DAMAGE-CONTROL ORGANIZATION, CONT'D.
23-1. Necessity for efficient organization. To insure that his ship is properly organized for the control of damage is one of the chief concerns of any Commanding Officer, and under him, his executive officer. Navy Regulations state that "the damage control officer... shall assist the executive officer... , particularly in coordinating all departments in the ship's organization for damage control...".
The control of damage is largely dependent upon taking measures prior to an action to reduce and localize the effects of hits. To do this effectively requires organization. A ship's organization for battle usually is divided into four primary controls: fire control, ship control, engine control, and damage control. Carriers have flight control in addition.
The battle stations manned by the ship's officers and men are tabulated in the ship's battle bill. It is important that this bill list sufficient stations under the damage-control section to properly man the damage-control organization. The executive officer of the ship, under the Commanding Officer, is responsible for the preparation of the battle bill. He is guided by Fleet and type directives and instructions. The damage control officer, in conjunction with other department heads, should assist the executive officer in seeing that a workable battle organization for damage control is included in the ship's battle bill.
23-2. Damage control organization of large ships. FTP-170B, Chapter 6, lists a standard type damage-control organization for large ships, which is also to be followed as closely as practicable on smaller ships. This organization includes the following groups:
1. A damage-control station. (Headquarters.)
|Repair I... ||Deck or topside repair party.
|Repair II... ||Forward below decks repair party.
|Repair III... ||After below decks repair party.
|Repair IV... ||Amidships below decks repair party.
|Repair V... ||Engineer repair party.
|Repair VI... ||Ordnance repair party.
And, on carriers:|
|Repair VII... ||Gasoline repair party.
|Repair VIII... ||Flight deck repair party.
The damage-control station is the battle station of the damage control officer. It should be in as central and well-protected a location as possible. On a large ship, this station should be manned by a group including a stability control officer, a casualty board operator and damage analyst, sufficient well-trained phone talkers (yeomen are frequently available for this and should be trained to record messages as they receive them), representatives of fuel-oil transfer, electrical, and ordnance groups, and necessary additional ratings who are thoroughly familiar with the ship and its systems, to assist the damage control officer when emergencies arise.
Each repair party has a specifically located headquarters, and is further subdivided into patrols, units or secondary groups. This permits dispersal of personnel, as well as a wide coverage of the assigned areas. Responsible officers should be placed in charge of repair parties which should be operated as independent organizations, trained to act in accordance with previously determined policies laid down by the damage control officer and dependent upon the type of damage sustained. Full information, however, must be supplied the damage control officer by each repair party, and orders received from him carried out to the fullest extent.
In addition to the repair-party stations, battle dressing stations, first-aid stations and collection stations for wounded should be provided throughout the ship.
A free exchange of information between the damage-control, engine-control, ship-control and fire-control stations, and also between repair-party stations and the damage-control station, is essential. It can be maintained over various circuits (see Chapt. XXVIII) until severe damage interferes with or eliminates them. Secondary means of communication must also be provided. Messengers will have to be used when extreme damage has been encountered, and the damage-control organization must provide for them.
23-3. Small ship damage-control organization. The smaller ships' organizations for battle will be simpler than the foregoing, but should, by following the same general plan, realize an equivalent degree of readiness.
Quoting from the standard organization book for DE's: "No crew can be trained well in damage-control procedure if the ship does not possess an excellent damage-control organization. The lives of the ship and crew, as well as the ship's battle efficiency, depend to a large extent upon the thoroughness of the damage-control organization and training."
On DD's and DE's three repair parties are designated:
Repair I... Forward.
Repair II... Amidship.
Repair III... Aft.
The damage control officer of these ships takes station at Repair II, which is considered the main damage-control station. He is in communication with the Captain, chief engineer, and other repair and shin-control stations.
23-4. Chain of control. In any ship's damage-control organization, arrangements should be made for a designated repair station to take charge of damage-control activities should the damage-control station be destroyed or rendered unable to retain control. Other repair stations must be designated to assume control in turn, and to take over the functions of the damage-control station to the fullest extent possible.
In every organization there also should be provision for passing the control of each repair party and its operations down through the officers, petty officers and non-rated men, so that a battle emergency will not find any group unprepared and leaderless.
23-5. Damage-control and engineering casualty-control bills. Damage-control bills and engineering casualty-control bills are extremely important aids in organizing the ship for the control of damage. They normally are found in the books so named, and outline certain procedures to be followed. Each bill should be detailed with care, the damage control officer and engineering officer cooperating and consulting with each other in its preparation.
On the larger ships, repair-party personnel come from almost every department. On the smaller ones, engineering-department personnel make up the largest part of the repair parties. The active interest and cooperation of other department heads is, therefore, of utmost importance, and can best be obtained
by the unfailing efforts of the damage control officer himself.
23-6. Damage-control station: material and equipment. An examination of a large ship's battle organization for damage control will bring out various factors necessary for efficiency. One of these has to do with equipment provided in the damage-control station. The following items usually are provided:
1. Easy-to-read charts and diagrams suitably colored and labeled, showing the subdivision of the ship and its many systems should be prominently posted. Flooding effect and liquid loading diagrams, cross sections, and similar additional pictorial information and data must be posted also. A casualty board, and a system for showing continuously the state of ship closure should be installed.
2. Sound-powered telephone circuit outlets connecting with repair stations, repair groups, and main-control stations.
3. Inter-communicating systems fitted with loud speakers are installed for quick and easy communication between repair stations and between main and auxiliary control stations. At least one general announcing transmitter (1MC) is located in the damage-control station, and may be used in event that the damage-control announcing system (4MC) fails.
4. List, trim and draft indicators are installed so that the ship's position in the water may be determined instantly.
5. A fire-alarm annunciator board for magazine compartments is installed to indicate excessive temperatures therein.
23-7. Damage-control station personnel. It is essential that the personnel manning a large ship's damage-control station be as thoroughly acquainted with the ship and its battle organization as is humanly possible. It is important that all repair-party officers, including the assistant damage control officer, be trained to take charge of the damage-control station during battle, and to exercise the functions of the damage control officer from any of the repair stations.
Furthermore, subordinate officers and petty officers in the damage-control station itself must be able to continue its efficient operation should the damage control officer depart for the scene of any damage. When leaving on such a mission, the damage control officer should be accompanied by a competent talker (if possible capable of taking shorthand). This talker should carry a long-lead sound-powered phone, to be plugged in when the damaged area is reached.
Figure 23-A. An auxiliary locker to provide dispersal of repair equipment.
23-8. Repair-party stations equipment. Repair-party equipment allowed for any ship is cataloged in its BuShips hull allowance list. This gear should be distributed as widely as possible throughout the repair-party areas, consistent with convenient accessibility and secure stowage. Installation of identically equipped and stowed repair lockers throughout different repair-party areas is advocated, so that men can find equipment in any locker despite the presence of smoke.
Each repair-party station should have as much equipment as practicable in the form of diagrams, charts, spare phones, etc., to enable it to take over the duties of the damage-control station. This also enhances the efficiency of repair-party operation within its own area. Some large ship repair-party stations are now being equipped with diagram lockers, from which any diagram may be conveniently drawn out on to a small shelf which folds out of the way when not in use.
23-9. Repair-party organization. Repair I on a large ship is the topside repair party, and on a battleship, covers all of the ship above forward-and-aft of the "armored box". A large number of patrols, groups or units is established by subdivision. An experienced officer is in charge of Repair I, assisted by other officers, the ship's boatswain, chief petty officers and responsible petty officers. These assistants are in charge of the subdivided groups, units, or patrols, which are distributed throughout the upper deck areas from the superstructure down to the second deck. The subdivision of this and other repair parties varies considerably in different ships.
During battle a large number of men from different departments may be available for inclusion in the topside repair party (Repair I), and can perform valuable service when properly trained. Each repair party must have an adequate number of electrician's mates and pharmacist's mates attached to it.
Repair II, Repair III and Repair IV, the "below deck" hull repair parties, cover the forward, aft, and midship areas within the armored boundaries but outside of the main machinery spaces. They usually share with Repair VI the responsibility for the magazine spaces. The engineering repair party, Repair V, has headquarters convenient to the main machinery spaces. All of these repair parties have headquarters centrally located in their areas.
Like Repair I, these other parties are subdivided into patrols, groups, or units, which are well distributed throughout their own areas. The purpose of the
subdivision and dispersion is to cover the various areas more efficiently and to reduce the number of men who might be killed or injured by any one hit. FTP-170B, Chapter 6, should be studied carefully; it gives a brief but comprehensive outline of the composition and duties of major ship repair parties.
It is important that Repair V and VI be organized to work in coordination with Repair I, II, III and IV, and that they receive much the same training apart from their special work. It is desirable to have the repair parties conduct drills in competition with each other. A hearty spirit of competition between all of these "below deck" repair parties can effectively increase the ship's ability to resist damage.
Many organizational ideas, practices and procedures can be used to increase the efficiency of repair party organizations. One is to organize repair parties as independent units, each responsible to its own officer-in-charge. He should be made responsible for the training of his personnel, the condition of his equipment, and, in general, all matters pertaining to damage control in the area for which his party is responsible.
Another requirement is to shift repair party officers and other personnel at suitable intervals. It is, of course, not wise to shift too many people at any one time. But it is mandatory to increase the overall knowledge of the members of a damage-control organization by requiring them to serve in different repair parties. Many instances of battle damage have demonstrated the absolute necessity of training men in other areas than those to which these men are customarily assigned.
Moreover, it is recommended that the damage control officer establish a committee, composed of all repair-party officers (and possibly chief petty officers) for periodic meetings to discuss policies, methods of procedure and training, maintenance problems, etc. This group should include engineering and ordnance repair-party officers as well, since their help and cooperation can be of great value.
In organizing repair parties, maximum use should be made of the best men. Do not concentrate them; spread them around as much as possible. Each responsible petty officer should be made answerable for a repair-party group, a part of his repair area, and certain special equipment. This will be done by and through the repair-party officers, of course, but the damage control officer should see that it is done. The encouragement of officers to use their own initiative and to feel a strong personal responsibility for the
efficiency of their own repair-party organization cannot be recommended too strongly.
To sum up, repair parties should be divided into small groups, preferably of from four to six men each, led by a responsible petty officer, accountable for certain areas and certain equipment, in communication with repair-party stations, trained to set the battle material condition quickly, and finally, to act independently when necessary.
23-10. Organization for war cruising. "While cruising, and at such other times as ordinary prudence may dictate, a watch shall be kept in the damage-control station and in a designated repair station, and patrols shall he established throughout the ship as necessary to maintain the ship in the prescribed material condition and in readiness to control sudden damage.
"No doors, hatches, valves, or fittings required to be closed in the material condition being maintained may be opened without permission of the Commanding Officer through the damage control officer, or, on small vessels, through the officer of the deck. This applies as well to such facilities as ventilation, drainage, flushing, etc. A damage-control log shall be kept by the damage control watch officer or, in the case of small vessels, by the officer of the deck, which shall contain the following information:
1. Name and rank of individual making the request to open a particular fitting in violation of the material condition in existence.
2. The number and type of the fitting (e.g., W.T. Door 2-122-2).
3. The damage-control classification of the fitting.
4. The time opened.
5. The time closed.
In order that the damage-control patrol will have accurate knowledge of conditions in their assigned area and full knowledge of any authorized violations, the request for authority to open a particular fitting, except in extreme emergency, shall be transmitted through the damage-control patrol to the damage control watch officer. If the request is granted, the notification of closure shall also be transmitted through the damage-control patrol. All personnel shall be thoroughly indoctrinated as to the importance of material readiness. A wholesome respect for the inviolability of damage-control closures shall be engendered and the authority of the damage-control patrol and the damage-control watch officer with respect to the watertight and light-tight integrity and
fire protection of the ship shall be implemented by appropriate ship's orders." FTP-170B, Chapter 11.
In the damage-control station and at the repair stations manned, diagrams and records are kept to show which fittings are open and which systems are in operation. The status of fuel and water tanks shall be shown and kept up-to-date.
The condition in which a ship is cruising during war may determine its ability to survive a surprise attack. Unless the proper material condition is set, adhered to and continually checked by patrols, a ship may not be in the proper state to resist damage. This has been brought out repeatedly in action and war damage reports.
The ship's organization for war cruising, as listed in the battle bill must, therefore, provide for an adequate damage-control watch. This is of importance on small ships as well as large.
The activities of personnel standing damage-control watches during war cruising conditions should be organized to promote education and training of both themselves and other ship's personnel in damage-control methods and procedures while actually on watch. The opportunities for such activity are numerous and occur frequently through a complete 24 hour day, particularly at times when other routine activities are not scheduled.
A further type of organization is needed. This is the organization of the ship into groups for the purpose of training and educating all personnel in damage-control objectives and how to attain them.
23-11. Organizing for training and education in damage control. The necessity for training and educating the entire ship's personnel to the maximum extent consistent with their primary duties must never be overlooked. It is only by utilizing every opportunity that each individual can be made to understand clearly what part he plays in damage control and how to play it with the ultimate degree of success when the unexpected occurs with accompanying shock, confusion, benumbing intensity, and rapidity. It is then that the efficient organization, and planned training and education pay off in dividends of cool, confident, and prepared men, quick to apply what they have learned, and able to keep the ship afloat and fighting. Details of training and educational programs will be found in Chapter XXVI. Such a program is enhanced by organizing a staff of officers and key petty officers of all departments to act as instructors in specific phases of damage control. There need be no
lack of instructors on any ship, since after some intensive training and study of one subject an officer or key petty officer should be able to instruct others.
Divisions may be organized as secondary damage-control groups. The division officer or one of his junior officers would be division damage-control officer. Similarly, a key petty officer can be designated damage-control petty officer for the division. Such petty officers should be given instruction and supplied with educational materials. By passing this information on to the men in their division they can insure that their division understands its responsibility for watertight integrity and material conditions of closure.
23-12. Organizing an effective maintenance program. It is also necessary to set up efficient and reliable organizations for the purpose of maintaining to the highest degree possible the:
1. Ship's watertight integrity.
2. Efficient operation of hull systems.
3. Reliable operation of damage-control equipment.
4. Proper quantity and condition of damage-control materials.
A haphazard, hit and miss, "cross that bridge when we come to it" type of maintenance program, loosely controlled, with overlapping responsibilities vaguely defined among different departments, and among different groups within any particular department, constitutes a great danger to the success of any ship's offensive mission.
Maintaining the ship's watertight integrity is one of the primary responsibilities of the damage control officer. Given conscientious observance of their duties by division officers, and a faithful adherence to the air-test schedules, the damage control officer can insure that such integrity will be maintained. Supplementary, but of no less importance, will be any work done by Navy yards and other repair activities which affects watertight integrity. There should be provision that any ship will be more watertight after repairs or alterations than it was before. Extreme effort must be exerted to obtain this improvement, and to resist any deterioration whenever alterations are effected, or yard or tender work is done.
Close liaison between engineering and hull departments is necessary to insure that hull systems (including motivating machinery) will operate at
maximum efficiency when needed in an emergency. This is naturally a matter of primary concern to the damage control officer, but it is partially the engineer officer's responsibility. The division of responsibility between their departments should be clearly defined, and each should insist on such regular programs of inspections, testing, operation, upkeep, repair, replacement and renewal by their respective forces, as will eliminate the possibility of failure of any hull system through lack of attention. In each department it is necessary to fix direct responsibilities for such preventive maintenance in specifically detailed key personnel, who will have working groups responsible to them.
The provisions of the preceding paragraph apply as well to maintaining the equipment used primarily for damage control. It will be found advantageous to fix responsibility for this in the officer-in-charge of each repair party, or in one definite repair officer. Periodic inspections, tests and operations, accompanied by upkeep, repair, and necessary replacement of all equipment must be required. "Check-off list" type inspection or operating reports to be filled out and turned in by responsible personnel daily, weekly, or even monthly have been found helpful.
Similar arrangements should be made for insuring that a full allowance of the many materials necessary for damage-control activities is on hand, in good condition, and widely and intelligently distributed. A responsible member of the damage-control organization should be directly accountable to the damage-control officer for this. A constantly rotating inventory and inspection of all vital damage-control materials, supplemented by the necessary requisitions and regular reports is recommended. The supply officer can cooperate, and will contribute his facilities, his personnel and his personal assistance to the good cause. Such assistance, if not volunteered, should be solicited by the damage control officer.
Organizing a ship's company so that the incidence of damage will cause the minimum of interference with the accomplishment of the ship's offensive mission is a primary damage-control objective. The damage-control organization must be an integral part of the ship's organization as a whole, and, as such, must actually provide the means for attaining the overall objective.
THE REPAIR PARTY
24-1. Foreword. The officer-in-charge of each repair party is responsible for organizing and training personnel assigned to his station. A chain of command must be established within the unit so that it will continue to function effectively should the officer-in-charge be absent for any reason. The effectiveness of the organization depends largely upon the energy and ingenuity of the officer-in-charge.
Whether the ship is a battleship or a destroyer, the organization and training of the repair party is fundamentally the same, the principal differences being the number of men available and the total number of repair parties on the ship. These factors are governed by the size of the ship and its complement. The necessity for adequate training and effective organization of small ships' repair parties is perhaps greater because small ships have fewer men available for assignment.
24-2. Function of the repair party. The repair party is the damage control officer's representative at the scene of a casualty. At his battle station the damage control officer is the nerve center and directing force of the entire damage control organization. However, the orders and information which he gives to the individual repair parties handling battle damage cannot be all-inclusive. Many of his decisions must be delayed pending a complete and reliable estimate and analysis of the extent of damage, based upon the receipt of accurate reports. These reports to a large extent come from the repair party in the affected area. Likewise, should the damage-control station be knocked out during battle, its responsibilities must be carried on by the repair party previously designated as next in the chain of control. The overall effectiveness of the damage-control organization is directly proportional to the effectiveness of the links in its chain; namely, the individual repair parties.
24-3. Personnel of the repair party. While it would be desirable to have artificers from the hull department form the greater portion of the repair party on larger ships, these rates can at best only partially supply the repair party's requirements. Personnel
from other departments are required to round out the organization.
Electricians mates are indispensable to the repair party. They may, among other things, make emergency electrical repairs on the scene, direct the establishment of casualty power connections, test and locate damaged circuits, restore communication and fire-control circuits, provide the damage control officer and the electrical officer with information concerning the extent of electrical damage, and aid and advise men working around electrical damage to protect them from electrical shock or to prevent further damage to the ship's power system. FTP-170B requires that there be at least one electrician's mate with each repair party. Additional electrician's mates are desirable if the ship's organization permits their assignment. If more than one is available for any repair party, they should be distributed among its outlying units. An electrician's mate should always accompany the first investigating party sent to the scene of battle damage.
A hospital corpsman who accompanies a repair party to the scene of damage can often render first aid to men with minor wounds and return them to their battle station. Thus, for example, a gun which otherwise would have been lost to the ship during a critical period may be put back in service.
The fuel-oil gang should be represented by at least one and preferably two men on each repair party. These men must be familiar with the location of vent lines and sounding tubes to each fuel tank, the distribution of fuel and diesel oil, and the sequence for emptying tanks, and must have a complete knowledge of the fuel-oil filling, transfer and ballasting systems.
A yeoman capable of taking shorthand is very useful to a repair party as a phone talker and recorder. He is prepared to keep a complete log of incoming and outgoing messages, and thus the officer-in-charge of the repair party may have at hand ready information concerning conditions existing throughout the ship.
At least one storekeeper and preferably more should be assigned to each repair party. These men must be
Figure 24-1. Suggested organization of a BB repair party.
Figure 24-2. Suggested organization of repair parties on a DD or DE.
familiar with the location and contents of all supply department storerooms. Readily available knowledge concerning the nature of materials and the method of stowage is of greatest importance when fighting fires in and around storerooms, spare parts and equipment. Of equal importance is knowledge concerning the location of spare parts and repair equipment in the custody of the supply officer.
A radioman assigned to the topside repair party can assist greatly in repairing antennas or in rigging emergency antennas. There are other men who, with proper training, can be effectively assigned duties as patrols, messengers, and assistants to the artificers in handling tools and equipment.
24-4. Personnel assignments. An efficient repair party is organized in small groups or units, each with a definite classification as to its primary duties. These groups or units should be dispersed so that the entire repair party will not be wiped out by any single hit. A reliable petty officer should be placed in charge of each group to direct its activities in accordance with the desires of the repair party's officer-in-charge. This delegation of responsibility promotes active interest on the part of petty officers.
The group leader should assign definite and specific details to each man of the group, including responsibility for proper closure settings in the particular area, and the care and maintenance of equipment assigned.
War experience has shown that the repair party will function with a minimum of confusion during battle if a group organization of the following nature is set up at each main repair station on a large combatant ship:
1. The fire party, consisting of from four to six men (the number being commensurate with the size of the repair party). This group must provide rescue breathing apparatus, tending lines, canisters, and carbon dioxide. It precedes other groups in entering damaged areas to investigate for the existence of fires, explosive and toxic gases, etc.
2. The sounding party of from three to five men, whose job it is to determine the extent of flooding immediately after damage is sustained. The fuel-oil men may work with this group to locate contaminated fuel- and diesel-oil tanks.
3. The pump detail of from two to three men, to provide and rig portable submersible pumps and discharge hoses as required.
4. The lighting detail of from two to three men,
to provide and rig emergency lights or battery powered flood lamps.
5. The wreckage removal detail of from three to six men, to provide crow bars, mauls, jacks, chain-falls, etc., which may be required to clear wreckage from a fouled gun mount, director, or other piece of movable equipment.
The preceding breakdown of personnel assignments refers only to the assignment of definite duties. Each man must also be trained in all phases of handling damage in order to achieve maximum adaptability within the repair party. Any group unoccupied, due to the nature of damage, may then be detailed to assist other groups in carrying out their assignments.
Additional conditions apply to the engineer's repair party. It should have a similar type organization al. though the subdivisions thereof will be at some variance with those previously outlined. There must, of course, be a fire party as well as details for taking over the machinery spaces and operating the main propulsion plant, boilers, generators, pumps, evaporators and other engineering auxiliaries.
In addition to the above details at each main repair station, auxiliary units of the repair party are necessary to provide for personnel dispersal. One or more small groups of from four to six men each should be placed at outlying stations within the area for which the repair party is responsible, with a reliable petty officer in charge of each group. Such a unit must be in constant communication with the main repair party. Each auxiliary unit should have a designation by name or number in order to assure clarity in communications. Each unit should also have a small locker in which to stow rescue breathing apparatus, spare canisters, portable fire extinguishers, and an assortment of small tools. The unit may then function as a minor repair party within its own area. Outlying units may be stationed in compartments forward or aft of the main repair station, or may be located a deck above or on a deck below the main party.
Insofar as may be practicable, one man should be stationed as a patrol in each of the principal compartments within the area for which the main repair party is responsible. These patrols should have some system of communication with the parent repair party, either by direct means or by relay through other units of the main party, keeping the officer-in-charge informed as to conditions in the various adjacent spaces. A petty officer may be placed in charge of the patrol unit. He should be able to visit his men during general quarters for the purpose of instructing them in their duties.
THE MEDICAL DEPARTMENT
25-1. Foreword. The mission of the medical department aboard any ship is to help maintain that ship's fighting efficiency under all circumstances. The purpose of this Chapter is to acquaint ship's personnel with the problems of the medical department, and to suggest ways and means whereby its mission may be accomplished.
Medical preparation, organization, and training for combat begins long before the ship reaches the war zone. Primary problems arise with respect to the prevention of disease and the maintenance of health and sanitary conditions aboard ship. Weeding out the mentally and physically unfit prevents loss of men at times when replacements may be difficult to procure. Checking immunizations, blood types, and identification tags, and teaching first aid are all tedious, but will pay dividends in maintaining health and minimizing injuries. Coupled with these problems is the one of establishing and maintaining an adequate organization for battle and all other emergencies.
25-2. Decentralization. A prime requisite of an efficient medical organization is decentralization; the dispersal of both personnel and material throughout the ship. This is vital since it makes the medical department available to as many men as possible, and insures that even though damage is sustained medical supplies and personnel will remain. The plan for dispersal should be based upon a thorough study of each ship's battle distribution of personnel, and available compartments, utilities, accesses, and stowage.
25-3. General quarters stations. Since ships and their complements vary, no single plan of organization will be suitable for all circumstances. The following description pertains in general to the larger ships; it can be scaled down or further modified in adapting to conditions on smaller vessels.
Whenever possible, medical personnel should be assigned berths in the immediate vicinity of their battle stations. The stations necessarily will vary depending upon the type of vessel, but generally will include battle dressing stations, first-aid stations, repair parties, and decontamination stations. Medical and dental
officers, with assigned corpsmen man the larger stations. Smaller stations are manned by corpsmen alone. Stations below protective decks actually are in the nature of reserve stations; their presence tends to insure that adequate medical facilities and personnel will be available after an engagement when they may be very much in demand.
25-4. Equipment and material. All medical personnel should keep their own gear handy, both for self protection and for treatment. Such equipment may consist of a hospital corps pouch or suitable substitute, with first-aid supplies, morphine, knife and scissors, gas mask, life jacket or belt, helmet, flashlight secured by a lanyard, and gloves for the protection of hands from heat and fire. Provision must be made for rendering first aid under extremely adverse conditions involving fire, flooding and darkness.
Materiel should be well dispersed about the ship as follows (large ship):
1. Battle dressing stations should be adequately equipped for the performance of major surgical operations, and should have on hand the necessary instruments, dressings, drugs, intravenous solutions, plasma and anesthetics (local, intravenous and spinal). Portable lights, normal and emergency lighting circuits, power sockets for sterilizers and water heaters, folding operating tables, normal and emergency water supplies, bunks, and toilet facilities must be available. One of these stations should be accessible to weather-deck personnel.
2. First aid stations should be provided with dressings, intravenous fluids, plasma and other necessary materials and utilities such as light, power, and water supplies.
3. Supplies for corpsmen assigned to repair parties should be easily accessible and portable, since these corpsmen will follow the repair parties to the scenes of material and personnel damage.
4. Decontamination stations should be equipped for aiding chemical warfare casualties, and may also serve as first-aid stations. Showers,
Figure 25-1. Sample medical department battle organization.
running water, and space for the segregation of contaminated and decontaminated personnel must be provided.
5. Collecting stations should be established to prevent confusion and overcrowding of the main battle dressing stations. They should be selected for accessibility and because they provide necessary utilities.
6. Portable battle lockers should be stocked and stowed in accessible spaces independent of battle dressing or first-aid stations, to provide supplies for groups of wounded in isolated areas. The recommended minimum is 10 for battleships and carriers, 5 for cruisers, 2 for destroyers and proportionate numbers for ships of other types.
7. Storerooms must be adjacent to battle dressing stations, and accessory storerooms may be designated to increase dispersal of medical supplies.
8. First-aid boxes of the one cubic foot variety should be provided in all spaces where a number of men are stationed during action, be clearly marked, contain morphine syrettes, and be so sealed as to permit easy access.
9. Hospital corps pouches may be stocked and supplied to all medical personnel. Portable knapsacks or other modifications may be substituted. In any case they should be of such nature that they do not hinder the man in his work.
10. Gun bags with minimum necessary first-aid supplies may be supplied at all gun mounts, and especially the smaller automatic weapons.
11. Waterproofed or watertight boat boxes and raft kits should always be in place in all boats and on all rafts.
12. Stretchers should be well dispersed. The Stokes stretcher is the most adaptable, and it provides good support for the patient. It should not be stowed where access routes render it useless; for example, where access is available only through escape hatches, tortuous passageways, and turrets. The canvas type stretcher in one of its various modifications should be made available, particularly in areas where it is the only type that can be used. Patients should always be secured in the stretcher, and a line should be permanently attached to each stretcher for vertical transportation.
13. Morphine syrettes should be distributed to all medical department stations and personnel, first-aid and battle boxes, and to such other responsible personnel as the medical officer believes should have this material in battle.
25-5. Communications. Communications are vital to the work of the medical department, and should be provided between the damage control officer and the medical officer, using all methods available (ship's service phones, sound-powered phones, MC system, and even messengers). The object, of course, is to make possible good cooperation between the damage-control station and the various medical department stations. All reports of materiel and personnel damage are received by the damage-control station, which can notify the senior medical officer. It follows that this makes personnel casualties easier to locate, and that, if necessary, routes can be opened up by repair parties on orders from damage control.
25-6. Emergencies other than action. Emergencies other than battle damage may occur, and the medical department should follow closely the ship's bills for collision, abandon ship, fire, and fire and rescue. Provision must also be made for handling a large influx of unexpected survivors from another vessel, many of whom will require treatment, clothing and food.
TRAINING AND EDUCATION
25-7. Officers and crew. The training and educational programs carried on by the medical department affect the entire crew. Each officer and man on board should be trained in first aid, and taught to treat the minor injury first. This practice returns personnel to their battle stations quickly, and thus tends to maintain the ship's fire power. Each man must also be indoctrinated in methods of self-protection. Division officers should be alert to see that their men wear identification tags, life jackets when on exposed stations, helmets, and full clothing as protection against flash burns. Many casualties can be avoided entirely if officers see that unengaged personnel are dispersed as much as possible, and lie flat on deck cushioned by their arms to minimize personnel damage.
25-8. Stretcher bearers. Training of stretcher bearers in the proper methods of transporting the wounded is necessary if manhandling of injured personnel is to be avoided. It is worthwhile to indoctrinate the entire ship's company in the proper use of the various types of stretchers on board. Then stretcher bearers always will be available.
25-9. Corpsmen. All hospital corpsmen should receive thorough instruction and practice in the details of minor surgery and methods of employing dressings, intravenous fluids, plasma, splints, morphine syrettes, etc. Much can be done along these lines at routine general quarters. Personnel should be slowly shifted from station to station so that they become familiar
with the entire medical organization. In the event that a station is demolished personnel may perform duties at other stations without being handicapped by unfamiliar surroundings.
For obvious reasons it is imperative that all medical-department personnel know their ship as well as it is known by the damage-control personnel. Tours may be conducted for the benefit of new men, and all hands should be cautioned against using the same access routes repeatedly.
25-10. Training methods. Various methods may be employed in training, including the scheduling of lectures, practical demonstrations, motion pictures, and, in the case of corpsmen, individual training supplemented by drills at general quarters. A program for instruction of the crew should be drawn up and integrated with the ship's plan of the day, thus insuring cooperation by other departments.
25-11. Equipment and supplies. No organization can be efficient in times of stress unless its equipment is in good condition. Therefore, medical equipment and supplies must be cared for, checked, and replenished, especially in the case of such items as morphine in the first-aid boxes. Unauthorized personnel should not tamper with medical-department supplies except in battle emergencies. Medical-department spaces should he kept clean, and hull reports promptly filled out. Reduction of fire hazards by stowing behind metal is important, because many medical supplies are inflammable.
Thought should be given to the asphyxiating and toxic qualities of fumes from ruptured containers of ether, chloroform, formaldehyde and similar substances set free within a closed watertight compartment where ventilation has been closed down. Also, there is possible intoxication arising from ether in powder magazines, particularly in tropical waters. Periodic ventilation at general quarters should be carried out to prevent this latter contingency, and to promote the comfort and efficiency of the crew.
HANDLING BATTLE CASUALTIES
25-12. First aid. Whenever action is imminent, ready medical stores should be broken out and the sick bay evacuated. If the sick bay is in a protected area the bunks should be freshly made up for the reception of the seriously wounded.
During and immediately following an action ship's personnel may begin first aid, bearing in mind that the minor cases should be treated first and sent back to
their battle stations expeditiously; these men should not receive morphine. Concomitantly, available medical personnel will be performing the same duties. Removal of the seriously injured and the dead from battle stations to points of shelter (removes the effect of their presence on the morale of those still engaged) may be undertaken to the degree allowed by the circumstances. Transportation to collecting stations, sorting, and search for wounded by levels may be started.
25-13. Disposition of the wounded. After the action has been broken off and the tactical situation permits reduction of the watertight integrity of the ship, evacuation to battle dressing stations may be permitted. The less seriously injured not requiring major operations may be evacuated to designated collecting stations or living spaces, and treatment begun. The seriously injured and those needing shock treatment and/or major operations may be evacuated to the sick bay or main battle dressing stations. The sorting and distributing of cases should be done by one medical officer so that confusion and overcrowding will not result.
25-14. The dead. Later, collection and identification of the dead may be undertaken. Work parties under proper supervision must be provided so that the dead may be collected and properly identified. A responsible officer (not necessarily a medical officer; the latter will be busy with the wounded) should be designated to carry on this work under the direction of the senior medical officer. Disposition of the dead will depend upon the circumstances, but if buried at sea care should be taken that the body is properly shrouded and weighted, and that a hole is cut in the top of the shroud to allow for the escape of air.
25-15. Chemical warfare. The medical department must also be organized for the care of chemical warfare casualties, in conjunction with the damage-control organization. Gas warfare aims at groups rather than individuals, and, unlike troops ashore who may be able to evacuate a contaminated area, the crew of a contaminated ship will not only have to fight their ship but will have to eat, sleep and live in it after action has been terminated. The medical officer must be familiar with chemical warfare defense and protective equipment. He must teach the principles of protection and prompt self aid which are the most important factors in reducing and minimizing gas casualties. Patients should not be transferred to non-contaminated spaces, including the sick bay, until they have been properly decontaminated. Provision must also be made for the handling and decontamination of stores, food, and clothing.
DAMAGE-CONTROL EDUCATION AND TRAINING
26-1. Foreword. Accumulating war experience emphasizes that the entire ship's company must be thoroughly educated in damage-control principles and methods, and must be properly trained to act in accordance with them. Action reports continue to illustrate that a ship can be lost because personnel outside of the main damage-control organization fail to employ proper damage-control methods and procedures. All hands, from the Commanding Officer down, must be made thoroughly conversant with all phases of damage control which apply to their own ship.
In the ensuing discussion an arbitrary distinction will be made between educational and training activities for purposes of clarity. Educational activities will include such matters as the understanding of damage-control principles, the constructions and facilities of own ship, damage-control measures, and the damage-control organization of own ship. Training activities, on the other hand, will refer to actual damage-control drills.
26-2. Regularly scheduled programs. The objectives of education and training cannot be attained unless carefully prepared plans are carried out. Regularly scheduled educational and training programs are necessary. These should be provided for officers and men; for departmental, divisional, and war cruising groups, and for battle station personnel. The programs should be adapted to "in port" and "at sea" (war cruising) operating periods. The damage control officer is responsible for the planning and conduct of this training. He should see that educational and training activities are represented in the ship's daily schedules in accordance with the executive officer's orders.
It is recognized that there never will be enough training time during a ship's day for the many activities considered essential and desirable by responsible officers who are trying to bring the ship to its best fighting condition. It is extremely important, therefore, that the most efficient possible use be made of any time available for damage-control education and training. On at least one large ship all gunnery training is scheduled in the morning. The afternoon is given
over to damage-control activities. Some similar arrangement can and should be made on every ship.
In addition to regularly designated periods, the damage control officer and his assistants can utilize "dead" time throughout any 24 hour day to as great an extent as energy and ingenuity permit. An efficient educational and training program will schedule activities for individuals and groups required to be at certain places during specified periods of time for purposes of readiness only. Further, there are likely to be "gaps" in any ship's daily program. Educational or training activities for personnel who otherwise would be standing by can be provided during these intervals. Attention is invited specifically to the following possibilities:
1. During general quarters, dawn or dusk alerts, target practices, and similar "all hands" evolutions. (For battle station groups, repair parties, etc.)
2. During war cruising condition watches. (For individuals on watches at inactive stations.)
26-3. Interest in the program. In planning and carrying through educational and training programs every opportunity should be embraced to arouse widespread interest in them throughout the ship's company. A healthy competitive spirit should be fostered between shipboard groups. War damage reports should be discussed freely. Questions and suggestions from all personnel should be welcomed. General questions concerning damage control should be included in examinations for promotion given to various ratings. Any other measures which tend to promote interest in the damage-control program should be put into effect.
26-4. Selection and training of instructors. Successful educational and training programs call for an adequate supply of good instructors. A valuable source of instructional ability exists among the ship's officers and key petty officers. Most instructors will come from the engineering and hull departments, but all departments should provide qualified personnel as required.
Figure 26-A. Realism in training. Getting a bucket patch in place is more difficult when working in a partially flooded compartment.
Instructors should improve their techniques through study of NavPers 16103, Manual for Navy Instructors. They should be detailed to concentrate upon one or a limited number of subjects. Responsible officers should encourage and assist the instructors in preparing for and conducting their classes and drills. Personnel selected as instructors are thus given opportunity to exercise certain qualities of leadership which might otherwise lie dormant. Inevitably, a conscientious instructor learns more than his pupils. Furthermore, the instructor's fitness for increased responsibilities may be demonstrated by his ability to educate and train others. The requirements of a rapidly expanding Navy demand that officers and men become ready for promotion or advancement, and become proficient in supervising less experienced personnel as rapidly as possible. Acting as instructors in damage control is one means to this end.
26-5. Personnel to be trained. As noted in the preceding Chapter on organization, the ship's personnel may be classified in several different ways for educational and training purposes. One such grouping follows:
1. The entire ship's company as one unit.
2. The ship's officers, grouped as to rank and experience.
3. The ship's crew, grouped by ratings (chief petty officers, petty officers, etc.).
In addition, the ship's personnel may be divided into groups according to their:
1. Battle station.
2. War cruising, or condition watch.
3. Department or division.
4. Occupation or specialty.
26-6. General educational subjects. A damage-control educational program should acquaint appropriate ship's personnel with the following general information:
1. Damage-control principles; the necessity for their thorough application to own ship.
2. Own ship's inherent resistance to damage and ability to remain afloat.
3. Own ship's organization for attaining damage-control objectives.
4. Their individual damage-control duties and responsibilities.
5. Thorough knowledge of own ship and its vital systems.
6. Methods used by other ships in successfully controlling damage.
7. Mistakes made by other ships in attempting to control damage, and how to avoid such errors.
26-7. Suggested educational topics. A more specific list of educational topics, based upon the subjects listed above, should be drawn up. One such list is as follows:
1. Necessity for damage control activity in own ship.
2. Knowledge of own ship - nomenclature and numbering of compartments.
3. Organization of own ship for control of damage.
4. Interior communications.
5. Watertight integrity of own ship - its importance.
6. Material conditions of closure, classification of fittings, and compartment check-off lists.
7. Individual damage-control responsibilities.
8. Types of watertight closures.
9. Ship's fire-fighting equipment.
10. Ship's damage-control equipment.
11. Gas masks and chemical warfare defense.
12. Rescue breathing apparatus; its use.
13. Ship's fire-main system.
14. Ship's drainage systems and methods of removing water.
15. Ship's ventilation systems.
16. Ship's power systems, including casualty power.
17. Types of possible damage.
18. Causes of flooding; location and stopping of leaks.
19. Fuel-oil systems and stowage.
20. Gasoline systems and stowage.
21. Fire prevention.
22. Fire-fighting methods applicable to own ship.
23. Ship's magazine sprinkling or flooding systems.
24. Ship's flushing, sanitary and fresh-water systems.
25. Stability of ships, with particular reference to own ship.
26. War damage reports.
27. Successful efforts of other ships in controlling damage.
28. Avoidable mistakes made on other ships.
29. First aid.
30. Types of emergency repairs available to own ship.
31. Use of air-line hose masks and shallow-water diving equipment.
32. Above-water and underwater welding and burning.
The above list indicates clearly that a large amount
Figure 26-B. Realism in training. Note submerged basket strainer (A) into which pump is being lowered, and that electric cable is married to tending line near the pump. Causualty power terminal is in use at the lower left. Debris is floating in the water.
of information relative to damage control can be made available to the ship's personnel. Many of the suggested topics can be further subdivided. For educational purposes, and considering time limitations, short topics can often be presented most effectively.
26-8. Method of presentation. There are a number of ways in which educational material may be presented to selected groups. Some of these are:
1. Giving talks and lectures, using blackboard sketches and illustrations.
2. Making available suitable literature.
3. Showing motion pictures and slide films.
4. Displaying pictures, posters, diagrams, signs, etc.
5. Conducting tours, demonstrations, etc.
6. Combinations of any of the above.
Informal talks probably will be the most common instructional medium. To be effective, they should not be too long. They may vary all the way from broadcasts over the ship's loud-speaker system to brief talks by a petty officer to his own group of men. Talks may be scheduled for any available time.
26-9. Damage-control literature. The effective use of literature pertaining to damage control can be of great value. Many publications deal with the subject, and such books and pamphlets should not only be made available to all personnel, but should literally be thrust upon them.
On shipboard many items concerned with the ship's damage-control characteristics, policies, and program should be written up and circulated as widely as possible. Current damage-control information and directives can be promulgated in this way, and also by insertion in the ship's newspaper and day's orders, or by posting on the bulletin board. Division officers should be provided with outlines containing information to be used in divisional instruction.
26-10. Use of visual aids. Many motion pictures and film strips dealing with various phases of damage control have been made available. When properly used these films represent a very compelling medium for the presentation of damage-control information. Since numerous films deal with subjects other than damage control, it is necessary to confer with department heads and with the officer supervising this type of instruction for the entire ship in planning programs.
Pictures, diagrams, and similar items may be posted on bulletin boards (or other conspicuous places) for the purpose of bringing important damage-control information before the ship's company in an arresting manner.
On one ship it was found that men and officers frequently consulted conspicuously posted large-size diagrams of subdivision. On another ship local talent was employed to create posters which depicted damage-control lessons in an interesting manner. Photographs accompanied by brief descriptive sentences will attract considerable attention. Cartoons in ship's newspapers can effectively portray points to be remembered. Signs, arrows, directions and markings may all be classified as visual aids, including the conspicuous numbering of frames. Anything which can be seen, and which thereby gives information important to the attainment of damage-control objectives on the ship is worthy of consideration.
26-11. Tours and demonstrations. Supervised tours about the ship are recommended. Actual demonstrations in the use of damage-control methods, procedures, fittings, equipment, and material conducted by competent instructors should be preliminary to practical training. For many of the ship's company who will not get intensive practical training these demonstrations will prove of great educational value.
26-12. Starting an educational program. How may the foregoing ideas be incorporated into a coordinated educational program on ship ? In simplified form, here is a suggested procedure:
1. Divide the ship's company into a few general groups for damage-control educational purposes.
2. Further subdivide each general group into small educational units of such size that they may easily be assembled and effectively instructed.
3. Make a list of specific damage-control subjects it is desired to present to each general group over a pre-determined period of time.
4. Determine material to be used and methods of presentation for each subject.
5. Select instructors for these special subjects.
6. Whenever possible assign a supervisor for each general group who will see to it that units are available for instruction, and that instruction is provided according to schedule.
7. Arrange for a simple system of records, which will indicate the instruction that has been given to each unit. Immediately after the presentation of any educational subject, the instructor should see that an appropriate entry is made in the record. The essential point is to provide a means of knowing who has been given instruction on any specific topic.
When the steps listed above have been taken, the educational program is ready. In accordance with the
executive officer's decision, the instruction periods are inserted in the "day's orders," "plan of the week" or some similar schedule. Since all programs prepared in advance are subject to unavoidable interruptions, the damage control officer must be prepared to recommend any modifications and adjustments that may be required.
26-13. Examples of educational activities. Some examples of suggested educational activities, purposely simplified and condensed, are as follows:
1. At a battle station. A regularly scheduled general quarters period is to last for one hour. For one gun crew, thirty minutes of the period is set aside for damage-control instruction. An instructor is scheduled to be present at this time to explain the operation of the magazine sprinkling systems. He uses pictures, diagrams, and similar instructional aids.
2. At a condition watch station. While war cruising, a 5"/38 cal. handling room is manned. The crew is required to be on station for four hours. During most of this time there will be no activity. For a period of approximately twenty-five to thirty minutes, a designated instructor tells them about the ship's ventilation systems, using diagrams and other descriptive material, and warning of the hazards to watertight integrity inherent in these systems.
Note that in the above case the group has been taught while actually standing their condition watch. Instruction was given "on station," and time that otherwise would have been lost was utilized.
3. During a regularly scheduled period. On a certain day the period from 1100 to 1145 is available to the engineering department to occupy a compartment in which motion pictures can be shown. A motion picture presenting a damage-control topic will be exhibited with introductory and concluding talks by a competent instructor. The first section (or starboard watch) of the engineering department attends.
Note that the instruction need not have taken the form of a motion picture, and that some other group might have been involved. A similar presentation might have been scheduled for gunnery department officers - port watch, or communication division - starboard watch.
4. For an "occupation" or "specialty" group. In port, all deck petty officers of the starboard watch
are assembled and given instruction in fire prevention.
The foregoing examples admittedly are of a very general nature, and are included only to indicate the wide range of educational opportunities. They should not be confused with the training activities discussed in the following pages.
26-14. Methods of introducing realism. Realism must be the outstanding characteristic of a damage-control training program. The experience gained from simulating an operation is considerably different from that resulting from its actual performance. Further, drills held under ideal conditions of illumination, access, etc., do not provide the training needed for coping with actual battle damage.
In addition to requiring that training exercises be actual operations carried through to a logical conclusion, realism should be increased by the following expedients:
1. Turning off lights.
2. Using smoke.
3. Shutting down power circuits.
4. Closing normal access routes.
5. Disrupting communications.
6. Closing valves to isolate sections of piping.
7. Requiring the wearing or use of personal emergency gear, such as rescue breathing apparatus, gas masks, or air-line hose masks.
8. Removing key personnel unexpectedly.
9. Stopping auxiliary machinery unexpectedly.
10. Removing tools, equipment, etc., from normal locations.
11. Introducing water into drill areas.
12. Putting a list on the ship.
Commanding Officers should provide every opportunity for the imposition of planned casualties consistent with their ship's employment schedules and the ship's safety. Training in the handling of imposed casualties will insure quick and efficient action when real casualties are encountered. This type of training is of the utmost importance.
26-15. Training objectives. Training in damage-control operations, methods and procedures must be one of any ship's most important and necessary activities. Fleet memoranda call for more and more "training of personnel in all phases of damage control." Such training must be given to each officer and man whatever his assignment or station. The type, amount and intensity of training will, however, have to be
adapted to each individual's shipboard station and duties.
From the standpoint of damage control, personnel to be trained constitute the following three groups:
Primary: hull, engineering and gunnery personnel whose regular employment and battle stations are directly concerned with damage-control objectives.
Secondary: other personnel from various departments who have battle damage-control stations.
Auxiliary: All other ship's personnel.
The training program must prepare appropriate personnel and groups to:
1. Set material conditions of closure properly.
2. Maintain strict watertight integrity discipline.
3. Use interior battle communication systems to best advantage.
4. Make way about ship and operate necessary equipment under adverse conditions involving heavy list, presence of smoke and tear gas, fire, flooding, wreckage, etc.
5. Fight fires of every type.
6. Make emergency repairs.
7. Properly operate, use and maintain:
a. Hull and engineering systems.
b. Damage-control equipment and material.
8. Locate leaks and control flooding.
9. Determine the extent of damage under adverse conditions.
10. Overcome the effect of chemical agents.
11. Render first aid.
More specifically, various individuals, depending upon their battle stations must be trained to:
1. Operate properly:
a. Watertight closures and fittings.
b. Fire-fighting equipment (all types).
c. I.C.E. portable pumps.
d. Portable submersible pumps.
e. Interior communication devices.
f. Emergency cutting and welding equipment.
g. Tools (those normally used as well as those specially supplied for damage control).
h. Screw and hydraulic jacks, chainfalls, and similar equipment.
i. Air and electric tools.
j. Remote control valve operating systems.
k. Essential valves and fittings in hull and engineering systems.
l. Fixed pumps (all types) and eductors.
m. Ventilation systems and portable blowers.
n. Steering machinery.
o. Deck machinery (winches, cranes, hoists, anchor, gear, etc.).
p. Power and lighting systems.
q. Casualty power systems.
r. Regularly supplied welding equipment.
s. Velocity power tools (if supplied).
t. Air compressors.
2. Use properly:
a. Gas masks.
b. Rescue breathing apparatus.
c. Air-line masks.
d. Shallow-water diving equipment.
e. Air-testing equipment.
f. Sound-powered phones (regular and emergency rig).
g. Decontamination equipment.
h. Asbestos suits, protective clothing, helmets, etc.
i. First-aid equipment; morphine syrettes, etc.
j. Compartment check-off lists.
k. Damage-control diagrams, including liquid loading and flooding effect charts.
l. Damage Control Book and bills.
m. Engineering Casualty Control Book and bills.
n. Essential instruments and devices in the damage-control station, repair stations and other related stations.
o. Life jackets of all types and all other material or equipment which may be made available for personnel rescue purposes.
3. Do properly:
a. Set material conditions of closure.
b. Travel to or from any part of the ship via as many different routes as possible.
c. Act as a competent damage-control messenger under unusual conditions.
d. Shore bulkheads, doors, hatches, etc.
e. Sound tanks and voids.
f. Test compartments for possible flooding.
g. Locate leaks or other causes of flooding.
h. Apply patches, plugs, etc., to stop or restrict flooding.
i. Drain liquids from compartments.
j. Recognize and eliminate fire hazards.
k. Use proper methods in extinguishing fires.
l. Make emergency repairs to piping and wiring (install jumpers).
m. Remove wounded personnel from difficult locations.
n. Assist in rescue operations.
o. Clear away wreckage.
p. Decontaminate areas infested by chemical agents.
q. Organize and assist in the operation of bucket brigades for purposes of controlling flooding and fighting fires.
r. Recognize and report defects in the ship's watertight integrity.
s. Find essential damage-control equipment and material when needed.
t. Transfer liquids from one tank to another, or overboard, as necessary.
u. Remove smoke, gases or other fumes from working areas.
v. Work while wearing rescue breathing equipment.
The foregoing lists represent only one way of classifying training activities associated with damage control and outlining objectives. The lists are not necessarily complete, and the characteristics of a given ship will suggest additional possibilities.
26-16. Training methods. NavPers 16103, Manual
for Navy Instructors should be used as a guide in developing instructors' techniques. There are, of course, many methods that may be used in training men to do individual tasks. One procedure is as follows:
1. Explain the purpose of the task. This is guaranteed to arouse the interest of the trainee.
2. Tell and show how the task may best be performed. It is better if the instructor performs the task as the trainee watches.
3. Require the trainee to perform the task himself, not once, but a number of times.
4. Finally, require the trainee to demonstrate to the instructor how the task should be performed.
26-17. Damage control drills. Any of the foregoing detailed training activities may be combined for the purpose of holding realistic damage-control drills for battle station groups. When these are held, the introduction of the various obstacles and handicaps previously enumerated should be considered a necessary and integral part of the experience.
TRAINING OF THE REPAIR PARTY
27-1. Foreword. Training a repair party is a continuous process which calls for the conscientious efforts of all personnel concerned. Various more or less effective methods have been employed in such training. All of them, however, have been based on the principle that the individuals making up the repair party must possess certain knowledge and must be able to perform certain essential operations. This fact emphasizes the importance of training individuals prior to, and concurrent with their group training.
Another cardinal principle is that the officer in charge of a repair party must be made responsible (to the damage control officer) for the training of his own group. On a small ship the damage control officer may very properly direct the training of all repair parties personally. Nevertheless, when going into action and immediately after damage is sustained, the officer (or key petty officer) in direct charge of a repair party will have to supervise its first activities. It is good policy, therefore, to require that this officer conduct training activities and develop a sense of responsibility for the effectiveness of his group.
On a large ship a repair party's personnel are sufficiently numerous to create a complex training problem. A repair party officer's most industrious efforts are needed to bring his own group to an efficient state of readiness. Repair parties contain both primary and secondary damage control personnel as defined in Chapter XXVI. Secondary personnel will not be available for as many training periods as are the damage control "specialists," and consequently have a correspondingly less responsible battle station. The training of secondary personnel, however, must not be neglected.
27-2. Qualification check-off lists. As previously noted, training must begin with the individual, and it must stress fundamentals. One suggested approach is to prepare qualification check-off lists for primary and secondary personnel. On such lists are noted the individual operations in which the men are to be trained (see lists in Chapt. XXVI). The repair party
officer sees to it that a man receives suitable preliminary educational material before undergoing training in any one of the operations. When a man has learned to perform an individual operation satisfactorily, his list should be checked to show this fact. When he has been qualified in a required number of operations, it is desirable to provide him with suitable recognition. This may take the form of an entry on the man's record that he is qualified in damage control, or some similar designation. A certificate or letter from the damage control officer or even the Commanding Officer would be appropriate.
27-3. Repair party drills. Group training for repair parties commonly takes the form of drills. Such a drill may involve an entire repair party (especially on small ships) or one of its parts. To be effective a drill must be planned in advance and regularly scheduled. In planning a drill for his repair party, the officer-in-charge should consider the following requirements:
1. The drill should have a definite objective. There may also be one or more secondary objectives, but the main objective must be made evident, and the drill so planned that this objective can be attained.
2. The drill should be as realistic as possible. The reader is referred to methods of simulating combat conditions discussed in Chapter XXVI, and also to war damage reports. Damage incurred by a ship of similar type and size can be the basis for creating effective drill situations.
3. The drill should be planned so that every member of the group has some duty to perform. Various individuals may be used as messengers, helpers, first-aid assistants, emergency material procurers, etc.
4. The drill should make full use of appropriate damage-control equipment, both fixed and portable, including hull systems.
5. In many cases it is desirable to have observers in the drill areas. Such observers make notes on actions taken, tools and equipment used, the
number of men employed, and similar pertinent information. The observers can be drawn from other repair parties. Their notes form the basis for post-drill discussions.
6. The effectiveness of a drill can be greatly enhanced by holding a discussion as soon as the drill has ended. The repair-party officer should review the drill with his men, calling for reports from observers, and pointing out what appear to be errors of omission or commission. Men should be encouraged to ask questions, volunteer information, and make suggestions. When properly conducted this discussion will give the repair-party personnel a better understanding of how their actions would be related to damage control in an actual combat situation.
In the final analysis, however, the success of any independent repair-party drill will depend upon the repair-party officer himself. He must be properly prepared, must plan the drill carefully, and must enter into the drill energetically and enthusiastically.
A number of suggested independent repair-party drills are listed here. These have all been used on various types of ships and, in some modified form, are applicable to any ship. They may be multiplied by the number of locations and battle damage conditions with which it is desired to deal.
1. Conduct fire-fighting operations in various shipboard areas. Use equipment appropriate for the type of fire assumed (A, B, or C).
2. Cut off all normal sources of power to various types of equipment. Have the repair party install casualty power cables as required, and operate the equipment.
3. Set a prescribed material condition of closure in a given area. Have it inspected and checked by another repair party. (This type of drill is well-adapted to competition.)
4. Remove smoke from a compartment that previously has been filled by artificial means, without contaminating other compartments. Use both regularly installed and emergency ventilating equipment as applicable, and apparatus essential to the protection of personnel.
5. Cut out sections of the fire main that are assumed to be damaged. Install jumpers, and re-route fire-main pressure. Operate necessary valves, and have appropriate pumps put on the line.
6. Operate the drainage system to remove water from a number of different compartments (coordinate activities with the engineering
department). Operate valves and line up for correct suction. Where practicable, take water from the fire main to pump through the drainage piping.
7. Drain water from previously filled compartments using more than one submersible pump (use multiple connector plug box). Supply clogging material in the water to necessitate the use of basket type strainers, and the cleaning of pumps.
8. Hold drills involving the use of handy billy pumps in both draining and fire-fighting operations. Include the use of foam.
9. Using damage-control diagrams, hold drill problems requiring actual operation of valves and other equipment shown. Record the time necessary to reach successful solutions, and carry out the indicated procedures.
10. Hold drills in shoring bulkheads, decks, doors or hatches at various locations throughout a repair-party area. Do not actually cut shores unless scrap lumber may be obtained for this purpose, as at a Navy yard or base. Bring necessary materials and tools to the shoring point or to the most convenient adjacent area. Describe the method of shoring to be used in each case, put material in approximate required position, clamp strongbacks into place, etc. In general, carry out the work as completely as possible without damaging shoring material.
11. Communication drills and exercises, including the installation of emergency communication lines.
12. Repair spare sections of damaged piping. Test the efficiency of repairs with water or air pressure.
13. Operate various hull systems to attain particular damage-control objectives. Vary from the normal, undamaged operation and use auxiliary or standby equipment.
14. Hold competitive inspections of repair party areas, damage-control equipment, compartment check-off lists, watertight closures, etc.
15. Hold decontamination drills, cleaning up suspected areas in the vicinity of assumed bomb or projectile damage. Check ventilation openings. Use all necessary equipment (powdered soap and water may be used as a drill decontaminant)
16. Exercises in the handling of heavy weights, using
rigging methods and equipment. Select weights that might be jettisoned in an emergency.
17. Ship repairs requiring the use of welding and burning equipment.
18. Exercises in the investigation of damage and the establishment of flooding boundaries. In this case the repair-party officer's ability to create a logical drill situation is put to the test because it is difficult to visualize damage from written reports.
19. Rapid de-energizing of electrical circuits to or through areas assumed to be damaged. Electrical personnel naturally take the lead in such drills, but other responsible repair party personnel should be trained with them.
20. Counterflooding, or liquid-transfer operations.
21. Exercises in taking over or helping to man other repair party areas.
22. Plugging holes under water, using shallow-water diving equipment.
27-4. Damage control and battle problems. As the training of the repair party progresses, it becomes desirable to coordinate with the rest of the damage-control organization and, ultimately, with all departments of the ship. This result is attained largely by virtue of damage-control problems (for the damage-control organization) and, finally, battle problems involving all departments on the ship.
Short damage-control problems scheduled frequently by the damage control officer serve to train the repair party in damage-control procedures related to the various equipment drills. Problems should be prepared to include casualties affecting engineering, gunnery, and other departments. Battle damage from more than one hit usually is assumed. These are often concentrated in one general area: aft, forward or amidship. This permits the use of other repair-party personnel from the unaffected areas as observers; they
also may be used to open switches in power circuits, close valves, etc., to realistically reproduce battle damage conditions.
Such problems are best held when all hands are manning battle stations. Gunnery, engineering and other personnel may be drawn into the drill either as observers from undamaged areas, or as participants within the damaged areas.
There are times, however, when damage-control problems can be held without having the entire ship at general quarters, such as when the gunnery department is conducting a drill calling for a general manning of gunnery stations. In cooperation with the gunnery officer, the damage control officer may introduce casualties which effect the operation of gunnery equipment. This will exercise both departments in gunnery damage control, and provide broader training for the repair party involved.
When a damage-control problem is well organized, written instructions on slips of paper will be given to observers, to hand to repair party personnel at designated times. Signs, tags, and other markers for indicating damaged conditions will be employed. Shorter and more informal problems can be planned in which damage is reported over a communication circuit to the repair-party officer who then conducts the operations of his group in keeping with his own visualization of the situation.
Damage-control problems are the means whereby the damage control officer provides advanced training for his repair parties. The ultimate in training for the repair party, however (and for the entire damage-control organization), is provided by the ship's battle problem in which all departments take a most active part. This battle problem attempts to give the ship training in conducting battle operations under the most realistic conditions possible,
28-1. Foreword. The ability to make correct and timely damage-control decisions is based upon accurate knowledge of the entire damage situation. Hence, efficient means of communication become requisite. Communication between task forces or Fleets, communication between ships, communication within a ship between controls (ship, engine, fire, and damage), and communication within a control must be provided. A discussion of communication systems of all types of ships would necessarily be very lengthy; therefore, only a general coverage of the topic with special reference to larger ships will be attempted here.
Damage-control communication provisions aboard a large ship usually include the following:
1. Battle telephone circuits (sound-powered telephones).
2. Damage-control announcing system (4 MC).
3. Ship's service telephones.
4. General announcing system (1 MC).
28-2. Battle telephone circuits. Battle telephone circuits are sound-powered circuits. Vibrations of the voice actuate a diaphragm and cause an armature to move in a field of permanent magnets, thus generating electrical current. This current is conducted by wiring through the receiver, where it causes the receiver diaphragm to vibrate. Vibrations of the transmitter diaphragm are in frequency with vibrations of the receiver diaphragm; hence, sounds produced at the transmitter are reproduced at the receiver. Since no outside source of electrical power is involved, these phones may continue to function after all power systems of the ship have been knocked out.
Outlets for sound-powered telephones are located in numerous stations aboard ship. The wiring interconnecting these outlets (in various combinations) constitutes the sound-powered battle telephone system. The normal damage control sound-powered circuits of a large ship are as follows:
|Circuit ||Name ||Function
|2JZ ||Damage and stability control ||Provides communication between the damage control officer and all repair control parties; also personnel stationed in pump rooms, at draft gauges, at Diesel fire pumps, and, in carriers only, primary and auxiliary flight-control stations, hangar control and conflagration stations.
|3JZ ||Upper deck repair ||Provides communication between the officer at Repair I and each Repair I patrol party, each battle dressing station in the superstructure, and, in carriers, each hangar-deck patrol party and Repair VII.
|4JZ ||Forward repair ||Provides communication between the officer at Repair II and each Repair II patrol party, each forward battle dressing station, and each remote valve control station forward of engineering spaces.
|5JZ ||After repair ||Provides communication between the officer at Repair III and each Repair III patrol party, each battle dressing station aft, and each remote valve control station aft of engineering spaces.
|6JZ ||Amidship repair ||Provides communication between the officer at Repair IV and each Repair IV patrol party, each amidship battle dressing station, and each remote valve control station amidships.
|7JZ ||Engineer's repair ||Provides communication between the officer at Repair V and each remote valve operating station (steam and fuel oil), each engine room, each fireroom, each auxiliary engine room, and each amidship battle dressing station.
|8JZ ||Flight deck repair ||Provides communication between the officer at Repair VIII and each flight deck patrol party, and each topside battle dressing station.
|Circuit ||Name ||Function
|9JZ ||Magazine sprinkling and ordnance repair ||Provides communication between the officer at Repair VI forward, Repair VI aft, sprinkling control forward, sprinkling control aft, each 5-inch powder handling room, each turret powder handling room, and damage-control station.
|3JG ||Aircraft service ||These circuits are found on carriers only and are primarily for use by the air group for gassing planes, bomb and torpedo handling, and like services. In the event of a casualty they are to be used for disposing of gasoline, bombs and torpedoes to prevent further damage to the ship.
|5JG ||Conflagration control
|7JG ||Aviation ordnance
|1JA ||Captains battle circuit ||Provides communication between the Captain and the heads of departments at their battle stations, including the damage control officer.
|11JV ||Maneuvering, docking, and catapult control ||This circuit is provided for communication between the stations concerned with ship handling and aircraft, but may well be used by repair parties in the event of emergency.
|12JV ||Engineer's (main engines) ||These circuits are provided for communication between all stations concerned with propulsion and auxiliary power plants, and are used by engineering damage-control party.
|3JV ||Engineer's (boilers)
|4JV ||Engineer's (fuel and stability)
|5JV ||Engineer's (electrical)
|1JL ||Lookouts (surface and sky) ||This circuit is primarily for conveying information from the lookouts to the officer of the deck, Captain, gunnery officer, and combat information center. Due to the locations of these stations they may be used to locate damage due to high-angle gunfire and bombs.
|1These primary circuits are represented on small ships.
28-3. Auxiliary and supplementary circuits. In addition to the primary sound-powered telephone circuits installed in the ship for rapid communication between stations there are auxiliary circuits which serve as alternate means of communication in the event of damage to the primary circuits. Such circuits are identified by having an X placed before their numbers. Auxiliary circuits usually have their outlets in or nearby the stations served by the primary circuits, but their wiring plan makes use of different wire-ways and deck levels so that they may remain intact even though the primary circuit has been damaged. Supplementary circuits normally serve an administrative purpose, but their outlets and the proximity of their stations to those served by primary telephone circuits should be studied with a view to their use in relaying information to stations in the ship not provided with damage-control communication. The electrician's mate on watch at the telephone action cutout boards should be thoroughly trained in cross-jacking circuits should the need arise.
28-4. Emergency sound-powered telephone circuits. Emergency sound-powered telephone head-sets and portable wire are provided each repair party. Sound-powered phones with long extensions on reels should be made up, stowed in strategic locations, and kept in constant readiness for use in emergencies. This precautionary measure has proved to be of great value on many damaged ships.
On vessels of 200 feet or more in length, three sound-powered telephone head sets and cable are provided for ship control jury-rig communication between the bridge, control engine room, and steering engine room. The wires provided may be passed through watertight doors and hatches without destroying watertight integrity. It is recommended that the jury-rig telephones and wires be stowed as directed by the damage control officer and be made part of the electrician's mates' repair gear. The jury-rig equipment can be supplemented by equipment from the primary telephone circuits in the event of an emergency. It is considered bad practice to string the jury rig before a
Figure 28-1. Diagram of damage-control communication system (battleship).
casualty has occurred. In all probability the cause of the casualty would carry away the jury rig as well as the primary circuits.
28-5. Primary communications. On most ships the sound-powered telephone circuits are the primary means of communication used by the damage-control organization. Their independence from all shipboard sources of power is the greatest advantage of these phones over all other forms of communication.
The 2JZ circuit is common to the damage-control station and all repair party bases. The 3, 4, 5, and 6, and on some ships the 7JZ circuits are individual repair-party circuits, connecting each repair-party main station with its auxiliary station and patrol areas. Each of these repair-party circuits has an outlet in the damage-control station, either through a selector switch, individual jack-boxes, or both. The latter is preferable, and permits the manning of each circuit by individual talkers in this station.
On destroyers, destroyer escorts and other types of ships where a single circuit is in use, the system of assignment outlined above is not applicable. Strict control of the circuit must be maintained by the damage-control station so that an orderly flow of communication will result. If possible, a system of one-way communication should be devised. When the type of installation will not provide for this, rigid control of the circuit to eliminate "cross-talk" is the only acceptable alternative.
28-6. Other means of communication. In some cases the damage control announcing system (4MC), or general announcing system (1MC) may be used as a primary means of communication. Such a system consists of units located at the various stations, which serve both as speakers and as microphones. In many installed systems communication may also be established with the bridge, conn, main control, fire control, and lookouts. The operator in damage-control station pushes a button when he wishes to transmit, and releases the button to receive. A selector switch enables him to make the conversation local, or to make general announcements to all repair stations. Advantages of the system include the fact that orders or items of information are heard by all hands at a repair station, thus eliminating possible errors on the part of the station's talker. A wide range of selection is also possible, since stations outside of damage control are on the circuit. However, unless a routine of broadcasting to all repair parties is followed, the system of requiring all repair stations to keep a log of all messages coming from control cannot be employed, and the chain of
control may be broken. Moreover, the 4MC and 1MC circuits are dependent upon the ship's electrical circuits for power, and are therefore more subject to battle damage than the sound-powered circuits. The general announcing system has the disadvantage that it involves so many stations. Probably it should never be used by damage control unless all other means of communication are out of order. However, it should be kept in mind as a possible means of communication, and a method of acquainting all hands with necessary information and action desired in the event of great damage.
Ship's-service telephones are available for use where they are installed at or near repair stations. Too much reliance should not be placed on them because they are not part of a rugged battle system and may go out of commission early in action due to shock near the switchboard. It should be borne in mind, however, that wiring circuits for these telephones may be intact in the event of damage to sound-powered circuits. If sound-powered phones, inter-communicating systems, and ship's service telephones fail, alternative methods of communicating by portable telephones and messengers should be organized immediately.
Messengers may be employed even when other means of communication exist, and they remain the final possibility when all mechanical systems are out of order. The general quarters plan ordinarily does not provide for messengers, so special provisions must be made to select and train them. The messenger's job is more specialized than casual consideration might suggest. If the message is verbal (written messages are more reliable), the messenger must be capable of remembering it and repeating it accurately. He must also be able to find his way to any designated point on or in the ship; if one route is blocked, he must be capable of finding an alternate route. Often he must move about under the most adverse circumstances, in total darkness or smoke, and on a ship that may be listed, pitching, or rolling.
28-7. Telephone talkers. Telephone talkers condition the efficiency of battle telephone systems. Good telephones with poor talkers may be worse than no telephones at all. Defects of speech or hearing automatically disqualify a man. Men who have extreme dialects are difficult to understand. Yeomen and storekeepers often make good talkers because they are familiar with telephone procedure and many of them can make notes in shorthand. This rule should not be followed blindly, however, and each potential talker should be judged from all possible angles.
One talker should never be trained to the exclusion of all other personnel. Rather, several talkers should be trained for each station. At general quarters the phones may then be manned at once, even if some individuals arrive late. The first arrivals should man the phones and establish immediate contact with the damage-control station. The policy of having only one trained talker is also dangerous in the event that this individual is a casualty. The damage-control organization can function in an orderly manner only if communications are established and maintained.
When in a cruising condition at sea, a telephone watch normally is not very exciting, and talkers frequently become careless. Circuits are not to be used as a means of exchanging stories and small talk. Talkers must be kept alert by constant supervision, instruction, and drilling. Aside from drill during battle problems one of the many useful practices is to read excerpts from damage-control publications to all talkers during each watch. Have them write the material down as they receive it, and then read the material back. Speed of sending can be increased day by day so as to improve the talkers' speed of receiving and writing. A good way to judge the sending or talking rate is to write the message as it is transmitted. Rapid transmission is of no value if only portions of the message are received. Clear, slowly spoken messages and practice in receiving will save valuable time by reducing unnecessary "repeats."
28-8. Rules for telephone talkers. Observance of the following rules will materially increase the efficiency of battle telephone communications:
1. Be alert. Pay attention to what comes over the phone. Keep a written log of your activities and the activities of other stations on your circuit.
2. Repeat all messages word for word. Do not paraphrase a message, because this may result in changed meaning.
3. Do not indulge in idle conversation or noise-making on the phones. Do not smoke when on duty.
4. Hold the button down when talking and release it for listening (head sets). The button must be held down for both talking and listening when using a hand set.
5. Talk with the transmitter not more than one-half inch from the mouth, but do not place the lips inside the transmitter.
6. Speak into the transmitter loudly, clearly and slowly. Do not shout.
7. In case one unit of equipment fails use other units of the set for sending and receiving (ear pieces will transmit or receive, as will the transmitter when the button is held down).
8. Do not turn one ear phone away from the ear, because it will then transmit surrounding noises throughout the entire circuit.
9. Use the phonetic alphabet. For example, refer to B-101 as "Baker one ze-ro one" and C-308-A as "Charlie - thu-ree ze-ro eight Able."
10. Test the circuit regularly. A line may go dead and you may miss an important message.
11. Never secure from your station until permission has been granted by the officer or petty officer in charge.
12. Talkers are part of the repair party and should be familiar with its general duties.
13. Be careful of your equipment. Employ the correct methods of handling and securing. Repairs are to be undertaken only by responsible persons.
When a sound-powered phone is in use:
1. Keep kinks out of the cord.
2. See that the plug is in straight and the collar turned down firmly.
3. Be careful of the cord. Do not step on it, foul it, strain it, or run it over sharp edges.
4. Adjust the head set carefully for a comfortable fit with the ear pieces centered over each ear.
When securing a sound-powered phone:
1. Remove the plug from the jack box by holding the plug in one hand and unscrewing the collar with the other.
2. Screw the cover on the jack box. Always do this immediately. Rain, spray and dust will soon cause a short circuit in the jack box if it is left uncovered.
3. Remove the head band and hang it over the transmitter yoke.
4. Leave the plug lying on the deck, and coil the lead cord. Start coiling from the end at the phone, and leave the rest on the deck. Coil the lead in a clockwise direction and hold the loops in one hand.
5. When the lead is coiled, remove the ear pieces from the transmitter yoke and put the head band in the same hand with the coil.
6. Use the same hand to hold the transmitter while you unhook one end of the neck strap from the chest plate.
7. Fold the transmitter against the junction box.
8. Bring the back of the chest plate together with the head band and the coil. Secure in this position by winding the neck strap around the coil and the head band.
9. Put the phone in the stow space provided.
28-9. Message form and procedure. Standard message form and procedures should be followed in training telephone talkers. This is necessary because the turnover of personnel is rapid on board ship, and talkers must be able to fit into the organization of any ship to which they are assigned. Some of the standard words and phrases that must be learned are as follows:
1. "All stations" - (name of your station) -"testing."
2. "Bridge" (or some other station you may be calling) "damage control" (or name of your
station). Then give the message.
3. "Repeat." If the message is not understood, do not say "control, would you repeat all after the word -," say only "repeat."
4. "Silence." This means just what it says. All stations immediately maintain silence. The damage control officer may reserve exclusive right to use the command, or he may grant its use to stations so that they may clear the line and deliver a priority order, command, or message.
5. "Aye, aye" prefaced by the name of the station means that the message has been understood and will be relayed or otherwise complied with.
6. Testing should begin as soon as a station is manned at general quarters. Damage control sends the following message:
"All repair parties, damage control, testing."
Repair parties answer in numerical order:
"Repair one, aye, aye."
"Repair two, aye, aye," etc.
This check is continued until all stations are manned and operating. If some stations fail to answer, they should be ordered to shift to other means of communication.
Messages are divided into three parts, which are as follows:
1. Name of the station called.
2. Name of the station calling.
3. The message.
These steps follow one another without a break, as in this example:
"Repair one, damage control, proceed to weather deck aft and stand by."
The station to which the message is directed should reply:
"Repair one, aye, aye."
This reply is necessary in order that the sending station may know that the message was received and understood. The foregoing examples represent standard procedure which has been developed to achieve clarity and speed of transmission. If time permits and the order is important, the sending station may request the receiving station to "repeat back" the message.
Note that standard practice is to name the station called first, and identify yourself second. This is not alone important from the standpoint of standardization, but also as a means of identifying the calling station immediately, so that should the message be interrupted or cut off suddenly, subsequent investigation may take place. Consider, for example, this faulty message:
"Control, we are being gassed and -----"
If immediate help could be provided, the lives of the victims might be saved, but where should the rescue party be sent? Control could, of course, discover the origin of the message by a process of checking and eliminating, but that might take too long a time.
There have been many actual cases wherein the information passed on to damage control has been insufficient to make adequate action possible. For this reason the importance of sending clear, concise, and accurate reports utilizing standard phraseology, and sending them at the earliest possible moment by the most rapid means available cannot be overemphasized.
28-10. Damage control communication bills. A damage control communication bill is not required by FTP-170B, but such a bill has definite value. Numerous uses will be found for an alphabetical list of circuits which gives the location of outlets. Another list should be made of the circuits installed at each station. Incomplete examples of these two lists are as follows:
|1. Circuit ||Outlets
|JA ||Bridge, conn, plot, central, NC, spot I, spot II, signal bridge, sky control, etc.
|2. Location of Jack boxes ||Circuits
|Navigation Bridge ||JA(2), JL (2), 2JY, JS, 1JV, 2j17, X40J, JK, 21MC, etc.
|Signal bridge ||JX, JA, JL, 17JY, X50J, etc.
28-11. Dangers of over-centralization. Despite rugged installations, communication systems have
proved to be vulnerable in battle. It is suggested, therefore, that a high degree of centralization be avoided. An over-centralized system is likely to become inoperative when the heart of the organization is knocked out. Alternate means of communication should be available and understood by the men who
will use them. All equipment should be kept in good repair so that it can be put into operation readily. All communication systems should be tested regularly to insure that they are in good order and properly manned. Messengers should be trained and ready in case other means of communication fail.