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INDEX
 
Absorbents, carbon dioxide, 193-194
Acrolein gas in submarine atmosphere, 271
Acute bacterial infection, 181
Age standard, diving candidates, 7
Air
  composition of normal, 31-33
  volume of in submarines, 268
Air contamination inside submarines, 313
Air Decompression Table, Standard, gaps between specified bottom times, 216
Air demand SCUBA, duration of air supply in, 213
Air diving, zero-decompression limits for, 229
Air embolism, 98-99, 165, 259
  danger of, 322
  in submarine escape, 322
    symptoms of, 322-323
  prevention, 98
  traumatic, 42
  treatment, 98, 105, 167
    inside recompression chamber, 329
Air hose
  coupling lengths together, 22
  diver's, 21-22
  replacing by relief diver, 66
Air hose diver, decompression for, 213
Air hose diving, decompression schedule for, 216
Air hose fittings, 22
Air pressure, applying to personnel in recompression chamber, 288
Air pressure during snorkeling, 269
Air regeneration methods, 270
Air salvage connections, external, 314
Air saturation decompression table, 94
Air SCUBA decompression, 215-216
  methods, 215
  rules for, 215-216
Air sterilization in submarines, 272
Air supply auxiliary, arrangements for, 215
Air supply hose, high pressure, 314
Air temperature, influence on human comfort by, 274
Air-conditioning system, submarine, 272
Air-cylinder manifold, demand valve on, 135
Air-demand system breathing apparatus, resistance in, 205
Air-Lung, Northill, 136
Air-SCUBA diver, decompression for, 213
Air-supply duration, theoretical, graph, 214
Airway systems in rebreathing equipment, 202
Alcohol-boric acid solution, drying ears with, 183
Alertness tests, 340
Alveolar carbon dioxide tension, normal, 197
American Optical Company Pseudo-Isochromatic Plates, 287
Amphibious respiratory unit, Lambertsen, 139
  Amplifier, diving, 25-27
Anatomy and physiology, 35-40
  heart and the circulatory system, 35-36
  lungs and the circulatory system, 36-40
Anoxia, 171, 323
  consequences, 171
  definition, 171
  effects of prolonged, 171
  hazards of, 138, 141, 144, 146
  mental effects of, 171
  prevention, 171
  symptoms, 171
  treatment, 171
Antihistaminic drugs, treating coral cuts with, 177
Apnea, voluntary, 259-260
Appendicitis, 304
  acute, 299-300
Aqua-Lung, 135
  development of, 126
Argon, molecular weight of, 44
Armored diving suit, 145
Artificial respiration
  back-pressure, arm-lift method, 109
  instruction in, 2
  mechanical, 109-110
Ascending, preparations for, 66
Ascent
  emergency, technique of, 162
  mandatory exhalation in emergency, 166
  rate of, 86
  safety procedure for, 161
Asphyxia of the diver, 99
  cause, 100
  point at which reached, 269
  prevention, 100
  symptoms, 100
  treatment, 100-101
Asphyxiation, 299-300
Aspirator supply hose, 75
Atmosphere
  composition of normal, 31-33
  submarine, 268-272
    analyzing for carbon dioxide, 270
    bacteria in, 272
    battery gases in, 271
    engine exhaust fumes in, 271
    harmful contaminants of, 270-271
    impurities in, 271-272
    odors, objectionable in, 272
    oil vapors in, 271
    oxygen and carbon dioxide in, 269-270
    pressure inside, 268-269
    volume in, 268

343

Atmospheric contaminants inside submarines, 270
Atomic submarines
  atmospheric vitilation of, 335
  medical considerations of, 335-338
Auditory pitch discrimination, testing, 340
Autonomic nervous system, effect of carbon dioxide on, 337
Aviator's oxygen, 269

Bacteria in submarine atmosphere, 272
Bag oxygen level, 236
Barotrauma; See Squeeze
Barracuda, precautions against, 179
Basal oxygen consumption, 335
Battery disconnect switches, 280
Battery electrolyte, pollution of, 271
Battery gases in submarines, 271
Battle injuries, deaths from, 302
Beckman Oxygen Analyzer, 81
Bell, rescue, 314
  connections between ASR, 314
  description, 314
Belloni tub-trunk method of escape from submarines, 317
Bends, 173, 212, 323
  formation of, 47
  treatment of, 330
Bert, Paul, 9
Blackout, shallow-water, 171
Blackout during skindiving, 261
Blacky test, 287
Blast injuries, underwater, 117
  description, 118
  treatment, 118, 176
Blast protection, SCUBA diver, 176
Blast tolerance, 176
Bleeding from the lungs
  cause, 101
  prevention, 101
  treatment, 101
Bleeding from the nose
  cause, 101
  prevention, 101
  treatment, 101
Bleeding relating to diving, causes, 170
Blood, diseases of, 302
Blood circulatory system illus., 36
  organs of, 35
Blood samples, obtaining on Operation Hideout, 339
Blood sugar level, decreases in, 335
Blowing up
  cause, 101
  prevention, 101
  treatment, 102
Body odor, offensive, 288
Body saturation by gases, 47
Body squeeze, 42
Body surfaces, effects of pressure unequally applied to, 40
Body temperatures, maintaining mean, 244
Boyle's gas law, 31, 37, 321
Breastplate, 18
  Breath-holding
  cardiac arrhythmias as a result of, 261
  in skindiving, 260
  methods of prolonging, 260-261
Breathing apparatus
  handling, 156
  open-circuit systems, 234
  oxygen-circuit systems, 234
  semiclosed circuit mixed-gas, 143
  semiclosed circuit systems, 236-239
  suitability for use with gas mixtures, 234
Breathing apparatus, closed-circuit systems, 234-235
  with oxygen replacement, 235-236
    continuous injection of oxygen, 235-236
    respiration, linked to, 236
    volume-replacement principle, 235
Breathing apparatus, physiological consideration in design and evaluation of, 186-210
  breathing resistance, 200-208
  carbon dioxide, 193-195
    absorbents, 193
    canister design, 194-195
    effects of, 197-200
    production, 193
  oxygen consumption, 186-191
    in underwater swimming, 187-188
    swimmer equipped for determination of, 188
    swimming ergometer, 189-190
    versus speed, 188
    with various types and degrees of activity, 187
  respiratory dead space, 195-196
  respiratory minute volume, 191-193
    measurements at depth, 191
    measurements at surface, 191
    versus oxygen partial pressure, 192
  respiratory requirements, 186
Breathing apparatus suitable for mixed-gas diving, 234-240
  closed-circuit systems, 234
    with oxygen replacement, 235
  open-circuit systems, 234
  semiclosed circuit systems, 236
Breathing bag, 209, 320
  imbalances of pressure caused by, 200
Breathing circuit, 209
Breathing equipment
  approved, 156
  diving without, 258-262
Breathing resistance in air passages, 208
Breathing resistance in SCUBA, 128, 200
Breathing system considerations in SCUBA design, 209
British clearance divers breathing apparatus, 143
Bubbling, SCUBA, 146
Buddy line, 108
Buddy system, SCUBA divers, 158
Buoy cable, messenger, 314
Buoyancy,
  negative, 313
  theory of, 34-35
  using submarine's reserve, 313
Buoyancy of wet foam suit, 252

344

Bureau of Mines Experimental Station, Pittsburgh, Pa., 11
Burns, 300
Burow's solution, 181

Cables, connecting, 28
Caisson disease, 323
  prevention of, 47
Caloric test, 169
Canister(s), 74
  absorption, faults of design, 194
Canister considerations in SCUBA design, 209
Capillary dilation, 167
Carbon dioxide
  artificial removal of on submarines, 269
  concentrated, effects of on personnel, 269
  predictive time-concentration toxicity curve for, 335
  results of prolonged exposure to, 335-338
  source of in submarine atmosphere, 271
  stimulatory effects of, 335
  toxic action of, 44-45
Carbon dioxide absorbent, 74, 269
Carbon dioxide absorbent canister, 320
Carbon dioxide absorption in SCUBA, 128
  problem of, 193
Carbon dioxide absorption canisters causes of failure in, 195
  common defects in, 194-195
Carbon dioxide accumulation, 171-172
  after effects, 172
  prevention, 171-172
  reasons for, 171
  recognition, 172
  shallow-water blackout, 171
  treatment, 172
Carbon dioxide analyzer, 270
Carbon dioxide concentrations, effects of human exposure to, 335
Carbon dioxide excess causes of death from, 199
  symptoms, 199
Carbon dioxide levels, effect of depth pressure upon, 197
Carbon dioxide mixtures, obtaining cardiorespiratory data during exposure to, 336
Carbon dioxide poisoning, hazards of, 138, 142, 144, 146
Carbon dioxide production, body, 193
Carbon dioxide respiratory stimulation, 199
Carbon dioxide toxicity, 323-324
Carbon monoxide, 271
  in submarine atmosphere, 271
safe amount of for air diving, 175
Carbon monoxide hemoglobin, formation of, 174
Carbon monoxide poisoning, 173-175
  carbon monoxide hemoglobin
    depth pressure, effect of, 174
    formation of, 174-175
  relationship between the proportion of inactivated hemoglobin and symptoms in, 174
  sources, 173-174
  treatment, 175
408832 O-57-23
  Carboxyhemoglobin formation, rate of, formula, 174-175
Carboxyhemoglobin in circulating blood, symptoms accompanying various   percentages of, 174
Cardiac abnormalities as a result of breath-holding, 2,61
Cardiorespiratory data, obtaining during exposures to CO2 mixtures, 336
Cardiovascular effects from carbon dioxide, 197-198
Cardiovascular system examination
  diving candidate, 7
  submarine training candidates, 288
Casualties, management of during submarine training, 328-330
Cellulitis, 182
Central nervous system, depressive effects in, 335
Central nervous system depression, 198-199
  symptoms, 198
Cerebral vasodilatation, 197
Chamber decompression, 215
Chamber in submarine, escape with, 316
Charles' Law, 31
Chest cavity, air in the, 114
Chicken pox, 300
Chlorine gas, effects of, 271
Circulatory efficiency tests, 340
Circulatory system
  diseases of, 302
  saturation and desaturation in, 48
  the heart and the circulatory system, 35-36
Closed-circuit breathing apparatus, 234-235
  depth limitation of, 142
  maintenance, 142
  with oxygen replacement, 235-236
Closed-circuit rebreathing apparatus, 234-235
  with oxygen replacement, 235-236
Closed-circuit systems, SCUBA
  apparatus duration, 142
  basic components, 138
  breathing media, 141
  dead space, 139, 141
  gas utilization, 141
  gas-supply control, 141
  gas-supply duration, 142
  medical aspects, 142
  military considerations, 142
  operating limits, 142
  pendulum system, 139
  recirculating system, 138-139
Clothing
  protective for divers, 244-255
  submarine, 280-283
    cold weather gear, 281-283
    warm climates, requirements in, 280
Cold water protection for divers, 176
Cold weather, clothing requirements for submarine personnel in, 280-281
Cold weather clothing
  for watch standing on a submarine, 281
  requirements of, 281
Cold weather gear
  illus., 281-282
  submarine, 281

345

Colds, 300, 303
Cold-water swim suit, types of, 247
Color, effect on personnel, 277
Color discrimination, examination for, 289
Color vision, method for scoring, 292
Color vision standards
  diving candidates, 7
  submarine duty, 287
Color vision testing, 289
  Farnsworth Lantern for, 290
Communicable diseases, classification, 300
Communication equipment for divers, 255
Communication with SCUBA, 128
Communications, diver's, 24-28
  amplifier, 27
  electrical, 24
  mechanical, 24
  reproducer, 27
  signals, naval standard, 24
    emergency, 25
    pull, 24
Communications Department, Submarine School, subjects covered by, 4
Compartments, design of in submarines, 275-278
  color, 276-277
  lighting, 276
  recreation areas, 277
  sleeping spaces, 278
  working areas, 277
Compass, use in SCUBA diving, 160
Compressed air illness, 67
  oxygen treatment for, 111
Compressed air intoxication, 172-173
  maximum depth for diving on air, 172
  prevention, 173
  symptoms, 172
  treatment, 173
Constant volume swim suit, 250
Constipation, 300, 303
Contaminants, atmospheric on submarine, 270
Contaminated water, use of SCUBA in, 157
Control valve, 73, 75
Coral injuries, treating, 177
Coral poisoning, 177
Cousteau's constant volume suit, 250-251
Cruise, submarine, trainee, 4
Currents, hazards to divers by, 180
Cylinder pressure, SCUBA, 210

Dalton's Law, 38
Davis gear, 320
Decompression
  chamber, 215
  explosive, 322
  helium-oxygen, 83-95
    descent, the, 86
    emergency procedures, 94
    oxygen stops, 86
    surface, 95
  methods of giving a SCUBA diver, 215
  Decompression-Continued
  regular, 67
  stage, 52
  surface, 67, 95, 215
    limits of depth and exposure for, 56
    table using oxygen, 57
    using air, 56
    using oxygen, 56
Decompression for air dives, standard, 52-55
  attendants, instructions to, 55
  timekeeper, 55
  with self-contained apparatus, 212-220
Decompression for multilevel dives, 217
Decompression phenomena, instruction in, 2
Decompression procedures, emergency, 94-95
Decompression sickness, 67, 103-107, 173, 212, 216
  cause, 103
  hazards of, 138, 142, 144, 146
  instruction in, 2
  occurring under pressure, 107
  preparedness for treating, 107
  prevention, 104
  symptoms, 103, 329
  treatment, 104-105, 323
    errors in, 107
    helium-oxygen, 106
    oxygen, 106
    recurrences, 106
    table, 105
    tender, 106
    without chamber, 106
Decompression sickness for skindivers, 259
Decompression stages, divers', 23-24
Decompression table (s)
  air saturation, 94
  helium saturation, 94
  helium-oxygen partial pressure, 87-94
  instruction in, 3
  SCUBA, 216
  standard, 52-57
Decompression table using compressed air, 53
Decompression time, 52
Decompression with helium-oxygen mixtures, characteristics of, 83
  procedure for, 83
Deep diving limits
  emergency, 219
  rules, 219
Deep sea diving instruction, 1
Deep Sea Diving School
  facilities at, 12-14
  reestablished at NGF, 11
Deep-sea suits, standard, self-contained apparatus for, 145
Demand system components, 135
Demand valve, adaptation to diving apparatus, 134
Demand valve mechanism, illus., 134
Dental conditions, emergency treatment for, 307
Dental diseases, 306
  classification, 301
Dental examination for candidates for submarine training, 288

346

Depth control, lowered oxygen percentages during loss of, 334
Depth gage, 159
  value of to divers, 255
Descending, methods of, 60
  by decompression stage, illus., 62
Descent
  pressure equalization during, 161
  rate of, 60
  safety precautions for, 120
Diaphragm, action of, 37
Dietary dissatisfaction, effect on morale, 279
Digestive system, diseases of, 303
  classification, 300
Disease immunity, 334
Diseases, diagnostic classification of blood, 302
  circulatory, 302
  communicable, 300
  dental, 301
  digestive system, 300
  ear, 301
  eye, 301
  genitourinary tract, 301
  infectious type, 301
  lung, 302
  motor system, 301
  nervous system, 301
  nose, 301
  skin, 300
  throat, 301
Diseases and conditions reported on submarines, 299
Distilling units, electric vapor compression, 279
Dive(s)
  decompression tables applicable to repetitive, 216
  multilevel, 217
  repetitive, 216
  required decompression procedure for, 52
  safety considerations in the use of SCUBA before, 160-161
    ascent, the, 161
    descent, the, 160-161
    equipment, care of, 161
    procedures before dive, 160
    surfacing, 161
Diver (s)
  air supply to, 78
  condition of, 155
    at time of dive, 155
    examination, initial, 155
    reexamination, periodic, 155
  determining direction of travel, 63
  dressing, safety precautions, 120
  dressing the, 14-24
  leaving the descending line, 63
  method of decompressing the, 67
  oxygen supply to, 78
  protective clothing for, 244-255
  qualifications for, 118-119
  relief, 65
  safety precautions for tending a, 121
  Diver(s)-Continued
  searching for lost articles, 63-64
  the first, 9
  training prerequisites before diving, 156
  working about moorings, 64
  working on muddy bottom, 63
  working on rocky bottom, 63
Diver's alveolar carbon dioxide tension, 197
Diver's communications, 24-28
Diver's equipment, 14-24
Diver's underwear, electrically heated, 78-79
Divers using SCUBA, 108
Dives with self-contained equipment, current status, 217-218
  depth limit, normal maximum, 217-218
  diving limits, present, 217
  factors in deep dives, 217
Diving, 60-68
  ascent, the, 66-68
  decompression in SCUBA, 215
  depth-time limits for on 100% oxygen, 224
  descent, the, 60-66
    by decompression stage, 62
    working on the bottom, 60-66
  development of in U. S. Navy, 9-13
  float, 68
  gas-mixtures in self-contained, 228-242
  helium-oxygen, 70-95, 240; See also Helium oxygen diving     instruction in, 1
    safety precautions covering, 122
  history of, 9-13
  instruction in for medical officers, 1-6
  medical aspects of, 30-49; See also Medical aspects of diving mixed-gas, 145
  oxygen convulsions in SCUBA, 222
  pressure-tank, instruction in, 1
  river, instruction in, 1
  safety precautions for, 118
  safety precautions for mask, 121-122
  shallow water, 108
  squeeze in shallow-water, 115
Diving accidents, 98-122
  classification of, 98
  SCUBA, 165
Diving amplifiers, 25-27
  models in general use, 26
Diving boat, small-craft, 67
Diving conditions, safety considerations in the use of SCUBA
  contaminated water, 157
  surface conditions, 157-158
  tides and currents, 157
  underwater visibility, 157
  water temperature, 157
Diving depth, factors limiting, 146
Diving dress, 14, 17
Diving duty, physical standards for, 6-8
Diving equipment, safety precautions for, 119

347

Diving gear
  self-contained, problems of, 2
  shallow-water, 1
Diving helmet, Navy standard, 18-20
Diving hose, 22
Diving intercommunication system, 25
Diving limits
  air SCUBA, 217
  mixed gas, 233
  nitrogen nondecompression. 231
  oxygen tolerance, 232-233
Diving log, 54
Diving Manual, Bureau of Ships, 81, 159, 216
Diving medicine, 126-127
  instruction in, 1-2
Diving on air, limits for, 172
Diving operations, planning for, 119, 158
Diving shoes, 18
Diving suit
  early type, 10
  positive heating for, 253
    advantages. 253
    sources of, 253
Diving time on a surface-to-surface basis, 217
Diving training facilities, development of, 10-14
Diving with helium-oxygen mixtures, 78
Diving with negative buoyancy, 159
Diving with self-contained apparatus, decompression in, 212-220
Diving with self-contained underwater breathing Apparatus, 126-132; See also Self-contained underwater breathing apparatus
Diving without breathing apparatus, 258-262; See also Respiratory equipment
Draeger gear, 320
Dressing the diver, 14-24
Drive, scoring
  definition, 294
  factors considered, 294
  rating categories, 294
Drowning, 107-110, 299, 302
  in SCUBA diving, 165
  in skindiving, 261
  prevention, 108
    artificial respiration, mechanical, 109-110
  treatment, 108-109
Dry bulb thermometer readings, 272-273
Dry foam suit, 249
Dry swim suits
  nonequalizing, 247-249
  bunch-back, 247, 249
  foam, 249
  gum rubber, 247
  illus., 248-249
  insulation, loss of in, 250
  leakage difficulty in, 249
  material construction, 247
  methods of entry, 247-249
  neck ring closure, 249
  over-heating in, 250
  waist seal, 249
  Dry swim suits-Continued
  with equalization, 250-251
    advantages and disadvantages, 250-251
    Cousteau constant volume suit, 251
    operation of, 250
Dry-chamber tests with pure oxygen, 113
Dwyer chemical carbon dioxide analyzer, 270

Ear(s)
  anatomy of, 41
  barotrauma of, 168, 259
  diseases of, 301
  examination of, for candidates for submarine training, 288
  examination of, for diving candidates, 7
  external, squeeze, 169
  pain in, during descent, 60
Ear damage to personnel on submarines, 333
Ear defenders, 278
Ear infections, 305
  external
    preventive measures, 182-183
    treatment, 181-182
    types, 181
  factors favoring, 181
Ear pains
  cause, 110
  prevention, 110
  treatment, 110
Eardrum, ruptured, 305, 324
Eardrum rupture in cold water, 169
Eels, electric, 180
Effective temperature
  chart for finding, 274
  results on, by changing a thermal factor, 273-274
Electric lighting cable, 314
Electric shock, 300
Electrical Department, Submarine School, subjects covered by, 4
Electrocardiograms for skindivers, 259
Electrocardiographic data, obtaining during exposures to CO2 mixtures, 337
Electroencephalographic data, obtaining during exposures to CO2 mixtures, 337
Emphysema(s)
  mediastinal, 166
  subcutaneous, 166
  treatment of, 167
Endocrine glands, effect of carbon dioxide on, 337
Engine exhaust fumes in submarine atmosphere, 271
Engine noises, submarine, 278
Engineering Department, Submarine School, subjects covered by, 4
Engineroom personnel, chronic exposure to noise by, 278
Entanglement, diver, 161-162
Equipment, personal, safety considerations in the use of SCUBA, 159-160
  accessories, 159-160
    compass, 160
    depth gage, 159

348

Equipment, personal, etc.-Continued
    facemask, 159
    flashlight, 160
    floatline, 160
    flotation gear, 159
    knife, 159
    lifeline, 160
    noseclip, 159-160
    protective clothing, 160
    swimfins, 159
    watch, 159
    weight belt, 159
    weights, 160
  breathing apparatus, 159
Equipment, SCUBA
  approved, 156
  maintenance procedure, 156
  stowage and handling, 156-157
Ergometer, swimming, 189
Escape, submarine, medical considerations in; See submarine escape
Escape compartment
  depletion of oxygen in, 323
  flooding, 313
Escape from submarines
  factors influencing mode of, 312-313
    conditions inside submarine, 313
    depth of water submarine rests in, 313
    help from other vessels, availability of, 312
    surface conditions, 312
  individual, 316
  See also Submarines
  techniques of individual submarine, 317-318
  training and facilities for, 334
    collective, 334
    individual, 334
  with SCUBA, 321
Escape tank training, 289-290
Escape tank training operations, medical officer attending, 328
Escape training, free, 328
Escape training for submarine crews, 327-328
Escape training tank, submarine, 325-330
  casualties, management of, 328-330
  illus., 325, 326
  operation, 325-327
  structure, 325-327
  training procedures, 327-328
Escape trunk, 316
Escape valve, diver adjusting, 61
Ether hazard in submarine atmosphere, 271
Eustachian tube, blockage of, 167
Exhaust fumes, engine, 271
Exhaustion
  prevention, 110
  treatment, 110
Experimental Diving Unit, 11, 71
  instruction, 1-3
  laboratory instruction, 3
  results of studies on oxygen exposure limits, 222-224
Explosives, procedures for divers working with, 176
  Exposure, calculation of tolerable duration, 246
Eye, diseases of, 301
Eye irritation, 306
Eye strain, 306

Face mask, 159
  full, 161
  mounting the demand valve on, 135
Face mask squeeze, 116
  hemorrhage under tissues of eye coverings from, 116
Face squeeze, 42
Farnsworth Lantern, 287, 290
Feet, skin temperature chart for, 244
Fire extinguishers, 280
First aid kits, submarine, 313
Flashlight, underwater, 160
Floatline, 160
Floats, diving, 68
Flooding, submarine, 313
Flooding down compartment, escaping by, 316
Flotation arrangements, SCUBA, 210
Flotation gear, swimmer's, 254
Flow systems, schematic diagrams for, 203
Fluorescent light, 276
Foamed neoprene, thermal conductivity of, 246
Food, factors effecting intake, 279
Fouled divers, 111
Fouling, 111
Free ascent, methods of, 162
Free escape from submarines, 321
  disadvantage of, 321-322
  regulating speed, 321
Free escape training, 328
Freon-12 in submarine atmosphere, 271
Fresh water supply on submarines, 279
Fumes, engine exhaust, 271
Fungus infections, 183, 300, 305
  preventive measures, 183
  treatment, 183

Garbage disposal units, 280
Gas
  automatic injection system for mixed, 143
  noxious, effects of, in escape compartments, 324
Gas analysis apparatus, Haldane-Henderson, 81
Gas analyzer, 81
Gas cylinders, 143
Gas mixtures in self-contained diving, 228-242
  breathing apparatus for use with, 234
  helium-oxygen, 240-242
  nitrogen-oxygen, 228-234
Gas sample-collecting apparatus, 81
Gas solubility, 35
Gas utilization
  closed-circuit system, 141
  semiclosed system, 144
Gases
  battery, 271
  body saturation by, 47
  narcotic action of, 43-44
  solubility in water ratios, 44

349

Gases dissolved in arterial and venous blood, partial pressures of, 39
Gas-supply control, semiclosed systems, 144
Gas-supply duration in semiclosed apparatus, 144
Gas-supply exhaustion, 161
Gastroenteritis, 303
Gastrointestinal system examination
  diving candidate, 7
  submarine training candidates, 288
Genitourinary system examination diving candidate, 7
Genitourinary tract, diseases of, 305
  classification, 301
German submarine designs, 332
Giant clams, 180
Gingivitis, 307
Gloves, webbed, 254
Gum rubber swim suit, 247

Haddock, U. S. S., 339
Haldane, J. S., 9
Hands
  problem of protecting from cold, 253
  skin temperature chart for, 244
Headache, 301, 306
Health, conditions of, limiting submarine operations, 299
Hearing, method for scoring, 292
Hearing loss among engineroom personnel, 278
Heart and the circulatory system, 35-36
Heart disease, 302
Heat
  amount produced by body, 245
regulation of body, 272
Heat loss, body, 245-246
  rate of, 245
  in relation to duration of exposure, 246
Heat production
  body, 245
  metabolic, in underwater swimming, 245
  underwater swimmer's, 245
Heat rash, 300, 304
Helium
  advantages related to decompression in use of, 240
  molecular weight of, 44
Helium mixtures in SCUBA, advantages of, 240
Helium-oxygen decompression tables, example for using, 84
Helium-oxygen dives, decompression time for, 70
Helium-oxygen diving, 1, 70-95, 240
  decompression, 83-95
  development and principles, 70-72
  gas mixture, mixing and analyzing, 72-83
  physiological aspects of, 70-72
  safety precautions covering, 122
Helium-oxygen diving, gear, 72-83
  canister, 74
  control valve, 75-76
  heated underwear, 78-79
  helmet, 72-73
  manifold, 76
  recirculator, 73-74
  supply line, 75
  Helium-oxygen diving technique, 81-83
Helium-oxygen manifold, 75
  rigged for air supply to diver, 78
  rigged for oxygen supply to diver, 77
Helium-oxygen mixture(s), 72, 83, 240-242
  analyzing, 81
  carbon-dioxide absorbent, 74
  emergency tables for using 94
  experiments with, 72
  experiments with by Bureau of Mines, 11
  oxygen percentage of, 84
  preparation of, 80-81
  results of experimentation with, 71
Helium-oxygen mixtures in self-contained breathing Apparatus, 240-242
Helium-oxygen partial pressure decompression tables, 87-94
Helium-oxygen rate of ascent table, 84
Helium-oxygen stops, 86
Helium-oxygen supply line, 75
Helium-oxygen table of partial pressures, 85
Helium-oxygen volume tank, 77
Helium saturation decompression table, 94
Helmet
  attaching to breastplate, 23
  diving, Navy standard, 18-20
  helium-oxygen diving, 72-73
Helmet cushion, 18
Helmet safety lock, 73
Helmet ventilation, obtaining proper, 62
Hemoptysis, treatment for, 167
Hemorrhoids, 300
Henry's Law, 38
Hydrogen sulfide, 271
Hydro-Pak mask, Scott, 137

Immunity, disease, 334
Impurities in submarine atmosphere, 271-272
  carbon dioxide, 271
  mercury vapor, 271
  tobacco smoke, 272
  toxic gases, 271
Infectious diseases, classification of, 301
Injuries
  classification, 300
  diagnostic classification of, 300
Insects, fumigation for on submarines, 280
Instrument panel lighting by illuminating source, 276
Insulation
  amount required under various conditions, 246
  loss of, in swim suit, 250
Intelligence scoring
  factors considered, 293
  rating categories, 293
Intercommunication system, diving, 25
Intestinal organs, gas formation within, 43
Intrapulmonary pressure, consequences of excessive, 165

Jellyfish stings, reactions to, 178

Kata globe thermometer, 274
Kinetic theory and pressure, 33-34

350

Knife
  divers', 159
  value of, to divers, 255
Krasno-Ivy meter, 335

Lambertsen Amphibious Respiratory Unit, 126, 139
Laminar flow system, 202-203
Life preserver, vest-type, 159
Lifeline, 160
  replacing by relief diver, 66
Lighting
  faults of direct, 276
  instrument panel, 276
  of submarine compartments, 276-277
  red, 277
Locke Marital Adjustment Test, 287
Lung(s)
  bleeding from the, 101
  consequences of overpressurization of, 165-166
  diseases of, 302
  effects of unequal air pressure on, 40-41
  overexpansion of, 42
  partial pressures of gases in the air of, 38
Lung rupture, 166
Lungs and the respiratory system, 36-40

Malaria, 300
Manifold, helium-oxygen, 75-76
Manta rays, injuries from, 180
Manual dexterity tests, 340
Marine life
  hazards of, 177-180
    barracuda, 179
    clams, giant, 180
    coral, 177
    electric eels, 180
    jellyfish, 178
    manta rays, 179-180
    moray eels, 179
    octopus, 180
    sea urchins, 177
    sharks, 178
    vegetable life, 177
  radioactivity spread by, 183
Masculinity Role Test, 287
Mask considerations in SCUBA design, 209
Mask diving, safety precautions for, 121-122
Mask-mounted demand valve, open-circuit air-demand system with, 135
Maturity scoring
  definition, 293
  factors considered, 293
    emotional, 293
    physical, 293
  rating categories, 293
McCann chamber, 314
Mean radiant temperature, 274
Mean skin temperature, 244, 245
Measles, 300
Mechanical injuries from external violence, 111
  Medical aspects of diving, 30-49
  elementary anatomy and physiology, 35-40
  physics of diving, 30-35
  pressure effects on body structure and function, 40-49
Medical Department administration, 6
Medical instruction at U. S. Naval Medical Research Laboratory, 4-6
  clinical psychiatry, 5
  dentistry, 6
  general, 4
  human engineering, 6
  industrial hygiene, 5-6
Medical Department administration, 6
  otolaryngology, 5
  personnel assessment, 5
  physiology, 5
  preventive medicine, 5-6
  radiological health, 6
Medical officer(s)
  interview with submarine, 290
  submarine, training of, 1-6
  trained in diving medicine, 127
Medical problems of future submarines, 332-342
  atomic submarines, 335-338
  Operation Hideout experiment, 338-342
Medical problems in submarines, 298-310
  diseases and injuries, classification of, 300-302
  diseases encountered, 299
  psychiatric casualties in warfare, 307-310
  tuberculosis problem, 310
Medical Research Laboratory, physical examination at, 289
Medical Research Laboratory Assessment, 296
Medicine, preventive, 334
Mercury vapor in submarine atmosphere, 271
Mess compartment, submarine, 278
Metabolic heat production, 245
  in underwater swimming, 245
Metabolism, basic measure of, 245
Methane, 271
Meyer-Overton Theory, 43, 324
Middle ear squeeze, 168-169
  damage, degrees of, 168
  symptoms, 168
Mines, locating with SCUBA, 130
Mixed gas diving limits, 233
Mixed gases, zero-decompression limits for, 229
Mixed-gas breathing apparatus, automatic mixture control in, 239
Mixed-gas diving, breathing apparatus suitable for, 234-240
Mixed-gas injection with popoff, 236
Molecular weight of gases, 44
Momsen lung, 271, 317
  escape with, 334
Moray eels, attacks on divers by, 179
Motor system, diseases of, 301
Mouthpiece, flood-out, 161
MRL Data Card, illus., 291
Multilevel dives, 217
Mumps, 299-300

351

Narcotic action of gases, 43-44
Narcotics in first aid kits, 313
Nasal accessory sinuses, 41
Nautilus, U. S. S., frontispiece
Naval School, Salvage, Bayonne, N. J., 13
Navy Diving School, Newport, R. I., establishment of, 10
Navy Life, adjustment to, scoring
  definition, 293
  factors considered, 293
    psychological, 293
    social, 293
  rating, categories, 293
Navy standard decompression tables, 52-57
Neck ring closure swim suits, advantages and disadvantages, 249
Negative buoyancy, 313
Neomycin, treating ear infections with, 182
Nervous system, diseases of, 301
Nervous system depression, 172
New London Navy Color Vision Lantern, 287
Nitrogen
  molecular weight of, 44
narcotic action of, 43-44
Nitrogen absorption and elimination, 45-49
Nitrogen accumulation, preventing, 144
Nitrogen elimination
  hastening, 49
  illus., 46
Nitrogen narcosis, 172-173, 217, 324; See also Compressed Air Intoxication
  elimination of, in deep dives, 240
  importance of elimination of, 240
Nitrogen nondecompression diving limits, 231
Nitrogen partial pressure, reducing, 173
Nitrogen-oxygen breathing mixtures, 228-234
Noise, influence on work output, 278-279
Noise levels on submarines, 278
Nose
  bleeding from the, 101
  diseases of, 301
Nose and throat conditions in candidates for submarine duty, 287-288
Nose and throat examination, diving candidate, 7
Nose clamp, 321
Nose clip, 159
Nuclear energy for submarine propulsion, 335
Nuclear radiation hazards, 183

Octopus, method for killing, 180
Odors, in submarine, cause of objectionable, 272
Officers' Submarine School, instruction at, 3-4
Oil vapors, danger of in submarine atmosphere, 271
Oil-water solubility ratios of gases, 44
Open-circuit breathing apparatus, 234
Open-circuit demand system, SCUBA, 145
Open-circuit SCUBA, 234
Open-circuit systems, SCUBA
  breathing media, 137
  continuous flow, 134
  demand, 134-135
  depth effect on gas-supply duration, 146
  Open-circuit systems, SCUBA-Continued
  gas utilization, 137-138
  gas-supply duration, 138
  medical aspects, 138
  military considerations, 138
  operating limits, 138
Operation Hideout experiment, 338-342
Ordnance Department, Submarine School, subjects covered by, 4
Otitis externa; See Ear infections
Otitis externa, chronic, treatment for, 181
Otomycosis, 181
Overexertion, 170
  limitations of lung-power, 170
  respiratory response, 170
Overheating in closed swim suit, 250
Overpressurization of the lungs, consequences of, 166
Oxides of sulfur, 271
Oxygen
  artificial addition of on submarines, 269
  aviators, 269
  depth-time limits for diving on 100%, 224
  lowering pressure of, 172
  molecular weight of, 44
  surface decompression using, 56
  toxic action of, 44
Oxygen, pure, results of experiments while breathing, 111-112
  divers at rest, 111
    dry chamber, 111-112
    wet chamber, 112
  divers at work in wet chamber, 112
Oxygen bends, 142
Oxygen breathing equipment, 56
Oxygen closed-circuit equipment, safe depth of operation for, 142
Oxygen consumption
  decrease in basal, 335
  determination on ergometer, 191
  formula for conversion to heat production, 245
  in closed-circuit gear, 142
  in underwater swimming, 188
  replacement of, 235
  underwater swimmer equipped for determination of, 188
Oxygen consumption and ventilation, relationships between, 192
Oxygen content of inspired gas, consequences of reduction of, 171
Oxygen convulsions, 165
Oxygen dead space, 141
Oxygen diving, 113
Oxygen exposure limits, 222-225
  problems in establishing, 222
Oxygen pendulum system, closed-circuit, 139-140
Oxygen percentage, checking helium-oxygen mixture for, 81
Oxygen poisoning, 94, 111, 172, 173
  avoidance of, 225
  instruction in, 2
  limitations upon mixed-gas breathing apparatus because of, 239
  prevention, 113

352

Oxygen poisoning-Continued
  symptoms, 112
  treatment, 113
Oxygen stops, 86
Oxygen supply to diver, 77
Oxygen tolerance, 222-226
  carbon dioxide and exertion, 225
  exposure limits, 222-225
  oxygen poisoning, avoidance of, 225
  results of Experimental Diving Unit studies, 224
Oxygen tolerance diving limits, 232-233
Oxygen toxicity, 172, 323
  hazards of, 137, 142, 144, 146
  occurrence, 172
  prevention, 172
  treatment, 172, 323
Ozone, 271

Patrol duration, shortening of, 333
Pendulum system, closed-circuit, 139-140
Penicillin, treating ear infections with, 182
Performance Evaluation Report, illus., 295
Personal adjustment, scoring, 292
  definition, 292
    factors considered, 292
    physical, 292
    psychiatric, 292
    psychosociological, 292
  rating categories, 292
Personal History Form, 286, 290
Personnel, procurement of select, 334
Personnel assessment, definition, 286
Personnel selection
  definition, 286
  submarine, 286-296, 334-335
    aptitude, 294
    drive, 294
    intelligence, 293
    interest, 294
    maturity, 293
    Navy life, adjustment to, 393
    personal adjustment, 292
Personnel trapped in submarines, methods of freeing, 312-313
Phosgene gas in submarine atmosphere, 271
Physical examination at Medical Research Laboratory, 289
Physical standards for diving duty, 6-8
Physical standards for submarine duty, 287
Physics of diving, 30-35
  air, composition of normal, 31-33
  buoyancy, theory of, 34-35
  gas solubility, 35
  general considerations, 30-31
  kinetic theory and pressure, 33-34
Physiological functions, measuring human, 338
Physiology, instruction in, 2
Pneumonia, 299-300, 302-303
Pneumothorax
  spontaneous, remedy for, 43
  treatment of, 167
  Poisonous fish, 180
Polymyxin, treating ear infections with, 182
Portuguese men-of-war stings, 178
Positive buoyancy, devices giving, 322
Pressure
  effects of, instruction in, 2
  excessive intrapulmonary, 165-167
    application to diving situations, 166
    damage, mechanisms of, 165
    prevention, 166-167
  kinetic theory and, 33-34
  means of escape equalizing with sea, 316-317
    escape trunk, 316-317
    flooding down compartment, 316
  variation of volume and density with, 32
Pressure chamber, exposure in, 327
Pressure changes, sinus pains during, 329
Pressure effects on body structure and function, 40-49
  applied equally to all parts of the body, 40
  applied unequally to all parts of the body, 40
  ears, 41
  face or body squeeze, 42
  lungs, 40-41
  narcotic action of nitrogen, 43-44
  nitrogen absorption and elimination, 45-49
  overexpansion of stomach and intestinal organs, 43
  overexpansion of the lungs, 42
  phenomena, 40
  secondary pressure phenomena, 43
  sinuses, 41
  spontaneous pneumothorax, 43
  teeth, 41
  toxic action of carbon dioxide, 44-45
  toxic action of oxygen, 44
Pressure equalization, 324
Pressure inside submarines, 268-269
Pressure phenomena, secondary, 43
Pressure regulator, Grove-type, 77
Pressure tank, illus., 12
Pressure test, diving candidate, 7
Pressure-tank diving, 1
Prophylactic antibiotic therapy, 169
Propulsion devices for swimmers, 254
Psychiatric casualties on submarines, 310
Psychiatric studies of Operation Hideout, 338, 341
Psychological fitness of applicants for submarine training, 287
Psychomotor performance, measuring human, 338
Psychomotor response, observing on Operation Hideout, 341
Pull signals, transmitting, 24

Radiation decomposition products, 272
Radiation hazards, nuclear, 183
Radioactivity spread by marine life, 183
Rations, emergency canned, 313
Rebreathing apparatus, closed-circuit, 234-236
Recirculating system, closed-circuit, 138-139
Recirculator, 73
Recirculatory device, 74

353

Recompression chamber, 56
  applying air pressure to candidates within, 288
  candidates ability to equalize pressure in, 7
  candidates testing ability to equalize air pressure in, 288
  description, 8
  illus., 8
Recompression chambers at Experimental Diving Unit, 13
Recreation areas on submarines, 277
Red lighting, necessity for, 277
Regulator pressure, SCUBA, 210
Relative humidity, influence on human comfort by, 274
Reproducer, diver's, 28
Rescue bell, 313
  advantages of, 315
  air hose for venting to atmospheric pressure, 314
  disadvantages of, 315
  escape with, 314
  procedure for using, 314-315
Rescue buoys, 312
Rescue vessels, submarine, 312
Respiration, definition, 36
Respiration tests, 340
Respiratory dead space, definition, 195
Respiratory equipment, diving without, 258-262
  breath-holding, 259-261
    blackout, 261
    cardiac arrhythmias as result of, 261
    oxygen and pressure effects, 260
    prolonging, methods of, 260-261
  drowning, 261
  medical aspects, 258-259
    fitness for, 258
    physical qualifications, 258-259
    training for, 258
  snorkel, use of, 261
  submergence and pressure, 259
    air embolism, 259
    barotrauma, 259
    decompression sickness, 259
    squeeze, 259
    thoracic squeeze, 259
Respiratory infections, upper, 181
Respiratory muscles, 37
Respiratory quotient, 193
Respiratory responses from carbon dioxide, 198
Respiratory system, lungs and the, 36-40
Respiratory system examination
  diving candidate, 7
  for submarine training candidates, 288
Revitalization, formula for, 269
River diving, instruction in, 1
Rosenzweig's Pictorial Frustration Test, 287
Rubber, thermal conductivity of, 246
Rubber exposure suit, 160
Rubber-impregnated cloth, thermal conductivity of, 246
Ruptures, 300

Safety air nonreturn valve, 20-21
Safety considerations in the use of SCUBA. See SCUBA
Safety devices, SCUBA, 210
Safety features on submarines, 280
  Safety in design of submarines, 280
Safety precautions applicable to diving, 118-122
Salvage air connections, external, 314
Sanitary tank, emptying at sea, 272
Sanitation, problems in on submarines, 280
Scarlet fever, 300
Screening personnel for the use of SCUBA, 148
SCUBA
  advantages over conventional gear, 127-128
    disadvantages, 128-129
  breathing resistance in, 200
  classification of, 134-146
    closed-circuit, 138-142
    miscellaneous, 145
    open-circuit, 134-138,234
    semiclosed, 142-144
  oxygen poisoning in the use of, 222
  personnel selection for the use of, 148-149
    psychiatric aspects, 148-149
    screening, 148
    standards, 148
    volunteers, 149
  removing carbon dioxide from respired gas in, 193
  submarine escapes with, 321
SCUBA, safety considerations in the use of, 155-162
  dive, the, 160-161
    ascent, the, 161
    descent, the, 160-161
    equipment care, 161
    procedures before, 160
    surfacing, 161
  diver, condition of, 155
    at time of dive, 155
    examination, initial, 155
    reexamination, periodic, 155
  diving conditions, 157-158
    buddy system, 158
    contaminated water, 157
    emergency measures, 159
    negative buoyancy, 159
    surface conditions, 157-158
    surface craft, 158
    tides and currents, 157
    underwater visibility, 157
    water temperature, 157
  equipment, maintenance and handling, 156-157
  personal equipment, 159
    accessories, 159-160
    breathing apparatus, 159
  planning operations, 158
  qualification of diver, 156
  training of diver, 156
  underwater emergencies, 161-162
    buddy's role, 162
    emergency ascent, 162
    entanglement, 161
    floodout of mouthpiece, 161
    full face-mask, 161
    gas-supply exhaustion, 161
    surfacing, 162
    swim mask, loss on flood-out of, 161

354

SCUBA, training in the use of, 149-151
  demonstrating effects of anoxia and, 150
    carbon dioxide excess, 150
  instruction, classroom, 149
    decompression tables, 151
  shop training, 151
  swimming requirement, 151
SCUBA characteristics, summary of, 146
SCUBA decompression, 212
  tables, 216
SCUBA design, 208-210
  breathing system considerations, 209
    breathing bag, 209
    breathing circuit, 209
  canister considerations, 209
    emptying, 209
    filling, 209
    size and configuration, 209
  configuration
    fit and form, 208
    size and shape, 208
    underwater swimming considerations, 208
SCUBA diving limits, 217
SCUBA operations, problem of sunburn in, 177
SCUBA training, use of snorkel in, 261
SEA
  evaluation of, 320
  instruction in the use of, 319-320
Sea pressure, escaping without equalizing with, 313-316
  escape chamber in submarine, 315-316
  rescue bell, 314
  surfacing the vessel, 313
  using external salvage air connections, 314
  using ship's reserve buoyancy, 313
Sea urchins, SCUBA diver protection against, 178
Sea-nettles, injury from, 178
Seasickness, 306
  cause of on submarines, 280
Seasickness problem in SCUBA diving, 180
Self-contained gear, comparative characteristics, table of, 146
Self-contained underwater breathing apparatus, 108, 126-132
  conventional equipment, comparison with, 127-129
    disadvantages, 128-129
    relative merits, 129
  diving, importance in modern, 126
  diving medicine, implications in, 126-127
  equipment, choice of, 130-131
  military objectives, 129-130
    defensive operations, 130
    miscellaneous operations, 130
    offensive operations, 129-130
  objectives, 127
Semiclosed circuit equipment, maintenance, 144
Semiclosed circuit mixed-gas breathing apparatus, 143
Semiclosed circuit systems
  breathing apparatus, 236-239
  SCUBA
    apparatus duration, 144
    breathing media, 143
  Semiclosed circuit systems-Continued
  SCUBA-Continued
    components, basic, 142
    continuous flow, 142-143
    gas utilization, 144
    gas-supply control, 144
    gas-supply duration, 144
    medical aspects, 144
    military considerations, 144
    operating limits, 144
Shallow-water blackout, 171,199
Shallow-water diving, safety nonreturn valve used in, 116
Shark repellents, 178
Shell-Natron, 74
Siebe, Augustus, 9
Siebe's diving suit, illustration, 11
Signals, emergency, giving, 25
Sinus, failure to equalize, 169
Sinus pains during pressure change, 329
Sinuses
  air pressure in, 41-42
  pain in, 60
Sinusitis, 169-170
Skin
  chronic disease of, 288
  diseases of, 304
    classification, 300
Skin examination, diving candidate, 7
Skin rashes, 304
Skin temperature
  conservation of heat through lowered, 245
  mean, 244
Skin temperature chart, 244
Skindivers
  electrocardiograms required for, 259
  squeeze in, 259
Skindiving
  blackout during, 261
  physical qualifications for, 258-259
  thoracic squeeze in, 259
  training for, 258
  use of snorkel in, 261
Sleeping spaces, submarine, 278
Snorkel
  rise of, in skindiving, 261
  use in SCUBA training, 261
Snorkeling, air pressure during, 269
Sonar aptitude grade, 292
Soup lines, 314
Space, habitable in submarines, 267-268
Spontaneous pneumothorax, 114
  preventing, 114
  treatment, 114-115
Squalus, U.S.S., experimental work on, 71
Squeeze, 167-170
  bleeding, 170
  causes, 115
    prevention, 115
    treatment, 116-117
  eardrum rupture in cold water, 169
  external ear, 169

355

Squeeze-Continued
  mechanism of, 167
  middle ear, 168-169
  rubber suit, 170
  sinusitis, 169-170
  situations involving, 167
Squeeze in shallow-water diving, 115
Stage decompression, 52
Sting ray injuries, 179
  treatment for, 179
Stomach, overexpansion of, 43
Streptomycin, treating ear infections with, 182
Submarine(s)
  aptitude for, 294
    Medical Research Laboratory assessment, 296
    rating categories, 294
    Submarine School assessment, 296
  deaths occurring aboard on war patrol, 299
  diseases peculiar to, 334
  escape from, 312-330
    equalizing with sea pressure, 316-317
    factors influencing mode of, 312-313
    medical considerations, 322-324
    methods of, 317
    techniques of individual, 317-322
    training tank for, 325-330
    without equalizing with sea pressure, 313-316
  habitability in, 266-280
    atmosphere, 268-272
    compartments, design of, 275-278
    engine noises, 278-279
    space, 267-268
    thermal, 272-275
  interest in, scoring, 294
    rating categories, 294
  medical problems in, 298-310
  medical problems of future, 332-342
  officers' basic course in, 3
  type XXI, 332-333
  type XXVI, 332
Submarine clothing, 280-283
Submarine Department, Submarine School, subjects covered by, 4
Submarine designs, German, 332
Submarine duty, physical standards for, 287
Submarine escape, medical considerations, 322-324
  air embolism, 322
  anoxia (hypoxia), 323
  carbon dioxide toxicity, 323-324
  decompression sickness, 323
  nitrogen narcosis, 324
  noxious gas effects, 324
  oxygen toxicity, 323
  pressure equalization, 324
  types, 334
Submarine medical officers, training of, 1-6
Submarine medicine training, 4-6
Submarine operations, health conditions limiting durations of, 299
Submarine personnel, visual acuity of, 276
  Submarine rations, 279
Submarine rescue vessels, 312
Submarine School
  departments at, 3
  quota for, 3
  training procedures at, 327-328
Submarine School assessment, 296
Submarine service
  assessment of personnel volunteering for, 286
  procedure for assessing candidates for, 286
  sources of men volunteering for, 286
Submarine training, officers' basic course in, 4
Submarine warfare, psychiatric casualties in, 307-310
  case histories, 308-310
Suffocation of the diver, 99-101
Suit squeeze, 170
Sunburn, 300
  problems of in SCUBA operations, 177
Surf, hazards to divers by, 180
Surface craft, SCUBA diving operations from, 158
Surface decompression, 56-57,67,215
  limits of depth and exposure for, 56
Surface decompression procedure, 95
Surface decompression table, 57
Surface exposure, 177
Surfacing, safety consideration in, 162
Swim ergometer
  in use, 190
  oxygen consumption determination on, 191
Swim mask, loss or flood-out of, 161
Swim suits
  possible developments in protective, 252-253
  types of cold water, 247
  wet, 251-252
    advantages and disadvantages, 252
Swimfins, 159
SCUBA diver's, 254
Swimming, underwater, 208
Swimming ergometer, trapeze, 189

Tactical Department, Submarine School, subjects covered by, 4
Teeth, examination of for diving candidates, 7
Telephone communication, cable for, 314
Television, underwater, 1
Temperature
  body, 244
  extremes of 274-275
  finding effective, 274
  optimal effective, 274
  water, 244
    effects of on SCUBA divers, 176
Temperature chart, skin, 244
Temperature of extremities, maintenance of, 245
Thermal comfort, index of, 274
Thermal conductivity, 246
Thermal conductivity values of various substances, list, 246
Thermal factors in environment, influence on comfort by, 274

356

Thermal habitability, submarine, 272-275
  air-conditioning system, 272
  temperature
    effective, 274
    extremes of, 274-275
Thoracic squeeze in skindiving, 259
Throat, diseases of, 301
Throat muscles, spasm of the, 42
Thyroid activity during exposure to carbon dioxide, 337
Tides, hazards to divers by, 180
Tissue edema, 167
Tissues
  desaturating capabilities of, 47-49
  saturating capabilities of, 47-49
Tobacco smoke, persons hypersensitive to, 272
Tonsillitis, 300,302
Torpedo tubes, escape through, 317
Torricelli's barometric principle, 317
Training facilities, development of diving, 10-14
Training procedures at Submarine School, 327-328
Trapeze swimming ergometer, 189
Traumatic air embolism, 42
Trunk, escape, 316
Tuberculosis problem in submarines, 310
Tub-trunk, Belloni, 317
Turbulent flow systems, 203
Tympanic membrane, rupture of, 167

Underwater, reactions of men, 334
Underwater blast injuries, 117
Underwater breathing, analysis of, 204
Underwater breathing apparatus, 126-132
  measurements for evaluation of, 204
Underwater decompression, 68
Underwater demolition swimmer, working without breathing apparatus, 262
Underwater demolition teams, operations with SCUBA, 129
Underwater emergencies with SCUBA, 161-162
  ascent, emergency, 162
  buddy, 162
  entanglement, 161
  face-mask, full, 161
  gas-supply exhaustion, 161
  mouthpiece, flood-out of, 161
  surfacing, 162
  swim mask, loss or flood-out of, 161
Underwater explosions, injury from, 176
Underwater swimmer(s)
  heat production by, 245
  possible development in suits for, 252-253
Underwater swimming, metabolic heat production in, 245
Underwater swimming at different speeds, oxygen consumption in, 188
Underwater swimming considerations for SCUBA design, 208
  Underwater visibility, checking before diving, 157
Under water work, oxygen consumption in, 187
Underwear, heated, 78-80
U. S. Naval Medical Research Laboratory, medical instruction at, 4-6
U. S. S. Lafayette, 13

Vegetable life, diving accidents in connection with, 177
Venereal disease examination, 288
Venereal diseases, 305
Ventilation, the minute volume of, 191
Vincent's infection, 307
Vision
  method for scoring, 292
  minimal for submarine duty candidates, 287
Vision standard, diving candidates, 7
Vision standards for submarine duty, 287
Visual acuity, testing, 289

Walke, U.S.S., 10
Walter turbine, 332
War patrols, problem of waste accumulation during, 334
Warm climates, clothing requirements for submarine
  personnel in, 280
Waste accumulation problem on submarines, 334
Watches, pressureproof, 159
Water
  contamination by radioactive particles, 183
  fresh supply on submarines, 279
  storage of fresh, 313
  thermal conductivity of, 246
Water temperature(s)
  diving limitations due to, 157
  effects of in SCUBA diving, 244
  effects on SCUBA divers, 176-177
  individual tolerance range of, 245
Wechsler-Bellevue Test, 287
Weight belt, 159
Weight standard, diving candidates, 7
Weight standard for submarine training candidates, 288
Welding, Manual for Underwater, 121
Wet bulb thermometer readings, 272-273
Wet suits, foam, 251-252
  buoyancy change, disadvantage of, 252
Wet-chamber tests with pure oxygen, 112
Wool clothing, thermal conductivity of, 246
Working areas, consideration of on submarines, 277

Zero-decompression limits, 218
  for air diving, 229
Zero-decompression rules, 219
  tabular values, 219
Zero-decompression time applied on a surface-to-surface
  basis, 217
U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1957 O-408832

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