. Fuel oil system 168
18-1 The hull opening indicator light panel 176
18-2. Forces affecting depth control 178
19-1. Compensation by moments 187
19-2. Compensation by percentage 189
21-1. The diving trainer 202
21-2. The torpedo tube trainer 203
A-1. Compartmentation Back of book
A-2. Exterior installations Back of book
A-3. General arrangement of the tanks Back of book
A-4. Main ballast tanks and fuel ballast tanks Back of book
A-5. Variable ballast tanks and sanitary tanks Back of book
A-6. Special ballast tanks and lubricating oil tanks Back of book
A-7. Fuel ballast tanks, normal fuel tanks, and collecting and expansion tanks Back of book
 
x

A-8. Fresh water and battery water systems Back of book
A-9. Main propulsion plant Back of book
A-10. Ventilation system Back of book
A-11. Refrigeration system Back of book
A-12. Trim and drain systems Back of book
A-13. Air system comprehensive Back of book
A-14. High-pressure air system Back of book
A-15. The 600-pound main ballast tank blowing system Back of book
A-16. The 225-pound service air system Back of book
A-17. The 10-pound main ballast tank blowing system Back of book
A-18. Salvage air system Back of book
A-19. Main hydraulic system Back of book
A-20 Steering system Back of book
A-21. Bow and stern planes system Back of book
A-22. Bow plane rigging and tilting by power Back of book
A-23. Bow plane tilting by hand Back of book
A-24. Bow plane rigging by hand Back of book
A-25. Stern plane tilting in emergency Back of book
A-26. Windlass and capstan gear Back of book
A-27. Fuel oil and compensating system Back of book
A-28. Inboard section of a fleet type submarine Back of book
 
xi

 

Photo of submarine underway


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