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Submarine Sanctuaries Bombing And Attack Restrictions, 1943, shows how submarines and allied aircraft were supposed to be deconflicted. Unfortunately we also know that there were numerous friendly fire incidents during WW II.

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SUBMARINE SANCTUARIES
BOMBING AND ATTACK
RESTRICTIONS
1943
UNITED STATES FLEET
HEADQUARTERS OF THE COMMANDER IN CHIEF

 

CONFIDENTIAL

COMINCH FILE.
FF1/A16-3
Serial 02198
UNITED STATES FLEET
HEADQUARTERS OF THE COMMANDER IN CHIEF
NAVY DEPARTMENT, WASHINGTON, D. C.
 

5 July 1943

1. "Submarine Sanctuaries Bombing and Attack Restrictions - 1943" is issued herewith and is effective upon receipt. It supersedes the publication "Submarine Sanctuaries and Submarine Notices" promulgated by Chief of Naval Operations confidential letter Op-22-G (SC)A18-3(17) of December 15, 1941, all copies of which will be destroyed by burning. No report of destruction is required.

2. The instructions contained in this publication are prescribed in order to minimize mutual interference in our submarine and anti-submarine operations incident to the difficulty of distinguishing between our own and hostile submarines.

3. These instructions shall apply to our own and allied submarines in waters under the strategical direction of United States Naval Authority and to all aircraft, surface vessels and shore commands concerned with anti-submarine measures in such waters. In waters under the strategical direction of the commander of an allied naval force the instructions of the Allied Navy shall be followed.

4. These instructions apply primarily to circumstances in which our submarines and other forces are operating in the same region but not in tactical cooperation. In cases where submarines act in tactical cooperation with other units the officer controlling the operation shall arrange for prevention of mistakes in identity by assigning zones or areas for submarine activity or by any other means appropriate to the circumstances.

5. This is a CONFIDENTIAL NONREGISTERED PUBLICATION and shall be handled in accordance with the provisions of Article 78, U.S. Navy Regulations. It shall not be carried by aircraft for use therein or in submarines on hazardous duty. When no longer required it shall be destroyed by burning. No report of destruction is required.

R.S. Edwards, Chief of Staff sig

Change No. 1 (Cominch Serial 04363 of 27 December 1943) included in this reprint.



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STANDARD DISTRIBUTION: (Standard Navy Distribution List, June 15, 1943, Part 1; June 1, 1943, Part 2.)

List 1 (less v).
List 2 (less q, z, cc, ee, ff).
List 3 a to 1, n, o, p less CG, q to v, w less CG, x, y, z, as to ff, gg less CG, hh to 11, mm less CG, nn, oo, pp less CG, qq to zz, aaa, ddd, eee.
List 4 (less xx).
List 5e.
List 6.
List 7 a to h, 1 - Subases & Desbases only, w to z.
List S b, v, y, hh.
List 10 s, t.

SPECIAL DISTRIBUTION:
Comdt CG (for distribution to CG).
Comdt MarCorps (for distribution to MarCorps).
SubChaser Training Center, Miami, Fla.
Motorpron Training Center, Melville, R.I.
Flt Sound School, Key West, Fla.
West Coast Sound School, San Diego, Calif.
SubSchool, New London, Conn.
SupShips, Electric Boat Co., Groton, Conn.
SupShips, Manitowoc Shipbldg Co., Manitowoc, Wis.
SupShips, Cramp Shipbldg Co., Philadelphia, Pa.
General Board
BuShips
BuAer
BuAer Intelligence
BuAer Training Literature Section
BuOrd
Op-16
Op-20
Op-20-GM
Op-20-GX
Op-23-C
Op-39
Coordinator of Research & Development, Navy Dept.
Comdg Gen AAF (for distribution to AAF).
Comdg Gen AGF (for distribution to AGF).
Adjt Gen US Army



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CHAPTER 1
DEFINITIONS

101. SUBMARINE NOTICES are letter or despatch communications giving information for dissemination to our own and allied surface and air forces concerning the locations in which our submarines are operating outside SANCTUARIES. They impose bombing restrictions upon aircraft and ATTACK RESTRICTIONS upon surface craft.

102. FRIENDLY SUBMARINE POSITION messages are letter or despatch communications which further disseminate the information contained in SUBMARINE NOTICES.

103. BOMBING RESTRICTIONS, which apply to aircraft only, are of two types:

(a) TOTAL BOMBING RESTRICTIONS which are intended to protect our submarines which are -
(1) Maintaining surface patrols.
(2) Conducting exercises outside sanctuaries.
(3) Proceeding unescorted on the surface by day as well as by night.
(4) Proceeding unescorted on the surface or submerged, as conditions may dictate, by day and on the surface by night.

(b) SUBMERGED BOMBING RESTRICTIONS which are intended to protect our submarines which are -

(1) Maintaining submerged patrols.
(2) Proceeding unescorted submerged by day and on the surface by night.

104. ATTACK RESTRICTIONS, which apply to surface craft only, are intended to afford a degree of protection for our submarines which must proceed unescorted through, or operate in, waters in which anti-submarine surface forces and other men-of-war are likely to be encountered.

 

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105. SANCTUARIES are areas declared to be such for use as submarine exercising areas and for access to submarine bases. Once declared they remain in force until declared either temporarily or permanently suspended.


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CHAPTER 2
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS

201. NO SURFACE OR AIRCRAFT SHALL ATTACK A SUBMARINE IN A SANCTUARY. The Senior Naval Officer Present may suspend sanctuary temporarily to permit search for and attack on enemy submarines whose presence is known or suspected, but only after he has assured himself that all our submarines have been withdrawn from the area.

202. NO SURFACE OR AIRCRAFT SHALL ATTACK A SUBMARINE UNDER ESCORT OF UNITED STATES OR ALLIED SURFACE VESSELS.

203. SURFACE CRAFT, when informed by a FRIENDLY SUBMARINE POSITION or SUBMARINE NOTICE message concerning the imposition of ATTACK RESTRICTIONS, shall not attack a submarine on the surface or submerged within the area concerned until hostile character is determined with reasonable certainty.

204. AIRCRAFT, when informed by a FRIENDLY SUBMARINE POSITION or SUBMARINE NOTICE message, concerning the establishment of BOMBING RESTRICTIONS shall:

(a) Under TOTAL BOMBING RESTRICTIONS -

(1) NOT ATTACK - any submarine contact within the area concerned, either by day or by night, surface, submerged or in the act of diving.

(b) Under SUBMERGED BOMBING RESTRICTIONS -

(1) NOT ATTACK - any submarine contact by day, submerged, within the area concerned.

(2) NOT ATTACK - any submarine contact by night, surface or submerged, within the area concerned.

(3) ATTACK - any submarine contact by day, on the surface or in the act of diving.

205. AIRCRAFT, when not engaged in exercises with submarines, shall keep well clear of submarines in sanctuaries, and shall avoid approaching any submarine that has been identified as friendly in such manner as to give the impression that it is being attacked.



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206. (a) AIRCRAFT and SURFACE CRAFT which sight submarines of doubtful identity within SANCTUARIES and BOMBING AND ATTACK RESTRICTION AREAS shall report contact in the usual manner and in addition must, by priority message, notify the nearest submarine command. The latter will advise commanders concerned with anti-submarine measures whether or not the submarines reported are estimated to be our own.

(b) Outside such areas the burden of establishing friendly identity of an unescorted submarine rests on the submarine. Under these circumstances air and surface craft will attack without delay until or unless the submarine identifies himself as friendly.

207. Nothing in this publication shall be construed as:

(a) Modifying current instructions regarding recognition procedure.

(b) Warranting relaxation of alertness with respect to recognition and identification signals.

(c) Prohibiting investigation of contacts with submarines of suspected hostile character.

(d) Prohibiting attack of a submarine which has been identified as enemy beyond possibility of doubt.



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208. SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR SUBMARINES MAKING PASSAGE IN EAST COAST WATERS UNDER BOMBING AND ATTACK RESTRICTIONS. The following special instructions shall apply (insofar as the exigencies of war service permit) to friendly submarines making passage in the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic Ocean west of the longitude of Bermuda. The purpose is to keep the BOMBING AND ATTACK RESTRICTION AREA clear of convoys in order that anti-submarine escorts covering a convoy may not be restricted from taking action against any submarine close to and in position to attack the convoy.

(a) The officer who routes the submarine shall assure himself that not only the submarine itself, but also its AREA OF BOMBING AND ATTACK RESTRICTIONS, passes clear of all scheduled convoys and that the speed of advance prescribed is such as to make it reasonably certain that the submarine can maintain position within the rectangle of bombing and attack restrictions. It is incumbent upon officers who route submarines frequently to obtain periodic convoy schedules. WHEN TIME PERMITS, THE ROUTING SHOULD BE CHECKED WITH COMMANDER, TENTH FLEET BEFORE ISSUE OF THE SUBMARINE NOTICE.

(b) Should the commander of an unescorted submarine conclude from the evidence available to him that without diversion his ship would pass WITHIN 30 MILES of a convoy or task force, he shall:

(1) Make appropriate adjustment of the position of the submarine WITHIN THE BOMBING AND ATTACK RESTRICTION AREA or if adjustment does not permit clearing such convoy or task force by 30 miles,

(2) alter course and/or speed in such manner as to attain such clearance and initiate a NEW SUBMARINE NOTICE AS AN URGENT DESPATCH. In this latter case the commander of the submarine shall obtain receipt from Commander, Submarines, Atlantic Fleet for the new Notice, and the latter shall insure that Commander in Chief, United States Fleet, Commander in Chief, United States Atlantic Fleet, interested sea frontier and escort commanders, and all others concerned are informed.

(c) Carefully planned routing that should result from (a) and adjustment of position that can be effected by (b)(1) should make the issue of a new NOTICE by a submarine unnecessary except in rare and unusual circumstances.



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(d) In the event of the emergency diversion of a convoy into or close to an AREA OF BOMBING AND ATTACK RESTRICTIONS in such circumstances that time does not permit of notification to the submarine concerned and of her self-diversion, it is incumbent upon the OFFICER WHO DIVERTS THE CONVOY to insure that both the convoy escort commander and the submarine are advised of the possibility of contact.

( e) The area or sea frontier commander concerned may, if he deems it essential, require a submarine to proceed on the surface under escort furnished by him. This precaution is advisable when approaching or leaving port in crowded waters. It is, normally, not a proper procedure when the submarine is in free route in waters where there may be enemy submarines.



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CHAPTER 3
DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION CONCERNING OUR SUBMARINES

301. It is intended that instructions contained in this publication shall be disseminated not only to naval vessels and aircraft, but also to all other agencies concerned with anti-submarine measures. Within each Sea Frontier the commander thereof shall arrange for understanding of, and cooperation in carrying out, these instructions on the part of District, Coastal Defense and Sea Frontier air and surface forces; Army Defense Command and Coastal Frontier air and land forces; and all other units that may engage in anti-submarine activities.

302. (a) SUBMARINE OPERATIONS AND MOVEMENTS OUTSIDE SANCTUARIES SHALL BE MADE THE SUBJECT OF SUBMARINE NOTICES, originated by the senior officer present of the submarine unit concerned at the place of departure. He shall deliver them to the senior submarine officer present who hall consolidate all notices originating in his area and transmit them, using the security classification suitable to the movement, to the following:

(1) SUBMARINES CONCERNED.

(2) Also to the COMMANDER IN CHIEF, UNITED STATES FLEET, for dissemination to units of our Fleet and allied forces, that may come in contact with the submarines in the Atlantic, by means of FRIENDLY SUBMARINE POSITION or SUBMARINE NOTICE messages on FOX schedules.

(3) Also to the COMMANDER IN CHIEF, U.S. PACIFIC FLEET, for dissemination to units of our Fleet and allied forces, that may come in contact with the submarines in the Pacific, by means of FRIENDLY SUBMARINE POSITION or SUBMARINE NOTICE messages on FOX schedules.

(4) Also to SEA FRONTIER COMMANDERS in whose waters the submarines will operate, for dissemination to all units (Navy, Army, Coast Ward) within their respective Sea Frontiers that are concerned with anti-submarine measures, by means of FRIENDLY SUBMARINE POSITION or SUBMARINE NOTICE messages.



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(5) Also to the SENIOR OFFICER PRESENT AT ANY ADVANCE BASE in the vicinity of prospective submarine operations, for dissemination to his command, and other local forces.

(6) Also to the SENIOR SUBMARINE OFFICER PRESENT at the destination of the submarine or, in the event that there is no submarine officer at the destination, then to the SENIOR OFFICER PRESENT AFLOAT.

(7) And to other commands for information as necessary.

(b) EXCEPTION to the provisions of 302(a) shall be made when the submarine activity is confined to an area where only local air and surface forces operate. In this case the SUBMARINE NOTICE shall be transmitted only to the SENIOR OFFICER PRESENT, who will relay it to local units and no one else.

(c) The SENIOR SUBMARINE OFFICER at the point of departure shall when promulgating the SUBMARINE NOTICE, also promulgate a FRIENDLY SUBMARINE POSITION message to all anti-submarine activities in the vicinity twenty-four hours before departure of the submarine, including therein so much of the information contained in the basic notice which concerns the area covered by the local anti-submarine forces.

(d) The SENIOR SUBMARINE OFFICER at the destination of any submarine covered by a SUBMARINE NOTICE, shall promulgate twenty-four hours before the scheduled arrival of the submarine, a FRIENDLY SUBMARINE POSITION message to all anti-submarine activities in the vicinity, including therein so much of the information contained in the basic notice which concerns the area covered by the local anti-submarine forces. In the event that there is no submarine officer at the destination of the submarine, this will be done by the SENIOR OFFICER PRESENT AFLOAT.

303. FORM OF SUBMARINE NOTICE. SUBMARINE NOTICES shall be brief communications giving only essential information. They shall always be prefaced by the words "SUBMARINE NOTICE." Copies of operation orders shall not be used for the purpose. They shall be transmitted to addressees on shore by mail if time permits. Despatch communication may be used to transmit or modify a notice. Each notice shall contain the following information:



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(1) Name and nationality of submarine involved.

(2) Areas to be used for exercise, patrol or other submarine operations shall be clearly defined. In the case of submarines making long voyages, unless otherwise specified in the SUBMARINE NOTICE, the BOMBING AND ATTACK RESTRICTION AREA shall be considered to move with the submarine and extend 30 miles ahead, 60 miles behind, and 15 miles each side of the estimated track given.

(3) Dates of expected commencement and completion of an operation shall be specified. A margin of time should be allowed for possible delays in completion, but excessive margin shall be avoided lest it work to the advantage of an enemy.

(4) For long voyages the point and time of departure; estimated speed; route to be followed, defined by reference points; estimated time of passing each reference point; point and estimated time of arrival; and whether escorted should be stated. If the trip is accelerated or retarded outside the limits of the RESTRICTION AREA the senior submarine officer in the movement should, if communication security permits, give the addressees of the SUBMARINE NOTICE the new estimated times of passing reference points for dissemination of a modification as necessary. For plotting purposes, night will be considered as extending from one half hour before end of evening twilight until one half hour after beginning of morning twilight.

(5) In case of short passages from port to port along usually traveled coastal routes it will suffice to state time and place of departure, estimated speed, expected time and place of arrival, and whether escorted.

(6) Statement that ATTACK RESTRICTIONS and TOTAL (OR SUBMERGED) BOMBING RESTRICTIONS are imposed.



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304. FRIENDLY SUBMARINE POSITION messages are intended to permit the dissemination of adequate information from SUBMARINE NOTICES with a minimum of radio communication. Depending upon the forces involved and conditions existing, daily positions of friendly submarines or other brief messages which furnish adequate information to addressees may be used by commands responsible for dissemination. Such messages should include the names and nationalities of the submarines involved and a statement that ATTACK AND TOTAL (OR SUBMERGED) BOMBING RESTRICTIONS are in effect. Unless otherwise specified, the RESTRICTION AREA, which moves with the submarine making a long voyage, is as stated in 303(2).

305. SANCTUARIES:

(a) SANCTUARIES are announced in secret addenda to this publication. Addenda No. 1, including change No. 3 thereto, and Addenda No. 2 issued as addenda to the publication "Submarine Sanctuaries and Submarine Notices" remain in force as the corresponding addenda to this publication until re-issued.

(b) Distribution of addenda is limited to senior commands who are responsible for the proper dissemination of the information contained therein. They are numbered and distributed according to areas covered.

(c) SANCTUARIES must be kept to a minimum. They are prescribed by the Commander in Chief based upon the recommendation of commanders of operating forces.

O

 

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