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PROGRESSIVE METHOD OF RIGGING SHIPS.


THERE is no one undeviating mode which is pursued in the progressive rigging of ships. It is an operation which must at all times depend upon the time allotted for its performance, and the necessity of immediate sitting. The nature of it, however, is such, that all parts may be advancing at the same time: but the usual method of proceeding, where extreme expedition is not required, is the following:

First, rig the bowsprit; then get the lower rigging over the masts. Next, get up the topmast and their shrouds: then get on board and rig the lower yards; then the topsail-yards; and, lastly, get up the topgallant-masts, with their rigging and yards.

The performance of each part is now here treated of, the Bowsprit and lower masts being fixed.

BOWSPRIT.

HORSES. The outer ends are spliced round a thimble closed through an eye-bolt on each side of the upper part of the bowsprit-cap. The inner-ends have a thimble seized in, that sets up to the eye-bolt in the timber-head, on each side the stem, by a laniard, passed several times alternately through the thimble and eyebolt, and set tight by hand: the turns are then frapped together, and the end hitched.

GAMMONING. Nine or eleven turns of the rope are passed over the bowsprit and through a hole cut in the knee of the head alternately; (but, where there is no knee, through a large triangular ring-bolt driven through the stem.) The first end is whipt and passed through the hole, and over the bowsprit, with a round turn, then clinched round the bowsprit close against the cleats; the other end passes through the fore-part of the hole, taking care to cross every turn, and keep each turn forward on the bowsprit, and aft in the hole, and every turn is hove tight and nipper'd. In the navy, the bowsprit is first heaved down by a chain-boat. A selvage is fastened round the bowsprit next the saddle, for the spritsail-slings, to which a block is hooked, and through it a pendent is reeved, having one end made fast to an eye-bolt in one side the boat, and a lulff-tackle to the other end, whose fall is connected with the windlass, and heaved tight by handspecs; the fall is then stopped with spunyarn, and taken off the windlass. Each turn of the gammoning-rope is then heaved tight as above. A leading-block is lashed through an eye-bolt, in the bow of the chain-boat, or round the davit, and a pendent reeved through, with an eye spliced in one end, through which a bight of the gammoning-rope is passed, and retained by means of a toggle. To the other end of the pendent is hooked a luff-tackle, whose fall is connected with the windlass, and heaved tight as before. The luff-tackle is over-hauled by a small jigger-tackle, made fast to the davit-head and strap of the luff-tackle block. In merchant-ships, chain-boats are seldom used. Their own long-boats or casks of water are heaved up to the bowsprit end, and every turn of the gammonning-rope is connected with the windlass or

 

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capstern, on-board. A leading block is made fast through the holes, for the bob-stay, with tails, long enough for the pendent and tackle, to lead straight through the hawser-holes to the windlass. The process as before.

When all the turns are passed, and hove tight, they are frapped together in the middle, by as many cross turns as are passed over the bowsprit, each turn hove tight: the end of the gammoning rope is then whipt, and seized to one of the turns. The frapping increases the tension; and adds to the security acquired by the purchase.

THE BOBSTAY-COLLAR is lashed upon the upper side, two-thirds out, or within the saddle for the spritsail slings, with eight or ten turns, each turn passing alternately, through the eyes, and hove tight by a heaver.

THE SHROUD-COLLARS are lashed upon each side the bowsprit, as before.

FORE-PREVENTER-STAY-COLLAR, AND FORE-STAY-COLLAR. The latter stops against cleats, nailed to the bowsprit, to prevent its coming in, and both are lashed under the bowsprit. A stage is made for this purpose, of two long spars, or the topmast studding-sail-booms, and a grating. One end of the spars rests upon the gunwale, on each side the bowsprit, and the outer ends are lashed to the bowsprit, and the grating is laid under the collars.

BOB-STAYS. Kings ships have two pair of bob-stays, merchant ships commonly but one pair. They are used to confine the bowsprit downwards, and are fixed by passing one end through a hole bored in the knee of the head; (merchant ships, that have no knee, have large triangular bolts driven through the stem, and clenched on a plate of iron, inside;) the ends are then spliced together, to make it twofold, or like the link of a chain. A heart, or dead-eye, is seized in the bight, with a splice at the arse of the heart, the same as the collar; a laniard then passes through, and connects with the heart, or dead-eye, in the collar under the bowsprit, and sets up tight, with a luff-tackle upon luff, and leads in upon the forecastle. The use of the bobstay, is to draw down, and keep steady the bowsprit, to counteract the force of the stays of the fore-mast, which draw it upwards.

SHROUDS hook to an eye-bolt on each side the bow; the fore-mast end has an heart, or deadeye, seized in, that it may shift nearer in, as the rope stretches; the shrouds are then set tight as the bob-stay. The shrouds are to fortify the bowsprit, as the fore-mast and upper part of the main-mast are stayed and supported be the bowsprit.

JIB-BOOM.

THE TRAVELLER, or round iron hoop, is first put over the outer end of the jib-boom, with a hook and shackle; the hook is kept inwards to hook the tack of the jib to.

HORSES. The bight is taken over the outer end of the jib-boom with a jambing-knot, and rests against a shoulder, made in the end of the jib-boom, to prevent its coming in. The inner ends are brought in and made fast, with a round turn round the jib-boom, within the cap. The ends are stopt back, with two or three seizings of spun-yarn, to prevent their being cast off by mistake.

GUY-PENDENTS are put over the jib-boom, the same as the horses, and the inner ends reeve through a thimble, on the quarters of the spritsail-yard, and turn into the strap of a double block, with a throat and round seizings, which is connected, by its fall, to a single block, that hooks to an eye-bolt, near the cat-head, and leads in upon the fore-castle.

A STRAP is put over the end of the jib-boom, with three thimbles seized in it; the middle thimble is the largest, which the fore-topgallant-stay reeves through, and the thimble on each side has the fore-top-gallant bowlines reeved through.

 

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SPRITSAIL-YARD.

HORSES. The eye in the outer end is put over the yard-arm on each side, and stops against the cleats; the other end has an eye spliced in and seized to the yard three feet beyond the slings. The horses hang three feet below the yard. To keep horses more parallel to the yard, they are suspended at proper distances by ropes, called

STIRRUPS, two or three on each side the slings, having a thimble or eye spliced in their lower ends. They hang three feet below the yard, through which the horse reeves. The upper ends are opened and plaited, to lie flat to the yard: they have three turns round the yard, and are nailed. A flemish horse is used at each arm of the yard, having an eye spliced in each; one eye is put over the bolt in the yard-arm, the other seized within the cleats.

BRACES AND PENDENTS. The eyes of the pendents are spliced in one end. They go over the yard-arm, and the brace reeves through the single block spliced in the other end, connecting them with a double block, made fast under the fore-top, and then leads through another, made fast at the aft part of the top, and down to the breast-work at the aft part of the fore-castle, and the standing part is made fast to the stay-collar.

LIFTS. The blocks are strapped with an eye to the size of the yard-arm, and put neatly over the yard-arm:

A SPAN is then passed round the cap under the jib-boom, with a hitch, and has a single block turned into each end. After which one end of the lifts reeve through the single block in the span at the cap, then through the lift-block on the yard-arm. The standing part is made fast to an eye-bolt in the cap, and leads in upon the fore-castle; they are used for the spritsail-topsail-sheets, and to keep the yard level, or to raise one yard-arm higher than the other, and support the weight when a number of seamen are employed to furl or reef the sail.

THE STANDING-LIFT has an eye spliced in one end, and lashes to the yard one-fourth from the slings; the other end has a thimble spliced in, and is set up with a laniard to a thimble spliced in a strap that goes round the bowsprit within the bees.

CLUE-LINE-BLOCKS are strapped, with two eyes, and are lashed through those eyes round the yard, three feet without the slings; the lashing to be upon the yard.

SLINGS. One end has an eye, and goes round the yard close within the cleats in the middle, and seizes with a quarter seizing close to the yard; the other end goes over the bowsprit before the saddle, and under the yard, then over the bowsprit again, and an eye is spliced in the end, that comes close to the other eye, and lashes.

STRAP, with a thimble seized in its bight, is spliced or seized round the yard in the middle, between the cleats. The single block of the haliards hooks in the thimble, and is moused with spunyarn, round the hook, to prevent its slipping. The long tackle block is hooked, and moused, to an eye-bolt in the after-part of the bottom of the cap, and the fall leads in upon the forecastle, and belays to the rack over the bowsprit. Also, on each outer quarter of the yard, is seized a strap, with a thimble, through which are led the jib-guys,

PREVENTER-SLINGS are used when the haliards are taken in. The outer end has a hook and thimble spliced in and served down, that hooks to the eye-bolt in the bottom of the cap. The inner end reeves through the thimble in the above strap, and is hitched with two half hitches, or spliced.

 

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SPRITSAIL-TOPSAIL-YARD.

HORSES. The eye in the outer ends is put over the yard-arm on each side, and stops against the cleats; the other end has an eye spliced in it, and is seized to the yard, three feet without the slings.

BRACES have an eye spliced in one end, that goes over the yard-arm on each side; the other end leads through a block made fast to the underside of the fore top, from that through another block, made fast under the aftside of the top, and down to the aft-part of the forecastle, and is there belayed.

LIFTS have an eye spliced in one end that goes next over the yard-arm; the other end leads through a thimble, seized on each side a strap that goes over the jib-boom end, and leads in upon the forecastle, through a saddle on the bowsprit for leading in the running-ropes, and belays to the rack over the bowsprit.

CLUE-LINE-BLOCKS are strapped with two eyes, and are lashed through those eyes round the yard, about two feet without the slings.

PARRAL-ROPE. Both ends pass under the yard, and over the jib-boom, contrary-wise; they are then seized through the eyes, close in the cavity on the back of the ribs.

HALIARD. One end reeves through a block, lashed under the outer part of the jib-boom; then through a single block, lashed round the middle of the yard between the cleats; then forward; and is made fast with a bend, through the becket of the block, at the jib-boom ends.

The leading-part leads in upon the forecastle, and belays to the rack over the bowsprit.

FORE-MAST, AND MAIN AND MIZEN MASTS.

GIRTLINE-BLOCKS are lashed round the mast-head, above the stop of the cap, one to hang on each side. The girtlines that reeve through them lead down upon deck, for hoisting the rigging tops, and cross-trees, and the persons employed to place the rigging over the mast-head.

BOLSTERS, on the trestle-trees, are clothed with old canvas, several times doubled, and tarred.

PENDENTS OF TACKLES are got over the mast-head, and fixed, that the thimbles, to which is lashed the block for the runner, may hang one on each side the mast, and buttons over the mizen-mast.

SHROUDS are hoisted over the mast-head. The first pair leads down on the starboard-side forward, the next pair forward on the larboard-side; then the second pair on the starboard, and the second on the larboard, and so on till the whole are fixed. By this method, the yards are braced to a greater degree of obliquity, when the sails are close hauled, which could not be, were the foremost shrouds last fitted on the mast-head.

SWIFTERS are swayed over the mast-head, next above the shrouds; and are fixed on the starboard and larboard side of the mast. They are extended from the mast-head to the starboard and larboard sides of the ship, to support the masts, and enable them to carry sails, &c.

THE STAY is hoisted over the mast-head, and supports the mast on the forepart, by extending from its upper end towards the fore part of the ship.

THE PREVENTER-STAY is next hoisted over the mast-head, the same as the former.

THE TOP is next got over the mast-head, by the girtlines. Four holes are bored through; one in the middle of the square hole on each side, and two in the forepart, four inches on each side the middle of the top, except the mizen-top, which is bored in the aft part. The top is hoisted on-board by the girtlines, and placed up against the aftside of the mast, except the mizen, which is to be placed on the foreside. The girtline is made fast, for hoisting the top over the mast-head, as

 

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follows: reeve one end of each girtline through the hole by the middle of the square hole, and take a whole round turn round the sides of the top; make it fast to the standing part, with two half hitches, and stop it with spun-yarn through the midship holes in the fore part, except the mizen-top, which is stopt at the aft part. The girtline at the next mast-head is made fast to the aft part of the main and fore top, and fore part of the mizen-top. The top is then hoisted by its girtlines over the mast-head, and guyed clear of the trestle-trees by the girtline from the next mast-head. When it bears against the mast-head, the stops are cut, and the top is swayed up till it goes over the mast-head and falls to its place.

DEAD-EYES are then turned into the lower end of the shrouds, left-handed, (being cable-laid rope,) with a throat-seizing clapt on close to the dead-eye, and above that a round seizing crossed, and the end of the shroud whipt with spun-yarn, and capped with canvas well tarred.

LANIARDS are reeved through the dead-eyes: the end of the laniard is thrust through the after-hole of the upper dead-eye, and stopt with a walnut-knot, to prevent its slipping; the other end is passed through the after-hole of the lower dead-eye, and, returning upwards, is conveyed through the second hole in the upper dead-eye, and next through the second hole in the lower dead-eye, and finally through the third hole in both dead-eyes. The end of the laniard, being directed upwards from the lower dead-eye, is set up by the runner and tackle, which hooks in the runner-pendent: a luff-tackle is also hooked to a selvagee in the shroud, and the lower part hooked to the laniard with a cats-paw, and bowsed tight: the fall is then made fast to the hook of the runner with another cats-paw; the runner is swayed up very tight, and the laniards are then nipped together with a strand of rope-yarn. To make the whole slide with ease through the holes in the dead-eyes, it is smeared with tallow, that all the turns may bear an equal proportion of the strain. When the shrouds are set up for a full due, (which is when the mast is stayed forward and the stays all set up,) the laniard is nipped, or stopt, as before observed, and the end passed betwixt the throat-seizing, and the dead-eye, with a hitch, then brought round all the parts, in turns, to expend the laniard, and the end is well stopt to the shroud with spun-yarn. It is customary to set up the shrouds the first time, with temporary laniards of worn rope, and spun-yarn seizings; and the proper laniards and seizings, when set up the last time for sea.

FUTTOCK STAVES are seized along the lower shrouds horizontally, as much below the upper-side of the trestle-trees as the cap is above. The shrouds are then swiftered together: viz. a spar is lashed to the outside of the shrouds about six feet below the futtock-stave; a single block is then lashed round each shroud and spar, (except the fore and after shrouds,) so that all come in together; the swifting-line is then reeved through each block, from side to side, beginning in the middle, one end leading aft, the other forward; it then crosses, and reeves through two leading-blocks, one on each side the deck, and is bowsed tight till the shrouds come into the length of the catharpin legs, which are seized at each end, round the futtock-stave and shroud.

RATLINGS are fastened horizontally to the shrouds, at regular distances, from the futtock-staff downwards, and small spars or boat-oars are seized to the shrouds, about five feet asunder, for the men to stand upon. The first ratling to be thirteen inches below the futtock-staff on the lower shrouds. The ratlings are fastened round each shroud with a clove-hitch, except at the ends, which have an eye spliced in and seized round the shroud. Each ratling is placed thirteen inches asunder. The fore and aftermost shroud are left out for the first six ratlings down from the futtock-staff; and like-wise the six lower ratlings next the dead eyes. The topmast-shrouds are rattled in the same manner; the first ratling thirteen inches below the futtock-staff, and rattled throughout. The swifters on the

 

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lower shrouds are then removed lower down, half way between the dead-eyes, and bowsed tight, there to remain.

THE CAP is next swayed up into the top by the girt lines.

TOPMASTS.

THE GIRTLINES are now taken down from the mast-head, and one of the top-blocks is securely lashed round the mast-head below the cap. The end of a hawser then leads up from aft outside the trestle-trees, and reeves through the top-block at the mast-head, then leads down inside the fore part of the trestle-trees, and reeves through the sheave-hole in the heel of the topmast, and is racked to the topmast in two or three places between the heel and the hounds. It is there well stopt with three-fourth lashing, and enough of the end left to make fast round the mast-head. The other end of the hawser is conveyed to the capstern through a snatch-block that is lashed fast to the bits at the aft part of the mast. When the topmast is hove high enough to enter the trestle-trees, the end of the hawser is made fast round the mast-head. The men in the top stand ready to place the cap over the head of the topmast, and stop it with lashing, a little below the hounds, in a secure manner. The topmast is then hove high enough for the cap to enter over the lower mast-head, and then lowered a little, and the cap beat down firmly on the mast-head with malls, when the lashing is taken off. This method is used in ships where the cap is too heavy to be got over the mast-head by the hands in the top. As the topmast is elevated the rackings are cut.

The cap being firmly fixed on the lower mast-head, the top-rope-pendent is reeved through an iron bound block, hooked through an eye-bolt on one side of the cap, then downwards, and reeved through a hole with a sheave in the heel of the topmast, and brought upwards on the other side of the mast, and made fast to an eye-bolt in the cap on the opposite side the top-block. To the lower end of the top-rope-pendent is hooked, through the thimble, the block of the top-tackle, connected by its fall to a block hooked to an eye-bolt in the deck, and brought to the capstern. The topmast cross-trees are swayed up into the top with the girtline, and got over the topmast-head by the men in the top. The girtline-blocks are again lashed to the topmast-head, as they were to the lowermast-head, and the girtline reeved through, that one part may lead down by the side of the mast, and the other part abaft the top.

BURTON-PENDENTS are hoisted by the girt-lines, and placed over the topmast-head, that the thimbles may hang on each side, to hook the burton-tackles in.

SHROUDS are swayed and placed over the topmast-head; the first pair to lead down on the starboard side forward, the next pair on the larboard side forward; and so with the other two pair.

BACK-STAYS are hoisted and placed over the topmast-head; the breast back-stay first, and the standing back-stays next.

STAYS are swayed and placed over the topmast-head; the stay first, and the preventer-stay next.

TOPMAST-CAP is next swayed up by the girt-lines into the top, and got upon the topmast-head by the men in the top, and beat down firm. The girt-lines are unlashed and taken down, and the topmast hove up and fidded.

FUTTOCK-PLATES are put through the holes in the edge of the top.

FUTTOCK-SHROUDS are furnished with iron hooks, in the upper-ends, that hook to a hole in the lower ends of the futtock-plates; and the lower ends of the futtock-shrouds are attached to the lower-shrouds, with a round turn round the futtock-mast and shroud, and seized upon the standing part of the shroud with two seizings crossed.

 

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DEAD-EYES are turned into the lower ends of the topmast-shrouds, as the lower ones are in the lower-shrouds.

LANIARDS are reeved through the dead-eye in the shrouds and the dead-eye in the futtock-plate, as the lower ones, and set up with the top burton-tackles. The topmast-shrouds are to secure the topmast, and the futtock-shrouds receive equal tension by, means of the futtock-plates passing through the top and connecting with the futtock-shrouds below.

RATLINGS as the lower shrouds.

THE BREAST BACK-STAY has a single block turned into the lower end, with a throat and round seizing, through which the runner is reeved.

One end is made fast to the chain-plates, abreast the mast, with a half-hitch, and the end seized down. In the other end is spliced a double block, connected by its fall to a double block that is strapped with an eye, through which a span is reeved, that has an eye spliced in each end, by which it is lashed to the chain-plates.

AFTER-BACK-STAYS are set up, the same as a shroud, to a small dead-eye in the after end of the channel.

SHIFTING-BACK-STAYS are clenched round the topmast-head, and a thimble spliced in the lower end, to which is hooked a tackle, the lower block of which is hooked to an eye-bolt without-board, and frequently shifted from place to place.

BACK-STAYS are extended to the channels on each side, and are to support the topmasts, and assist the shrouds, when the mast is strained by a weight of sail.

STAYS are thus set up: The shrouds and back-stays are first cast off, and the mast-head got as far forward as nearly to touch the fore-part of the partners, by the runners and tackles or burtons of the mizenmast. The fore-pendents are frapped together abaft the fore-mast; the runners are passed round the bowsprit with a round turn, and hitched with the bight seized. The falls of the runner tackles then lead in upon deck through a block lashed round each knight-head, and swayed upon by the people on deck.

MAIN-PENDENTS are frapped together abaft the mainmast, and the runners made fast round the cable-bits, similar to the fore-mast.

The tackles hook to eye-bolts in the deck, and the falls lead aft.

MIZEN-BURTONS are brought to the fore-brace-bitts, as the runners are to the cable-bitts.

THE FORE-STAY has a heart turned in the lower end with a throat-seizing, and two round seizings above, and the end of the stay capped with canvas, whipped and tarred, then set up with a laniard, that reeves alternately through the heart in the stay and the heart in the fore-stay-collar on the bowsprit. The first four turns lie in scores cut in the hearts, and are tallowed, that the strain may be immediately given to all the turns at once. The laniard is then strained tight by tackles, thus: The upper block of a luff-tackle is hooked to a selvagee fastened round the stay, and the lower block is hooked with a cats-paw to the laniard: then the outer-block of another luff-tackle is hooked with a cats-paw to the fall of the other tackle, and the inner block hooked where most convenient. The fall leads in upon deck, and is swayed by all hands. Then two of the turns, are stopt together with a rope-yarn to prevent their coming up, and more turns taken, and hove on, as before, till the laniard is expended; the end is then well stopped.

THE PREVENTER-STAY is set up the same as the fore-stay.

THE MAIN-STAY sets up, as the fore-stay, to a heart seized in the bight of the main-stay-collar above the bowsprit-chock.

 

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THE COLLAR reeves from the starboard-side through a large hole in the standard in the head, (or a large triangular eye-bolt is driven through the stem in some merchant ships,) then reeves through the eye in the other end, and is brought down to its standing part, and securely seized and crossed in two or three places, and the end capped; the heart is then seized in the bight.

THE MAIN-PREVENTER-STAY sets up, as the fore-stay, to a heart seized in the bight of the main-preventer-stay-collar, which lashes round the foremast, on the fore-side through two eyes, or through a large eye-bolt in the head, the same as the main-stay-collar.

THE MIZEN-STAY leads down from the mast-head through a thimble, seized in the collar, lashed round the mainmast twelve feet up from the deck. It has an eye spliced in each end, and lashes in the fore-side of the mast. A thimble is turned in the end of the stay, after it is reeved through the collar, and set up with a laniard, reeved four or more turns alternately through the thimble in the stay, and an eye-bolt in the deck, that is parcelled and served. The laniard is set tight by the main-runners, and cats-pawed, as much as is required to stay the mast; two of the turns are then stopt together with a rope-yarn, the length of the laniard expended, and the end made fast with a hitch, and seized.

TOPMAST-STAYS.

THE FORE-TOP AND FORE-TOP-PREVENTER-STAYS set up through the bees of the bowsprit, thus: A block with a sheave in it is fixed under the holes in the bees, on each side, through which the stay passes; then a long tackle-block is turned into the ends, which is connected by its fall to a single block hooked to an eye-bolt in the bow on each side, and is set up with a luff-tackle, cats-pawed to its fall. The luff-tackle fall leads in upon the forecastle, and is swayed upon by the men. When the stay is set up, the parts of the tackle are stopt together with a rope-yarn, and the fall of the long-tackle is passed through the eye-bolt and arse of the block alternately, till it is expended. The end is then made fast, round all the parts, with two half-hitches.

THE MAIN-TOPMAST-STAY reeves through a single block, strapped with a long and short leg; the short leg has an eye spliced in it, and fastened round the foremast-head above the rigging; the long leg goes round the mast, and through the eye of the short leg, and is turned back and seized. The stay, having a thimble turned in the lower end, leads down between the catharpins and the mast. It sets up with a laniard to an eye-bolt in the deck, close abaft the mast, with a luff-tackle hooked to a selvagee, fastened to the stay.

THE PREVENTER-STAY reeves through a thimble seized in the bight of the collar, that lashes at the fore part of the foremast close up to the bibs, through the eyes, spliced in the ends of the collar, and then sets up to an eye-bolt, as the topmast-stay.

THE MIZEN TOPMAST-STAY reeves through a thimble seized in the bight of the collar that lashes at the fore part of the mainmast, close up to the bibs; a thimble is then spliced in the ends of the stay, which sets up through another thimble (with a laniard) that is spliced in another collar, lashed round the mast as the former, just below the catharpins, with the top-burton-tackle cats-pawed to the laniard. If with a long pole-head, the same as a topgallant-mast.

LOWER-YARDS.

Lower yards are rigged as follow. One end of the hawser that hove up the topmast is made fast round the yard with a round turn and two half-hitches, securely stopt with spun-yarn along the yard, in several places, and well stopt at the upper yard-arm. As it is hove on board, the stops are cut, and the runner-tackle of the opposite side is brought on to the quarter of the yard, to lower it easy, as

 

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the yard advances aboard beyond the middle or slings. The yards are placed square athwartship, before their respective masts. The fore-yard must be kept above the main-stay by the runners, which are made fast round each outer quarter of the yard.

HORSES go over the yard-arms with an eye in their outer ends, and stop against the cleats, and hang about three feet below the yard. To keep the horse more parallel to the yard, it is suspended, at proper distances, by ropes, called stirrups, that have thimbles or eyes spliced in their lower ends, through which the horses pass; they are four on each side, and hang three feet below the yard, and the upper ends are opened, plaited, and fastened to the yard with three round turns and nails. The inner ends of the horses have a thimble turned in, with a throat and round seizing; they lash to the yard, on the opposite side of the cleats, with a laniard that passes round the yard and through the thimble.

YARD-TACKLE-PENDENTS are next put over the yard-arm, with an eye, as the former. In the lower end is spliced a double block, connected by its fall to a single one, strapped with a hook and thimble, to hoist in the boats, &c.

TRICING-BLOCKS, for the yard-tackles, are strapped with a short lashing-eye, that seizes round the yard about one-third the length within the arm-cleats. The blocks to hang under the yard.

THE INNER-TRICING-LINE reeves through a block lashed to the futtock-staff; has a long eye spliced in the outer end, that reeves through the hook of the single block; the bight is put over the hook with a couple of turns, and the leading part belays to the shrouds. At sea, the hook is hooked to a becket, or strap, round the futtock-staff.

THE OUTER-TRICING-LINE is spliced round the strap of the yard-tackle-block, and reeved through a block on the yard, then leads into the shrouds, and reeves through a block lashed to the shrouds, near the futtock-staff, and down upon deck.

BRACE-PENDENTS are next put over the yard-arms with an eye, as above; in the lower end is a single block, through which the brace reeves. Sometimes, in the navy, and oftener in the merchant service the block is lashed to the yard-arm without a pendent.

FORE-BRACES reeve through the pendent-block; the standing parts make fast round the collar of the main stay, on each side, with a hitch, and the end seized. The leading part reeves through a single block, lashed on each side the main-stay-collar, close up to the rigging, then leads down, and passes through a sheave-hole in the bitts, at the fore part of the quarter-deck, and there belays. Brigs lead the same.

MAIN-BRACES reeve through a single block in the pendent; the standing part makes fast with a clench round an eye-bolt in the upper part of the quarter-piece; the leading part reeves through a snatch-block close aft upon the gunwale, and belays round a cleat on the inside.

SPAN FOR MAIN-BRACES has two legs, with a thimble spliced in the end of each leg, which reeves the standing and leading part of the brace, and the span makes fast with a half-hitch, and the end seized up round the mizen-shrouds.

PREVENTER-BRACES, in war, are reeved through a block lashed round the yard-arm, and reeve through a block in a span, round the bowsprit-cap; they then lead in upon the fore-castle, and the standing parts make fast round the cap. The main-brace reeves through the block on the yard-arm, then through a block lashed to the fore-shrouds, close below the catharpins; they then

 

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lead down upon the fore-castle, and the standing-part makes fast to the shrouds above the block with a hitch and the end seized. Brigs reeve the same.

TOPSAIL-SHEET-BLOCKS are next put over the yard-arms, strapt with an eye the size of the yard-arm.

LIFT-BLOCKS are next spliced into the strap of the topsail-sheet-blocks: the lifts reeve through the block in the span round the mast-head, between that and the topmast, then lead down abreast the shrouds, and reeve through a block fastened to the side, and are there belayed.

JEARS, in large ships, are two large tackle. The hanging blocks at the mast-head are hove up close on each side, by the top-burton-tackles, and lashed. A broad elm cleat is nailed on each side the mast-head, above the blocks, as a stop for the lashing. Every turn of lashing is alternately passed through the strap of the block, and over the cleat on the opposite side, and the ends of the lashing are well stopt. The other two blocks are strapt with a double strap to the size of the yard, with a long and a short leg. They lash on each side of the middle or slings, within the cleats. The long leg of the strap goes down the aftside of the yard, and meets the bight of the short leg on the foreside, and lashes, every turn passing alternately through each bight, rose fashion. The blocks, at the mast-head and on the yard, are connected by their falls, which lead upon deck.

JEARS, in merchant-ships, and small ships in the navy, have two single blocks lashed on each side the mast-head, as above, and another, the same size, in the middle of the yard. The tye, which connects with these blocks, reeves through one of the blocks at the mast-head, then through the block on the yard, and afterwards through the block on the other side the mast-head. In the lower ends of the tye is spliced a double-block, which is connected by its fall to a treble-block, that hooks to an eye-bolt in the deck, close to the mast, on each side. By this the power of the tackles below is communicated to the tye, which, connecting with the block upon the yard, easily sways it up, or lowers it down.

QUARTER-BLOCKS are strapt with a long and short leg, with a lashing-eye spliced in the ends, and lash to the yard within the cleats, in the middle of the yard, the block hanging downwards. The long leg comes up the aftside, and meets the short leg on the foreside, and three lashes through the eyes. Through these blocks reeve the topsail sheets and clue-lines.

A quarter-block is a double-block, with a thick and thin sheave running on the same pin; and, though used for the topsail sheets, and intended for the clue-lines, a single block would be cheaper and better, as the thin sheave is seldom used for the clue-line, it being found to impede rather than facilitate. Small ships, in the merchant-service, have a double-block lashed in the middle of the yard, as the quarter-block, through which the sheets reeve, and lead down on opposite sides. Large ships, in the merchant-service, have a single-block lashed on each side the middle of the yard, and the sheets reeve on their respective sides, and lead down by the mast.

CLUE-GARNET-BLOCKS lash through the eyes upon the yard, the blocks hanging underneath, four feet without the middle-cleats on each side.

LEECH-LINE-BLOCKS are lashed round the yard and through the eye of the strap, ten feet within the cleats on each yard-arm. The blocks to hang on the fore part of the yard.

BUNTLINE-BLOCKS are lashed as the former in the middle, between them and the slings of the yard.

SLAB-LINE-BLOCKS are strapt with a short lashing-eye, that seizes to the span of the quarter-blocks underneath the yard.

 

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TRUSS-PENDENTS; the ends that have the thimbles in are passed round the yard within the cleats on each side the middle or slings, and are well seized. One end passes over the yard, the other under, and both ends round the mast. The starboard end reeves through the larboard thimble, and the larboard end through the starboard thimble. In the lower end is a double-block turned in, with a throat and round seizing, connected by its fall to a double-block, that hooks to an eye-bolt in the deck, on each side the mast, by which the truss-pendent is slackened or straightened, to let the yard move from, or confine it strictly to, the mast.

NAVE-LINE reeves through a single block, lashed under the aftside of the top, and through a block or thimble seized to the truss-pendents, up again, and makes fast round the trestle-trees. The leading-part goes down upon deck.

SLINGS AND STRAPS. The long leg of the strap passes down the aftside of the yard, comes up the foreside, meets the short leg, and lashes through the eyes, the strap being placed exactly in the middle of the yard, and the thimble upwards.

SLINGS have a long and short leg, and a large thimble seized in the bight. The long leg passes round the after-part of the mast, and reeves through the eye in the short leg; it is then brought back, and securely seized to its own part in several places. By these the yard is retained at the mast-head with a laniard, that splices in the thimbles in the slings, at the fore part of the mast, and then reeves through the thimble in the strap upon the yard, and so alternately till the laniard is expended. The end then fraps round the turns, and makes fast with two half hitches. In time of action, the yards are slung with chains.

TOPSAIL-YARDS.

THE TOP ROPE is fastened to the slings of the yard, and stopt from thence to the yard-arm, by which it is hove on-board, and placed for rigging as follows.

First, the HORSES are the same as the lower yards, the addition of flemish-horses excepted, (the lower yards having none.) They have an eye spliced in each end; one eye is put over the eye-bolt in the yard-arm, and the other eye is seized round the yard within the arm-cleats.

BRACE-PENDENTS are next put over the yard, as on the lower ones. The fore-topsail-braces reeve through the block in the pendent, and then through a block lashed on each side the collar on the main-stay, a little below the fore-braces; the standing-part makes fast to the stay below the block with a hitch, and seized. The leading-part leads from the block upon the collar of the stay through a block lashed on the stay abreast the fore hatchway, and through a block strapt with a thimble into an eye-bolt in the aft-part of the forecastle, and belays round an iron pin in the boat-skid.

MAIN-TOPSAIL-BRACES reeve through the block in the pendent, and the standing-part makes fast to the collar of the mizen-stay. The leading-part reeves through a block in the span round the mizen-mast-head below the hounds, and leads down through a sheave-hole in the mizen-topsail-sheet-bits, abaft the mizen-mast, and belays there.

MIZEN-TOPSAIL-BRACES reeve through the block in the pendent. The standing-part makes fast round the peek-end, and the leading-part reeves through single blocks at the peek, and comes down to the fore-side of the taffarel.

LIFT-BLOCKS are strapt with an eye to the size of the yard-arm. The lift reeves through the lower sheave in the sister-block in the topmast-shrouds, and through the block on the yard-arm. The standing-part hooks to a becket round the topmast-cap, and the leading-part leads down the side of the mast, and belays to the dead-eyes in the lower shrouds.

 

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REEF-TACKLE-PENDENTS reeve through the upper sheave in the sister-block in the topmast-shrouds, thence through the sheave-hole in the yard-arm, and are stopt with an overhand-knot, till the sail is bent. In the lower ends of the pendents a double-block is turned in, connected by its fall to another double-block, that is seized to the after part of the lower trestle-trees, and the ends of the falls lead down upon deck.

TYE-BLOCKS lash at the topmast-head close up to the rigging, under the collar of the stay, as the lower ones; and the blocks on the yards lash under the fore part of the yard, as the lower ones, and reeve with a double tye, in large ships, and a single tye, like the lower, in small ones. The standing-parts of the double-tyes clinch round the mast-head, then reeve through the double-block upon the yard, and up again, and reeve through the block on each side the mast-head. The tie-blocks are then spliced in their lower ends, and connected by their haliards to a single-block, that is strapt with a long strap, with a hook and thimble, that hooks to a swivel-eye-bolt in the channel on each side: the leading-part comes in through a block lashed on each side; the foremost ones abaft the forecastle, and the after ones on the quarter-deck.

THE PARRAL is fastened round the aftside of the mast, and round the yard, to fasten the yard to the mast. The upper and lower rope in the parral have an eye spliced in the end, one eye passing under the yard, the other over, till both eyes meet on the foreside, and are seized together with spunyarn. The other two ends of the parral-rope are passed round the yard and the hind part of the parral, alternately, till the latter is sufficiently secured to the former; and the whole of the turns are marled together with quarter-seizings, to confine them close in the cavity formed on the back of the ribs.

CLUE-LINE-BLOCKS are strapt with two lashing-eyes, and lash upon the yard three feet without the slings; the blocks hanging underneath the yard, through which the clue-line reeves, and is strapt with a knot, and leads down upon the deck.

TOPGALLANT-SHEET-BLOCKS are strapt with two lashing-eyes, and lash upon the yard, close within the clue-line-blocks on each side.

BUNTLINE-BLOCKS are spliced round the strap of the topsail-tye-block upon the yard.

TOPGALLANT-MASTS.

THE TOP-ROPE reeves for the topgallant-mast as it does for the topmasts, observing to stop it to the topgallant-mast-head with spun-yarn, to keep it steady, till it has entered the topmast-cap. The stop is then cut, and the end of the top-rope made fast to the eye-bolt in the topmast-cap. Sometimes it is rigged abaft the mast.

THE GROMMET, made of a rope spliced to the size of the mast, is first put over the head, and then beat down to the top of the hounds.

SHROUDS are hoisted, and placed over the topgallant-mast-head, the same as the topmast. BACKSTAYS are next hoisted, and placed over the topgallant-mast-head, the same as the top-masts.

THE STAY is hoisted and placed over all, and then the topgallant-mast is swayed up and fidded.

SHROUDS are thrust through the hole in the end of the topmast-cross-trees, and between the top-mast-shrouds, over the futtock-stave. A thimble is seized in the ends that sets up with a laniard through a thimble seized in the bight of a strap made fast round the futtock-plates, close under the dead-eyes, with a turn through the bight.

 

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BACKSTAYS set up, the same as the topmast-backstays, to a small dead-eye in the aft-part of the channel, or in a stool abaft the channel.

The FORE-TOPGALLANT-STAY comes to the outer end of the jib-boom, and reeves through a thimble; then a thimble is turned in the end, and seized to a block, and set up with a jigger-tackle occasionally, and secured, by a laniard, to the gammoning, or to an eye-bolt in the head.

THE MAIN-TOPGALLANT-STAY reeves through a block fastened to the fore-topmast-head, has a thimble turned in the end of the stay, and sets up to a thimble in a span, made fast to the trestle-trees of the fore-mast, with a laniard cats-pawed to the top-burton-tackle, or a handspec: in small ships, termed a Spanish-windlass.

THE STAYSAIL-STAY is spliced into the topgallant-stay, six feet below the stop of the mast; it then reeves through a block or thimble secured to the fore-topmast-head, takes a turn round the trestle-trees, and belays there.

MIZEN-TOPGALLANT-STAY trices up to the main-topmast-head, as the main-topgallant-stay trices up to the fore-topmast-head.

THE FLAGSTAFF-STAY goes round the topgallant or royal mast-head with a running eye; is kept close under the truck, by a small cleat nailed on each side, and sets up by hand. The foremost one passes through a thimble at the jib-boom end, and belays round the fore-stay-collar; the main one passes through a thimble above the fore-topgallant rigging, and belays in the top. Mizen one the same to main-topgallant rigging.

ROYAL-MASTS, in East-India ships, are rigged as topgallant masts, and generally abaft the waist.

THE TOPGALLANT-YARDS

Are hove on-board by the top-rope, as the topsail-yards, and rig with horses, braces, and lifts, over the yardarm, the same as the topsail-yards.

THE TYE reeves through the sheave-hole in the hounds of the topgallant-mast, and clinches round the yard in the slings or middle; then has a double-block turned in the lower end, and is connected, by the haliards, to a single-block lashed to the after-part of the lower trestle-trees, under the top: the lower end of the haliards belays round the cross-piece of the bits abaft the mast.

PARRAL, as the topsail-yard.

FORE-TOPGALLANT-BRACES reeve through the block in the pendent. The standing-part makes fast with a hitch, and the end seized back round the collar of the main-topmast-stay on each side; and the leading-part reeves through a block lashed round the collar, a little below the standing-part; then leads through a block at the aft-part of the fore-top, and belays to a cleat on each side the bellfry.

MAIN-TOPGALLANT-BRACES reeve through the block in the pendent, and the standing and leading parts make fast, and reeve to the collar of the mizen-topmast-stay, as the former does to the main-topmast-stay, and lead down into the mizen-shrouds.

MIZEN-TOPGALLANT-BRACES are single, and go with a splice over the yard-arm. They lead aft through a thimble at the mizen-peek, and come down on the fore-side of the taffarel.

CLUE-LINE-BLOCKS are strapt with two lashing-eyes, and lash upon the yard three feet without the slings. The blocks hang under the yard, through which is reeved the clue-line, which is stopt with a knot. The leading-part leads down the mast, and into the lower shrouds.

 

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TOPGALLANT-LIFTS are single, and go over the yard-arm with an eye spliced in one end; the other end reeves through a thimble in the topgallant-shrouds, leads down into the top, and belays round the dead-eyes.

THE CROSS-JACK-YARD

Is hove on-board the same as the other yards, and rigged as follows:

The HORSES, BRACES, LIFTS, and TOPSAIL-SHEET-BLOCKS, go over the yard-arm the same as on the other lower yards.

A QUARTER-BLOCK is strapt with a double strap, with an eye in each of the four ends, and is lashed upon the yard in the middle, between the cleats.

SLINGS AND STRAPS, as the lower yards of the fore and main masts.

BRACE-PENDENTS are stopt to the yard about four feet within the cleats at the yard-arm; the brace then reeves through the block in the pendent. The standing-part of the starboard brace makes fast to one of the middle shrouds on the larboard side with a hitch, and the end stopt; and the leading-part reeves down through a single-block lashed to the same shroud a little below the catharpins; it then leads through a truck or double-block seized to the middle shroud, and belays round a pin in the fife-rail, and the larboard braces the contrary.

LIFTS, RUNNING. Running-lifts reeve through a block in a span round the mizen-cap, and through the block upon the yard. The standing-part is carried up, and makes fast round the cap, and the leading-part leads upon deck.

LIFTS, SINGLE, are spliced through the strap of the topsail-sheet-block, and the other end is carried up, then hitched and seized to an eye-bolt on each side the mizen-cap.

THE MIZEN-YARD

Is not often used, except in ships above 50 guns, and in East-India ships. It is hove on-board as before observed, and rigs with a jeer-block lashed between the cleats, as before, and likewise a double-block round the mast-head, and both are connected by the jeer-fall. The standing-part is clinched round the mast-head, and the leading-part comes to the mizen-chains; and, after the yard is swayed up, is made fast to an eye-bolt hitched and seized. The remainder of the fall is coiled up, and stops to the laniards of the shrouds on the starboard-side.

THE DERRICK-BLOCK is strapt with eyes, that go round the yard and lash underneath, between the slings and the outer yard-arm or peek; the other block is cross-seized into the strap, has an eye spliced in each end, and lies upon the mizen-cap, and seizes or hangs through the eyes under the cap, or upon the upper side of it.

THE DERRICK-FALL reeves through the double-block at the mast-head, then through the single block upon the yard. The standing-part is again taken up and reeved through the block at the mizen-cap; an eye is then spliced in the end, the size of the yard-arm, that goes over the peek-end. The leading-part leads from the double-block at the cap through the trestle-trees, and makes fast in the mizen-channel on the larboard-side, as the jeers did on the starboard-side.

BRAIL-BLOCKS are strapt together in one strap, and lie over the yard, and seize together underneath; the throat-blocks next the cleats to the mast; the middle-blocks in the middle between the throat-block and peek; the peek-blocks about three or four feet within the cleats at the peek.

VANGS. The bight is put over the peek-end with an overhand-knot, and the double-blocks spliced in the lower ends are connected by their falls to a single block, that hooks to an eye-bolt in the upper

 

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part of the quarter-piece on each side. The standing-part makes fast to the becket in the arse of the single-block, and the leading-part leads from the double-block, and belays to a cleat nailed on the taffarel fife-rail, or round the arse of the single-block.

BOWLINES reeve through a single-block strapt with a thimble into an eye-bolt in the lower end of the yard, and through a block hooked to an eye-bolt on each side abreast the lower end of the yard, or lashed to the mizen-shrouds.

THE HORSE for the mizen-sheets clinches to an eye-blot on each side the taffarel with a thimble, to which is strapt the sheet-block.

DRIVER OR SPANKER-BOOM.

THE TOPPING-LIFT goes over the end of the boom with a clove-hitch, and comes against the shoulder; the ends are reeved through a single-block lashed on each side the mizen-mast-head, and a double-block spliced in each lower end, which connects by the fall to a single-block, hooked in an eye-bolt in the mizen-channel on each side. The standing-part makes fast to the becket in the arse of the single-block, and the leading-part leads from the double-block, and belays to a cleat on each side the mizen-mast-.

GUY-PENDENTS have a hook and thimble spliced in one end, that hooks to the thimbles seized in the strap. They are spliced round the boom perpendicular to the lower block fixed round the horse within the taffarel; and there stopt by cleats nailed on the foreside. A thimble is spliced in the inner ends of the pendents, with a luff-tackle hooked in them on each side, and are used where most wanted.

SHROUDS are set up for sea after the stays, as before; as are also the topmast-shrouds and backstays.

 

The Standing Rigging of a Twenty Gun Ship.
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EXPLANATION OF THE REFERENCES ON THE PLATE DELINEATING THE STANDING RIGGING OF A TWENTY GUN SHIP.


1 Gammoning.
2 Bobstays.
3 Bowsprit shrouds.
4 Fore tackle pendents.
5 Main tackle pendents.
6 Mizen burton pendents.
7 Fore shrouds.
8 Main shrouds.
9 Mizen shrouds.
10 Fore preventer stay.
11 Fore stay.
12 Main preventer stay.
13 Main stay.
14 Mizen stay.
15 Fore topmast burton pendents.
16 Main topmast burton pendents.
17 Fore topmast shrouds.
18 Main topmast shrouds.
19 Mizen topmast shrouds.
20 Fore topmast breast backstay.
21 Fore topmast standing backstay.
22 Fore topmast shifting backstay.
23 Main topmast breast backstay.
24 -- standing backstay.
25 -- shifting backstay.
26 Mizen topmast standing backstay.
27 -- shifting backstay.
28 Foretopmast preventer stay.
29 -- stay.
30 Main topmast preventer stay.
31 -- stay.
32 Mizen topmast stay.
33 Fore topgallant shrouds.
34 Main topgallant shrouds.
35 Mizen topgallant shrouds.
36 Fore topgallant standing backstays.
37 Main topgallant standing backstays.
38 Mizen topgallant standing backstay.
39 Fore topgallant stay.
40 Main topgallant stay.
41 Mizen topgallant stay.
42 Martingal stay.
43 Bowsprit horse.
44 Fore stay tackle.
45 Main stay tackle.
46 Main stay tackle pendent.
47 Fore futtock shrouds.
48 Main futtock shrouds.
49 Mizen futtock shrouds.
50 Stay tackle tricing lines.

TO prevent confusion of appearance in the plate of standing rigging, the shrouds and backstays are represented only on the starboard side; but it must be remembered, that an equal number of them belong to the larboard side. In ships, from twenty guns downwards, the preventer stays are sometimes placed under the stays; and to them the staysails are bent.

 

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EXPLANATION OF THE REFERENCES ON THE PLATE DELINEATING THE RUNNING RIGGING OF A TWENTY GUN SHIP.

1 Jib horses.
2 Jib guy pendents and falls.
3 Spritsail yard horses and stirrups.
4 -- topsail yard horses.
5 -- brace pendents.
6 -- braces
7 -- lifts.
8 -- haliards
9 Spritsail topsail braces.
10 -- lifts.
11 -- haliards.
12 Fore yard horses and stirrups.
13 Main yard horses and stirrups.
14 Cross jack horses.
15 Fore yard tackle pendents.
16 Main yard tackle pendents.
17 Fore yard tackles.
18 Main yard tackle pendents.
19 Inner tricing line to the main yard tackle.
20 Outer tricing line to the main yard tackle.
21 Fore brace pendents.
22 Main brace pendents.
23 Fore lifts.
24 Main lifts.
25 Tye of the fore jeers.
26 -- main jeers.
27 Fall of the fore jeers.
28 -- main jeers.
29 Nave line of the fore truss pendents.
30 -- main truss pendents.
31 Fore topsail yard horses and stirrups.
32 -- flemish horses.
33 Main topsail yard horses and stirrup.
34 -- flemish horses.
35 Mizen topsail horses.
36 Fore topsail brace pendents.
37 Main topsail brace pendents.
38 Mizen topsail brace pendents.
39 Fore braces.
40 Main braces.
41 Fore topsail braces.
42 Main topsail braces.
43 Mizen topsail braces.
44 Fore topsail lifts.
45 Main topsail lifts.
46 Mizen topsail lifts.
47 Fore topsail reef tackle pendents.
48 Main topsail reef tackle pendents.
49 Fore topsail tye.
50 Main topsail tye.
51 Fore topsail haliards.
52 Main topsail haliards.
53 Fore topgallant yard horses.
54 Main topgallant yard horses.
55 Mizen topgallant yard horses.
56 Fore topgallant brace pendents.
57 Main topgallant brace pendents.
58 Fore topgallant braces.
59 Main topgallant braces.
60 Mizen topgallant braces.
61 Fore topgallant lifts.
62 Main topgallant lifts.
63 Mizen topgallant lifts.
64 Fore topgallant haliards.
65 Main topgallant haliards.
66 Mizen topgallant haliards.
67 Fore royal haliard.
68 Main royal haliard.
69 Pendent haliard.
70 Cross jack brace pendents.
71 -- braces.
72 -- lifts.
73 Gaff throat haliards.
74 Gaff peek haliards.
75 Vang pendents.
76 Vang falls.
77 Boom topping lift.
78 Guy pendent and tackle.
 

The Running Rigging of a Twenty Gun Ship.
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The Fore and Aft Sails of a Twenty Gun Ship.
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EXPLANATION OF THE REFERENCES ON THE PLATE DELINEATING THE FORE-AND-AFT SAILS OF A TWENTY GUN SHIP.

1 Jib.
2 Fore topmast staysail.
3 Fore staysail.
4 Main staysail.
5 Main topmast staysail.
6 Middle staysail.
7 Main topgallant staysail.
8 Mizen staysail.
9 Mizen topmast staysail.
10 Mizen topgallant staysail.
11 Mizen.
12 Jib downhauler.
13 -- haliards.
14 -- sheets.
15 -- stay.
16 -- outhauler.
17 -- inhauler.
18 Fore topmast stay.
19 Fore topmast staysail downhauler.
20 -- haliards.
21 -- sheets.
22 -- outhauler.
23 Fore preventer stay.
24 Fore staysail haliards.
25 -- downhauler.
26 -- sheets.
27 Main staysail stay.
28 -- haliards.
29 -- downhauler.
30 -- sheets.
31 Main topmast preventer stay.
32 -- staysail haliards.
33 -- down hauler.
34 -- brails.
35 -- tacks
36 Main topmast staysail sheets.
37 Middle staysail stay.
38 -- haliards.
39 -- down hauler.
40 -- tacks.
41 -- sheets.
42 -- tricing
43 Main topgallant staysail stay.
44 -- haliards.
45 -- down hauler.
46 -- tacks.
47 -- sheets.
48 Mizen stay.
49 -- staysail haliards.
50 -- down hauler.
51 -- brails.
52 -- tacks.
53 -- sheets.
54 Mizen topmast stay.
55 -- staysail haliards.
56 -- down hauler.
57 -- tacks.
58 -- sheets.
59 Mizen topgallant stay.
60 -- staysail haliards.
61 -- down hauler.
62 -- tacks.
63 -- sheets.
64 Tack of the mizen course.
65 Sheet of the mizen course.
66 Throat brails of the mizen course.
67 Middle brails of the mizen course.
68 Peek brails of the mizen course.
69 Fancy line.
 

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EXPLANATION OF THE REFERENCES ON THE PLATE DELINEATING THE SQUARE SAILS OF A TWENTY GUN SHIP.

1 Fore course.
2 Main course.
3 Fore topsail.
4 Main topsail.
5 Mizen topsail.
6 Fore topgallant sail.
7 Main topgallant sail.
8 Mizen topgallant sail.
9 Fore royal.
10 Main royal.
11 Mizen royal.
12 Driver.
13 Fore studding sails.
14 Main studding sails.
15 Fore topmast studding sails.
16 Main topmast studding sails.
17 Fore topgallant studding sails.
18 Main topgallant studding sails.
19 Spritsail course.
20 Spritsail topsail.
21 Fore sail sheets.
22 -- tacks.
23 -- leech lines,
24 -- buntlines
25 -- bowlines.
26 -- bowline bridles.
27 Main sheets.
28 -- tack.
29 Main sail leech lines.
30 -- buntlines.
31 --- bowlines.
32 -- bowline bridles.
33 Fore topsail buntlines.
34 -- bowlines.
35 Fore topsail bowline bridles.
36 Main topsail buntlines.
37 -- bowlines.
38 -- bowline bridles.
39 Mizen topsail buntlines.
40 -- bowline.
41 -- bowline bridles.
42 Fore topgallant bowlines.
43 -- bowline bridles.
44 Main topgallant bowlines.
45 -- bowline bridles.
46 Mizen topgallant bowline.
47 Fore royal haliards.
48 Main royal haliards.
49 Mizen royal haliards.
50 Driver haliards.
51 -- sheet
52 -- down hauler.
53 Fore studding sail inner haliards.
54 Main studding sail inner haliards.
55 Fore studdingsail boom guy.
56 -- tacks.
57 -- sheets.
58 Main studding sail tacks.
59 Fore topmast studding sail down hauler.
60 -- tack.
61 Main topmast studding sail downhauler.
62 -- tack.
63 Fore topgallant studding sail tack.
64 Main topgallant studding sail tack.
65 Spritsail clue line.
66 -- buntline.
67 -- sheets.
68 -- topsail sheets.
 

The SQUARE SAILS AND DIVER of a TWENTY GUN SHIP
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SAILS.


JIB.

THE DOWNHAULER reeves through a small block that lashes to the traveller on the jib-boom, then leads up through the hanks, and bends to the head of the jib. The leading-part leads in upon the forecastle.

THE HALIARDS reeve through the lower sheave of the cheek-block at the fore-topmast-head, from aft on the starboard-side, and bend to the head of the sail. The leading-part leads abaft the top to the after-part of the forecastle.

Large ships have a single-block turned into the haliards, and a whip-fall; the standing-part making fast into the side.

SHEETS. The bight is bent to the clue of the sail, and a single-block turned in each inner end, that reeves a whip-fall. The standing-part makes fast to a timber-head, and the leading-part leads in upon the forecastle, and belays to a timber-head before the shrouds on each side.

STAY reeves through the sheeve in the cheek-block at the fore-topmast-head from aft on the starboard-side, then through the hanks, and clinches to the traveller upon the boom: a double-block is then turned in the lower end, and connects by its fall to a single-block, lashed to the after part of the foremast trestle-trees, leads upon deck, and belays to the main-top-bowline bitts.

OUTHAULER reeves through a sheave-hole at the outer end of the jib-boom; and clinches to the span-tackle of the traveller. The other end has a double-block turned in, which connects, with its fall, a single-block hooked to an eye-bolt in the fore part of the bowsprit-cap, and the fall leads in on the forecastle.

INHAULER reeves through a small block lashed on the traveller: the standing-part makes fast to an eye-bolt in the side of the bowsprit-cap, and the leading-part comes in upon the forecastle.

FORE-TOPMAST-STAYSAIL.

THE STAY reeves through the hanks, then makes fast with a running eye round the bowsprit, between the collars and spritsail-yard, then reeves through the upper sheave of the cheek-block, at the fore-topmast-head, on the larboard side; has a double-block turned into the lower end, and connects, by its fall, to a single block lashed to the after-part of the foremast trestle-trees, leads upon deck, and belays to the main-top-bowline-bitts.

THE DOWNHAULER reeves through a small block that lashes at the tack of the sail, then leads through the hanks, and bends to the head of the sail, and the leading-part comes upon the forecastle.

HALIARDS reeve through the lower sheave of the cheek-block of the fore-topmast-head on the larboard-side, and bend to the head of the sail. The leading-part reeves abaft the top to the after-part of the forecastle, and belays to a cleat in the side.

 

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SHEETS. The bight is bent to the clue of the sail, and leads through a single-block on each side upon the forecastle.

OUTHAULER reeves through a block lashed at the outer end of the bowsprit: the standing part makes fast to the tack of the sail, and the leading-part comes in upon the forecastle.

THE FORE-SAIL

Is laid athwart the main-stay, ready for bending, and the sheet-block is put over the clue on each side. The tack-knot is then thrust through the clue on the back side, and the strap of the clue-garnet-block put through the clues; the eyes are brought up on each side, and seized at the top.

SHEETS are reeved through the sheet-block on each side, and the standing-part seized to a thimble, in an eye-bolt, a little before the gangway. The leading-part reeves through a sheave-hole in the side, a little before the gangway-ladder; then leads forward, and belays round a large cleat in the side.

TACKS, SINGLE, lead through the block lashed round the outer end of the boomkin on each side, then lead upon the forecastle, and belay round a large cleat upon the cat-head, or to the topsail-sheet-bitts.

TACKS, DOUBLE. The standing-part reeves round the outer end of the boomkin, and the leading-part through a single-block lashed to the clue of the sail, then through the block at the outer end of the boomkin, and leads in upon the forecastle.

CLUE-GARNETS reeve through the upper block upon the yard on each side, then through the block at the clue of the sail. The standing-part is carried up, and made fast round the yard by its block with a timber hitch, and the end stopt. The leading-part comes upon deck, and reeves through the sheave-hole in the topsail-sheet-bitts, and there belays.

LEECH-LINES reeve through the spritsail-brace-block, under the top, then through the block upon the yard, and the standing-part makes fast with a clinch to the upper bowline-bridle; the leading-part then reeves through a double-block, at the aft part of the top, and upon the forecastle.

BUNTLINES reeve through the leg and fall-block, and through a double-block at the aft part of the top; then through a double-block under the fore part of the top, and through the blocks upon the yard, and lead down the fore side of the sail, and clinch to the cringles in the foot. The fall reeves through the leg-block; the standing-part makes fast round the breast-rail, and the leading-part through a sheave-hole in the breast-work, and belays round the rail.

BOWLINES reeve through a single-block lashed round the collar of the fore-stay, on the bowsprit, and the outer part reeves on the bowline-bridle, with a thimble spliced in the end, and the bridle clinches to the cringle on the leech of the sail. The leading-part leads upon the forecastle, and belays to the foretopsail-sheet-bitts.

SLAB-LINES reeve through a small block lashed to the strap of the quarter-block, and the standing-part clinches with two legs to the middle buntline-cringles. The leading-part leads to the topsail-sheet-bitts, and belays round the middle of the cross-pieces.

YARD-ROPES are temporary, and only used to get up the sail; they reeve through tail-blocks that are made fast round the boom-iron at each yard-arm, and one end comes down and makes fast to the upper reef-earing. The leading-part leads upon deck, through a leading-block that lashes to a timber-head or bolt in the gunwale. The sail is then run up to the yard, where the men go and pass the

EARINGS, one end of which is spliced to the head-cringle, with a long eye; the other end passes over the yard-arm without the rigging, through the cringle, alternately, two or three times,

 

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and is passed round the yard within the rigging, and through the cringle, till the earing is expended, and the end made fast with two half-hitches. The outer turns are to stretch the upper edge of the sail tight along the yard, and the inner turns to draw it close.

REEF-EARINGS the same.

ROPE-BANDS are braided cordage, with an eye made in one end, and one leg longer than the other. The eye of the long leg is put over the short leg, and the eye of the short leg is thrust through the eye-let hole at the aft part of the sail; then the end of the long leg goes over the head of the sail, and passes the eye of the short leg; and so of the rest. The rope-bands being previously reeved through the head of the sail, they are fastened to the yards by their heads, as follow. The long legs come over the yard from the foreside, with a round turn between the head of the sail; the short leg comes up the aft side, and makes fast with a reef-knot upon the yard. The sail is then let fall to see it is clearly bent. For the number of rope-bands, points, and gaskets, for each sail, see the Table II. among the sail tables.

POINTS are usually put in the sail, at the sail-loft, thus: an overhand-knot is made in the middle of the point, then thrust through the sail, and knotted close to the sail on the opposite side.

GASKETS go round the yard with a running eye, two on each quarter, and one on each yardarm, with a bunt-gasket in the middle that has two legs, and lashes to the yard on each side of the quarter-blocks.

THE MAINSAIL

Is laid athwart ready for bending, and the

SHEET-BLOCK, TACK, AND CLUE-GARNET-BLOCKS, are placed in the clues, as for the foresail.

SHEETS reeve through the sheet-block at the clues. The standing-part is seized to an eye-bolt with a thimble on the quarters. The leading-part leads through a sheave-hole on the same side under the half-deck, and belays to a range-cleat in the waist.

TACKS, SINGLE, reeve through the sheave-hole in the chest-tree, one on each side, and through a sheave-hole in the side, and belay round a large range-cleat in the aft part of the waist.

TACKS, DOUBLE. The standing-part clinches to an eye-bolt before the chest-tree, and the leading-part reeves through a single-block, lashed to the clue of the sail; then leads in upon deck through the sheave-hole in the chest-tree side.

CLUE-GARNETS, as for the foresail.

LEECH-LINES reeve through the block upon the yard, and the outer end makes fast with a clinch to the upper bowline-bridle. The leading-part reeves through the double-block at the forepart of the top, and through a double-block at the aft-part of the top; a single block is turned into the lower end, and a whip-fall reeved through it. The standing-part makes fast to the breast-rail, and the leading-part through a block under the breast-rail, and belays round the rail.

BUNTLINES reeve as for the fore-sail, and lead forward upon the forecastle.

BOWLINES reeve through a double-block that, with a strap, lashes round the foremast five feet above the forecastle, and the outer part reeves upon the long leg with a thimble. The lower bridle is the longest, and clinches to the lower cringle upon the sail. In the other end is spliced a thimble, through which reeves the upper leg, that clinches to the upper cringle. The starboard-bowline belays on the larboard, and the larboard-bowline leads over and belays on the starboard side. Four feet from the bridle is a thimble, spliced and pointed on each bowline, called a lizard, to which is

 

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hooked a bowline-tackle that makes fast to the bitts, and is bowsed upon until the bowline is made fast to the bitts.

SLAB-LINES, as the foresail.
YARD-ROPES, and bending as the foresail.
EARINGS as the foresail.
ROPE-BANDS as the foresail.
POINTS as the foresail.
GASKETS as the foresail.

THE FORE-TOPSAIL

Is swayed up into the top by the topsail haliards, that make fast to slings round the middle of the sail, and are then laid in the fore part of the top fair for bending.

SHEETS are first passed through the fore part of the clue of the sail, and stopt with an overhand-knot. They reeve through the shouldered-block at the lower yard-arm, then through the quarter-block, and come down before the mast: reeve through the sheave-holes in the bitts, and are there belayed.

CLUE-LINES. The straps of the blocks are passed through the clues of the sail, and brought round the clue to the fore part, and securely seized. The clue-lines are passed the same as the clue-garnets of the lower sails, and sometimes have no blocks, but bend to the clue of the sail.

BUNTLINES reeve through the block upon the yard, come down on the fore side of the sail, and clinch to the cringles in the foot. The leading-part reeves through a single-block, lashed close under the topmast-cross-trees, leads down through the square of the top, and belays to the shrouds.

BOWLINES reeve through the blocks at the bowsprit-cap. The outer part reeves on the lower bowline-bridle with a thimble, as the mainsail. The leading-part comes upon the forecastle, and belays to the topsail-sheet-bitts.

REEF-TACKLE-PENDENTS reeve through the upper sheave in the sister-block in the topmast shrouds, then through the sheave-hole in the yard-arm, and clinch to the reef-tackle-cringle in the sail.

REEF-EARINGS reeve through their bights in each reef-cringle, and stop to the next cringles and head of the sail, till used.

EARINGS as the foresail.
ROPE-BANDS as for the foresail.
POINTS as the foresail.

GASKETS. The yard-arm-gasket reeves with an eye round the yard-arm within the cleats. Quarter-gaskets reeve between the arm and the middle. Bunt-gaskets have two legs, and lash to the yard, with an eye on each side of the tye-block, and fasten thereto, when the sail is hauled up in the bunt.

THE MAIN-TOPSAIL

Is swayed up into the top, as the fore-topsail.

SHEETS as the fore-topsail.
CLUE-LINES as the fore-topsail.
BUNTLINES as the fore-topsail.

BOWLINES reeve through blocks lashed round the fore-mast-head close under the cap: the outer part reeves on the lower bowline-bridle with a thimble, as the fore-topsail. The leading-part comes

 

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down through the square of the top, reeves through a sheave -hole in the maintop-bowline-bitts upon the forecastle, and there belays,

REEF-TACKLE-PENDENTS as the fore-topsail.
EARINGS as the fore-topsail.
ROPE-BANDS as the fore-topsail.
POINTS as the fore-topsail.
GASKETS as the fore-topsail.

THE MIZEN-TOPSAIL

Is swayed up as other topsails, in large ships.
SHEETS as the fore-topsail.
CLUE-LINES as the fore-topsail.
BUNTLINES as the fore-topsail.

BOWLINES bend to the sail as the fore-topsail, and reeve through a single-block seized to the main-shrouds on the opposite side near the futtock-staff; they lead down through a seizing-truck upon the quarter-deck, and belay round a pin in the fife-rail.

REEF-TACKLE-PENDENTS as the fore-topsail.
EARINGS as the fore-topsail.
ROPE-BANDS as the fore-topsail.
POINTS as the fore-topsail.
GASKETS as the fore-topsail.

THE FORE-TOPGALLANT-SAIL

Is either swayed up to the topmast-cross-trees by the clue-lines, or bent to the yard below. It is hauled out to the yard-arm by the earings, and bends or laces to the yard, as before observed.

SHEETS AND CLUE-LINES are bent to the clues of the sail, and lead upon deck, as the fore-topsail.

BUNTLINES reeve through a small-block seized to the topgallant-mast-head, then through a thimble seized to the tye, close down upon the yard, and bend, with legs, to the cringles in the foot of the sail. The leading-part comes down into the top.

BOWLINES reeve through the thimbles at the jib-boom-end, and fasten to the sail as the topsail, only with a toggle to cast off the bowline for sending the yard down. The leading-part comes upon the forecastle, and belays to a pin in the breast-hook.

THE MAIN-TOPGALLANT-SAIL

As the former; the bowlines reeving through the sheave-holes in the after part of the fore-topmast-cross-trees, and leading down upon deck.

THE MIZEN-TOPGALLANT-SAIL

As the former; the bowlines reeving through the sheave-holes in the aft part of the main-topmast-cross-trees.

THE JACK-BLOCK is used for sending topgallant-yards up or down; it is strapped with a seizing eye, through which reeves a rope, with an eye spliced in one end, and a double-walnut-knot made at the other end, called a button-and-loop. It goes round the mast, is secured by the knot being

 

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thrust through the eye, and is triced up or down the mast by the topgallant-tye, which bends through the eye of the strap. When the yards are swayed up, the top-rope reeves through the jack-block, and makes fast with a hitch, first taken round the yard in the slings, then stopt at the outer quarter and eye-bolt in the yard-arm. When lowered, the same, except the stop at the eye-bolt. The rigging is taken off or put on by men at the mast-head, when the yards are swayed up or lowered down.

ROYALS

Are set flying.

THE HALIARDS hitch round the slings of the yard, and through the sheave-hole in the topgallant-mast-head, and lead down upon deck.

BRACES go over the yard-arm with an eye; they lead through single-blocks at the next topgallant-mast-head aft, or mizen-peek, and lead down upon deck.

East-India ships sometimes have royal-masts, and then the royals rig similar to topgallant-sails.

THE MAIN-STAYSAIL

Is seldom bent in ships but at sea, though commonly in brigs. It bends to the main-stay-sail-stay with hanks and seizings.

STAY. The upper end clinches round the main-mast-head above the rigging, and the lower end sets up with a luff-tackle round the foremast.

HALIARDS reeve through a single-block bent to the head of the sail. The standing-part makes fast round the main-mast-head, and the leading-part reeves through a block lashed upon the rigging under the top, and leads down abaft the mast: a double-block is turned into the end, connected, by its fall, with a single-block, hooked to an eye-bolt in the sides abaft the main-mast.

THE DOWNHAULER reeves up through the hanks, bends to the head of the sail, and belays to the main-top-bowline-bitts.

TACK bends to the tack of the sail, and lashes the tack of the sail to the foremast or bitts.

SHEETS are doubled, and the bight put through the clue of the sail; the ends are reeved through, have a single-block spliced into each end, and falls reeved. Their standing-parts are made fast round a timber-head on each side the fore part of the quarter-deck, and the leading-parts through a snatch-block on each side, and belay to the next timber-head. Sometimes a luff-tackle is clapt on to bowse the sheets aft.

THE MAIN-TOPMAST-STAYSAIL

Bends to the topmast-preventer-stay with hanks and seizings.

HALIARDS reeve from the aft-side through the cheek-block at the main-topmast-head on the larboard-side, and come down and bend to the head of the sail. The leading-part leads through a block in the side, and belays to a pin in the fife-rail.

THE DOWNHAULER reeves through a block seized to the strap of the main-bowline-block; it is then carried up and reeved through another block seized to the topmast-preventer-stay at the catharpins, then upwards through the hanks, and bends to the head of the sail.

BRAILS reeve through blocks that are lashed to the strap of the main-bowline-block; they are then carried up and reeve through other blocks, seized to the topmast-preventer-stay, at the catharpins, on each side, and make fast on each side the sail to a cringle on the after-leech.

 

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TACKS are doubled; the bight is put through the tack of the sail, the ends are reeved through the bight, and lead through a thimble seized on the lower shrouds on each side; they then lead down and belay round a cleat lashed to the shrouds near the deck.

SHEETS are doubled; the bight is put through the clue of the sail, and the ends through the bight. A block is spliced in each end, and falls reeved. Their standing-parts make fast on each side to a boatskid next the quarter-deck, and the leading-parts reeve through a block on the gunwale on each side abaft the gangway, and belay to a pin in the boatskid.

THE MIDDLE-STAYSAIL

Bends to the middle-staysail-stay with hanks and seizings.

STAY. The standing part reeves up through the hanks, and makes fast to a thimble seized in a strap or grommet made fast round the fore-topmast, under the parral. The leading-part reeves through the upper sheave at the main-topmast-head: a double-block is then turned into the end, and connects, by its fall, with a single-block that lashes to the main-trestle trees, and the fall leads upon deck abaft the mast, by which it is set up.

HALIARDS reeve through the lower sheave of the cheek-block at the main-topmast head, and bend to the head of the sail; the other end leads upon deck abaft the mast.

THE DOWNHAULER reeves through a single-block seized to the stay at the nock of the sail, then leads up through the hanks, and bends to the head of the sail. The leading-part leads upon deck abaft the foremast.

TACKS are doubled; the bight is put through the tack of the sail, and the ends reeved through the bight, and each end through a thimble seized in the fore-topmast-shrouds, leading down and belaying in the top.

SHEETS are doubled; the bight is put through the sheet of the sail, the ends are reeved through the bight, and each end through a block on the gunwale abaft the gangways, and belay round a boatskid.

TRICING-LINE clinches to the grommet round the fore-topmast, and reeves through a block under the fore-topmast-cross-trees, and leads down into the top.

THE MAIN-TOPGALLANT-STAYSAIL

Bends to the stay with hanks and seizings.

STAY. The upper end splices into the topgallant-stay below the rigging, and the lower end reeves through a thimble seized round the fore-topmast-cross-trees, leading down and making fast in the top.

HALIARDS reeve through a sheave-hole a little above the hounds of the main-topgallant-mast; one end bends to the head of the sail, and the leading-part comes down upon deck; and belays to the bitts on the quarter-deck abaft the mast.

THE DOWNHAULER reeves up through the hanks, and bends to the head of the sail; and the leading-part comes upon deck abaft the main-mast.

TACKS as the middle-staysail.

SHEETS as the middle-staysail.

THE MIZEN-STAYSAIL

Bends to the mizen-staysail-stay with hanks and seizings.

THE STAY clinches round the head of the mizen-mast, then reeves through a thimble seized in a collar lashed round the main-mast, and sets up with a laniard through a thimble turned into the stay,

 

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and an eye-bolt in the deck abaft the mast. In small ships, the mizen-staysail bends to the mizen-stay.

HALIARDS reeve through a block at the head of the sail. The standing-part makes fast round the mizen-mast-head, and the leading-part reeves through a block lashed to the trestle-trees, then through a leading-block in the side, and belays round a timber-head.

THE DOWNHAULER reeves up through a block made fast to the collar of the stay, then through the hanks, and bends to the head of the sail. The leading-part belays round the fore-brace-bitts abaft the main-mast.

BRAILS reeve through blocks lashed on each side the collar, then through thimbles in a strap put through the sail, and make fast to a cringle on the after-leech of the sail. The leading-part belays round the breast-rail on the quarter-deck.

THE TACK splices to the cringle in the tack of the sail, and lashes it to an eye-bolt in the deck abaft the main-mast.

SHEETS bend to the clue of the sail, with a long and short leg, having a thimble spliced in the latter. The long leg reeves through a block or bolt in the side, and through the thimble in the short leg, and belays round a timber-head in the side.

THE MIZEN-TOPMAST-STAYSAIL

Bends to the mizen-topmast-stay with hanks and seizings.

THE HALIARD reeves through the sheave-hole in the topmast above the rigging, or through a block lashed round the mast-head; one end bends to the head of the sail, the other end leads down upon deck abaft the mast.

THE DOWNHAULER reeves up through the hanks, and bends to the head of the sail, the other end leads down upon and belays round the breast-rail.

TACKS are doubled; the bight is put through the tack of the sail; the ends are reeved through the bight, and through a thimble seized to the main-topmast-shrouds on each side, leading down and belaying in the top.

SHEETS are doubled; the bight is put through the clue of the sail; the ends are reeved through the bight, and through a thimble seized in the mizen-shrouds on each side, leading down and belaying round a pin in the hand-rail on each side.

THE MIZEN-TOPGALLANT-STAYSAIL

Bends to the mizen-topgallant-stay with hanks and seizings.

THE HALIARD reeves through the hole above the topgallant-mast-hounds; one end bends to the head of the sail, the other leads down upon deck abaft the mast, and belays round a pin in the handrail.

THE DOWNHAULER reeves up through the hanks, and bends to the head of the sail; the other end leads to the main-top, and belays round the top-rail.

TACKS are doubled; the bight is put over the tack of the sail, and the ends through the latter; they are then reeved through a thimble seized in the main-topmast-shrouds on each side, and lead into the top.

SHEETS are doubled, and put through the clue of the sail at the tacks, and reeved through a a thimble seized in the mizen-shrouds, on each side near the catharpins, then lead down upon deck, and belay round a pin in the shroud-rack.

 

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MIZEN-COURSE.

THE EARING reeves, with an eye in one end, round the cringle in the peek of the sail, and makes fast round the peek, as other earings; and the earing at the nock of the sail the same as the peek.

LACING is spliced to the peek-earing-cringle, and laces round the yard or gaff through the eyelet-holes in the head of the sail, and makes fast to the nock-earing-cringle. Lacing round the mast is spliced to the nock-cringle, and laces round the mast backwards and forwards on the foreside, and through each cringle on the fore-leech of the sail, making fast to the tack at the lower end.

THE TACK sets up with a laniard reeved through the tack-cringle in the sail, and through an eyebolt in the deck.

THE SHEET reeves through a block on a horse at the fore part of the taffarel, and through another block, that hooks to the thimble in the clue of the sail, then again through the block on the horse, and the leading-part belays round a cleat on the side.

BRAILS. Throat, middle, and peek, brails reeve through blocks on the yard or gaff; and make fast to cringles on the after-leech of the sail on each side. The throat-brails lead down by the mast; the middle-brails lead down to the after-mizen-shroud on each side; and the peek-brails to the fife-rail on each quarter.

THE FANCY-LINE has two spans, with a thimble seized in the bight, and a thimble spliced in each end; one thimble reeves upon the throat-brail, the other on the middle-brail, on each side the sail. The fancy-line reeves through blocks lashed at the peek end, and each end bends to the thimble in the bight of the span on each side. When the mizen is set, the brails are hauled up by the fancy-line, that they may have slack, and not girt the lee side of the sail.

THE DRIVER OR SPANKER SAIL

Is bent as a temporary matter, and is made fast at the peek and nock with an earing, as the mizen, and makes fast to the yard and gaff with four or five pair of haliards, that reeve through blocks made fast with tails round the yard or gaff, one end of the haliard being bent to the head of the sail. The throat-haliards reeve with a double and single block; the former is made fast round the mast-head, and the latter hooks to the nock-cringle on the sail.

THE TACK is set tight with a luff-tackle that hooks to the cringle in the tack of the sail, and to the eye-bolt in the throat of the boom.

THE SHEET reeves through a block or sheave-hole at the outer end of the boom, and bends to the clue of the sail; a luff-tackle is cats-pawed to the other end of the sheet; the inner block hooks to the taffarel, and the fall leads in upon the quarter-deck. When this sail is bent to the mast, yard, or gaff, instead of the mizen, it bends exactly the same, only the foot of the sail is extended on the boom as above.

DOWNHAULER reeves through a block made fast to the middle of the driver-yard, and leads down the taffarel.

LOWER-STUDDINGSAILS

Bend to a yard at the head, with rope-bands, the same as other sails.

OUTER HALIARDS reeve through a span-block that is round the lower cap, and bend between the cleats of the studdingsail-yard; the other end leads down upon deck.

INNER HALIARDS bend to the upper inner cringle on the head of the sail, then reeve through a tail-block made fast round the quarter of the lower yard, and through another block made fast round the yard near the mast, and lead down upon deck.

 

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TACKS bend to the outer clue on the foot of the sail, and reeve through a block lashed round the outer part of the boom; they are carried aft, and lead through a block lashed to the main chains, come through a port, and belay round a cleat in the waist. The other is carried forward, and reeves through a block lashed to the bees of the bowsprit. The main-studdingsail tack reeves through a block at the end of the boom, and through a block lashed to an eye-bolt in the buttock; and leads in through a snatch-block lashed on the quarter on each side.

SHEETS are doubled; the bight is put over, and the ends through the inner clue on the foot of the sail; one leads forward, the other aft.

THE FORE-STUDDINGSAIL

Sets flying, or with a boom at the foot. If flying, the foot of the sail spreads on a yard that rigs with a span clinched round each yard-arm. A guy is bent to an eye that is crossed in the middle of the span, and leads aft through a block lashed to the main chains, comes in through a port, and belays round a cleat in the waist. The sail, thus rigged, has no tacks. Booms rig as follow. The hook in the inner end hooks to an eye-bolt in the aftside of the cathead, and the main-studdingsail-boom to an eye in the iron strap on the fore part of the main channel: the end is confined down with a lashing to the chain-plates. The inner end of the fore-boom is confined down with a tackle made fast round the inner end of the boom, and the lower block is hooked to an eye-bolt in the wale. The guy clinches round the middle of the boom, reeves through a block lashed round the spritsail-yard, and comes in upon the forecastle.

TOPMAST-STUDDINGSAILS

Bend to a yard at the head with rope-bands, or are laced, as the other sails, and the foot is spread upon the boom that slides out from the extremities of the main and fore yard through the boom-irons.

HALIARDS reeve through a block in the span round the topmast-head, under the cap, and through the jewel-block, that is strapt with a thimble through an eye-bolt in the extremities of the topsail-yards, and bend to the topmast-studdingsail-yard; the other end leads down upon deck, and belays to the bowline-bitts.

THE DOWNHAULER reeves through a block lashed to the outer clue of the sail, and through a thimble on the outer-leech: it is then made fast to the topmast-studdingsail-yard, just within the earing, and leads into the waist.

TACKS bend to the outer lower clue of the sail; they reeve through a block lashed to the outer end of the boom, and lead aft through a block at the gangway, and belay to a timber-head. Tack of the main-topmast-studdingsail leads in upon the after-part of the quarter-deck through a block lashed upon the quarter.

SHEETS are doubled; the bight is put through the lower inner clue, and the ends through the bight. The after-sheet of the fore-topmast-studdingsail leads in abaft the fore-shrouds. The main hauls in upon the waist. The fore-sheet of the fore-topmast-studdingsail leads in upon the forecastle; the after one before the shrouds. On the middle of the boom is fastened a selvagee, or a strap with a thimble, to which is hooked the top-burton-tackle, to support the boom in the middle.

THE BOOMS are run out by the tackles. The strap of the double-block makes fast through a hole in the heel of the boom, and the outer-block to the boom-iron, and the fall leads along the yard.

 

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THE TOPGALLANT-STUDDINGSAIL

Bends to a yard at the head, as before, and the foot is spread on a boom that slides out at the extremities of the topsail-yards.

THE HALIARD reeves through a block seized round the head of the topgallant-mast, above the hounds, or rigging, then through the jewel-block, strapt with a thimble through an eye-bolt at the extremities of the topgallant-yards, and bends to the topgallant-studdingsail-yard; the other end leads down the mast into the top, and belays there.

THE DOWNHAULER makes fast to the outer yard-arm within the earing, and leads down into the top.

TACKS bend to the outer lower-clue of the sail, and reeve through a thimble in a strap round the outer end of the topmast-studdingsail-boom; and, in merchant-ships that have no boom, through a thimble in a strap round the outer yard-arm of the topmast-studdingsail, and leads aft the tack of the fore-topgallant-studdingsail to the main-chains. The main leads to the quarter-piece.

SHEETS are doubled; the bight is put through the lower-inner-clue of the sail, and the ends palled through the bight; one end leads forward, and makes fast to the quarter of the topsail-yard, and the other end leads into the top, and belays to the topmast-shrouds.

SPRITSAIL.

The spritsail bends to the yard as the foresail.

CLUE-LINES reeve through the blocks upon the yard, and bend or reeve through a block at the clue of the sail, and lead in upon the forecastle.

BUNTLINES, DOUBLE, reeve through a thimble in a strap round the bowsprit, and clinch to the cringles at the foot of the sail, and lead in upon the forecastle.

BUNTLINES, SINGLE, reeve through a thimble seized to the slings of the yard, and clinch with legs to the cringles in the foot of the sail, and lead in upon the forecastle.

SHEETS, DOUBLE, reeve through a block seized to the clue of the sail; the standing-part clinches to an eye-bolt in the bow, and the leading-part comes in-board.

SHEETS, SINGLE, bend to the clue of the sail and lead in-board.

SPRITSAIL-TOPSAIL.

The spritsail-topsail bends to the yard with lacing and earings.

CLUE-LINES the same as the spritsail.

SHEETS reeve through the sheet-block at the spritsail-yard-arm, and hook to the clue of the sail, and lead in upon the forecastle through a block lashed on each side the bowsprit.

 

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VESSELS WITH TWO MASTS.


A SNOW is the largest two-masted vessel, and is extremely convenient for navigation.

The sails and rigging on the main and fore mast are similar to those on the same mast in a ship, the braces of the sails on the main-mast leading forward: Besides which, there is a small mast, close behind the main-mast, that carries a trysail, resembling the mizen of a ship. This mast, called the trysail-mast, is fixed in a step of wood upon deck, and the head fixed by an iron clamp to the aftside of the main-top.

Vessels in the navy, that resemble snows, have a rope-horse, that sets up abaft the main-mast with dead-eyes and a laniard, to which the trysail is bent, by hanks and seizings, similar to the trysail of a snow.

AN HERMAPHRODITE is a vessel so construed as to be, occasionally, a snow, and sometimes a brig. It has therefore two mainsails; a boom mainsail, when a brig; and a square mainsail when a snow; and a main-topsail larger than the fore-topsail.

Sometimes the boom mainsail is bent to the main-mast, as a brig; or on a trysail-mast, as a snow.

BRIG.

The rigging of a brig is little different from the fore and main masts of a ship, the braces of the sails on the main-mast leading forward. The after-main-shroud must be served from the mast-head to the dead-eye, to prevent its being chafed by the main-boom and gaff. The after-backstay is fitted with a tackle, that it may be slacked when the mainsail jibes, or is bowsed forward by the boom-pendent and tackle. They carry no main-yard, but a cross-jack-yard.

BILANDER.

A merchant-ship with two masts, but different from others in the shape of the mainsail, which resembles a settee-sail. The head is bent to a yard, similar to the mizen yard of a ship, and hangs to the main-mast, as a ship's does to the mizen-mast.

This method has proved inconvenient, and is now seldom used but by the Dutch.

KETCH.

Is a vessel with two masts; the main-mast has a topmast, and carries a mainsail, topsail, and topgallant-sail, similar to a ship's; and sometimes, abaft the main-mast, is a large gaff-sail, called a wingsail. The mizen-mast sometimes has a topmast, and carries a topsail, and, abaft the mast, gaff-sail, like a ship's mizen. The bowsprit is long, and on it are set two or three jibs.

 

Snow, Brig, Bilander, Ketch
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Schooner, Lugger, Cutter, A Man of War's Pinnace, Hoy, Sailing Barge
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SCHOONER

Is a small vessel with two masts and a bowsprit. The masts rake aft, but the bowsprit lies nearly horizontal. On the bow sprit are set two or three jibs; on the foremast a square foresail; and, abaft the foremast, a gaff or boomsail; and above those a topsail. Abaft the main-mast is set a boom-sail, and above it a topsail. The main-stay leads through a block, at the head of the foremast, and sets up upon deck by a tackle. By these means, the sail abaft the foremast is not obstructed when the vessel goes about, as the peek passes under the stay.

Schooners sail very near the wind, and require few hands to work them. Their rigging is light, similar to a ketch's, and the topmasts fix in iron rings, abaft the lower mast-heads.

LUGGER

Is a small vessel with two masts, and a bowsprit nearly horizontal.

On the bowsprit are set two or three jibs; and the lug-sails hang obliquely to the masts, their yards being slung at one-third their length, one on each lower-mast and topmast: the topmast fixes abaft the mast-heads, as those of schooners.

Luggers sail well close hauled, and very near the wind. The rigging is very light and simple. The masts are supported by shrouds and stays; the yards have haliards, lifts, and braces. To the lee-clue of the sail is a sheet, and to the windward-clue a tack, which is occasionally shifted as the vessel goes about. When this is often repeated, they loose ground in stays.

Some luggers have a small mast and a ring-sail set to it over the stern, and the foot spread by a small boom.

In blowing weather they have small lug-sails, the tack of which hauls down by the mast, as their large sails would endanger them, should they chance to get up in the wind.

 

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CUTTERS, OR- VESSELS WITH ONE MAST


MAST.

GIRTLINE-BLOCKS are lashed at the mast-head, like those of ships.

PENDENTS OF TACKLES are wormed, parcelled, and served, their whole length; then doubled, and the bight seized to the size of the mast-head: the ends are then spliced together, and a single block seized in the lower bight; the splice to lay on the arse of the block. The ends of all splices are tapered, marled down, and served over with spunyarn.

RUNNERS OF TACKLES are fitted with a hook and thimble, spliced at one end and served over; and reeve through the block in the pendent, and through the strap of the long-tackle-block and splices.

FALLS of TACKLES reeve through the upper sheave of the long-tackle-block, and through a single-block with a long strap, that has a hook and thimble spliced in it, and hooks to an eye-bolt in the side. The fall is then taken upwards, reeved through the lower sheave of the long-tackle-block, and down again through the becket in the arse of the single-block, and makes fast with a bend, and the end seized up.

SHROUDS, four pairs, are fitted and got over the mast-head, similar to those in ships. The after shroud on each side is wormed, parcelled, and served with spunyarn, down to the dead-eye.

THE STAY is fitted and got over the mast-head similar to that in ships; only wormed its whole length.

PREVENTER-STAY, similar to ships.

THE STAY Sets up with a dead-eye, turned into the lower end of the stay with a running or Flemish-eye, and with a laniard, reeved through the holes in the dead-eye, and through holes bored through the head of the stem.

THE PREVENTER-STAY sets up with a laniard, reeved through the holes in the dead-eye in the lower end of the stay, and another dead-eye in an iron-bound-strap, bolted on the fore part of the stem.

BOWSPRIT.

THE SHROUDS are fitted with a hook and thimble, spliced at one end, that hook to an eye on each side of a square hoop driven on the end of the bowsprit. The inner end has an iron thimble turned in, and sets up by a laniard to an eye-bolt on each aide of the bow, and the end secured with hitches. Sloops have HORSES similar to jib-boom horses of ships, and sometimes ratlings.

MAIN-JIB-TACK is clinched through the swivel-eye in the traveller on the bowsprit, then reeves through a sheave-hole in the end of the bowsprit, and through an iron-bound-block, hooked and

 

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moused to an eye-bolt in the side of the stem near the water, and then brought to the windlass over the bow, and hove out; then stopt and belayed round a timber-head.

HALIARDS reeve through the block lashed to the head of the sail, and through the block on each side the mast-head. One end has a treble-block spliced or turned in, and connects by its fall to a double-block, that hooks to an eye-bolt in the deck on one side, and the other end belays to an eye-bolt opposite.

SHEETS, single or with blocks and falls. Sheets, single, are bent to the clue of the sail, and lead over the bow to the windlass; the double-sheets have two double-blocks lashed to the clue of the sail, and connected by their falls to a single-block, hooked to an eye-bolt near the cathead, on each side. The falls lead in upon deck through a hole in a timber-head, or a leading-block lashed on each side.

DOWNHAULER makes fast to the head of the sail, and leads upon deck.

INHAULER makes fast to the traveller, and leads in upon deck.

HEEL-ROPE reeves through a leading-block, hooked to an eye-bolt in the bow, then through a sheave-hole in the heel of the bow sprit, and the standing-part makes fast to a timber-head, or eyebolt, and the leading-part is connected to the windlass.

FLYING-JIB,

Similar to the main jib.

FORESAIL

Bends with hanks to the stay.

HALIARDS reeve through a block, lashed underneath the collar of the stay at the mast-head, and a block lashed to the head of the sail: the standing-part makes fast round the mast-head, and the leading-part comes down upon deck.

DOWNHAULER reeves through the hanks, and bends at the head of the sail, then reeves through a leading-block, made fast to the stay at the foot of the sail, and belays to a cleat on the gunwale.

TACK-TACKLE. The block is hooked to the tack of the sail, and connected by its fall to a block, made fast under the stay to an eye-bolt in the bow, and belays to the cross-piece of the windlass.

BOWLINES. A hook is spliced in one end, that hooks to the clue; then reeves through a block, lashed to the shrouds on each side, and through a cringle in the leech of the sail, and belays round a pin in the rack-rack.

SHEETS reeve through a block made fast to the horse with a thimble, or, in some sloops, a deadeye iron-bound, and through a block at the clue, and so on alternately between the strap of the block and the seizing or dead-eye; then through the thimble at the clue, till the whole sheet is expended, then frapped together and hitched.

BOOM.

TOPPING-LIFT is taken upon the starboard-side, and reeved through the upper-block, hooked to an eye-bolt in the mast-head; then lead down and reeved through the block at the boom-end. The standing-part clinches round the mast-head, or hooks to the same eye-bolt; the leading-part comes down, and has a double-block spliced in, or turned, that connects by its fall to a single-block, and hooks to an eye-bolt in the after part of the channel, and belays to a pin in the shroud-rack. Sometimes it has the addition of a runner and sometimes rigged as the driver-boom in ships.

SHEETS reeve through a double-block, strapped round the boom just within the taffarel, and through another double-block, strapped round the horse; and very large cutters have a treble-block at the horse, and belays round a large cleat on the taffarel.

 

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TACK-TACKLE. The double-block is fastened to the tack of the sail, and connects with its fall to a single-block hooked to an eye-bolt in the deck.

REEF-PENDENTS OR EARINGS, four in number, reeve through four holes in the outer end of the boom, and have a thimble spliced in one end, wormed and served with spunyarn near their whole length. The other end reeves through its respective reef-cringle on the after-leech; and, when a reef is to be taken in, it is cats-pawed on to the hook of a luff-tackle, to haul down the leech of the sail; and afterwards fraps round the sail and boom, till expended, and makes fast with a hitch. It is common to put old hammocks under the pendent between that and the sail.

GUY-PENDENTS have a hook and thimble, that hook in a thimble of a strap on the boom, just without the main-sheet-block. In the inner end of the pendent, is a thimble or long eye spliced, to which is hooked a luff-tackle. Its single-block is hooked near the windlass, to a timber-head or eye-bolt, and the fall leads in-board.

MAIN-SHEET. One block straps round the boom near the taffarel, and is confined by a comb-cleat. The other block is strapped with a thimble, and traverses upon an iron horse, secured to the inside of the taffarel, and they are connected by the sheet or fall which belays round a large cleat on the taffarel, or the pin of the block in small vessels.

TYE, OR HALIARD, reeves through a block on the span, that clinches or splices round the middle of the gaff. The standing-part of the tye clinches round the mast-head, or hooks to an eyebolt in the mast-head: the other end reeves through a second iron-bound-block, hooked to an eyebolt in the mast-head, and at the lower end is the double-haliard-block, that does not splice as other haliards, but reeves through the strap, and makes fast with a hitch; and the remainder is expended in turns round the block and strap. The haliard-block connects by its fall to a single or double block, hooked to an eye-bolt in the deck, close behind the mast.

INNER-TYE is similar to the outer tye, and hooks to an eye-bolt in the jaws of the gaff; then reeves through the lower iron-bound-block, that hooks to an eye-bolt in the aftside of the mast-head, below the rigging. It has a double-block bent to the lower end, and sets up by the haliards;, the lower block hooking to an eye-bolt on the opposite side to the other tye.

PEEK-DOWNHAULER reeves through a small-block, strapped round the thimble, in the eyebolt at the outer end of the gaff, and belays round a cleat under the boom.

THROAT-DOWNHAULER reeves through a block at the nock of the sail, and leads down the mast.

TOPMAST, OR TOPGALLANT-MAST.

SHROUDS are fitted and go over the mast-head as a ship's topgallant-mast-shrouds, and thimbles are seized in them, in the upper part, for the lifts, and reeve through the holes in the ends of the crosstrees; then come down upon deck, and set up with a thimble and laniard round the lower dead-eyes.

STAY splices with an eye to the size of the mast-head; the lower end reeves through the middle sheave of a treble-block, lashed round the bowsprit-end underneath, and leads to an eye-bolt near the stem, to which it sets up with a laniard, through a thimble turned into its end.

STANDING-BACKSTAYS, if one pair, go over the mast-head with a cuntsplice: if two pair, with eyes seized, and in the lower end a thimble, and set with a gun-tackle-purchase, hooked to a thimble of a strap round the lower dead-eyes, and sometimes with a laniard and thimbles.

CROSS-JACK-YARD.

TOP-ROPE, similar to ships.

 

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QUARTER-BLOCK is strapped with a double strap, having a long and short leg; and is fixed in the middle of the yard between the cleats: the long leg comes up the aftside of the yard, and meets the bight of the short leg on the fore side, and there lashes through the bights.

STRAPS, with a thimble seized in the bight, are spliced or lashed through eyes round the middle of the yard; the thimble in one strap is fixed on the aftside of the yard, the other thimble on the upper side of the yard.

CLUE-LINE-BLOCKS are lashed with two eyes round the yard, as ships. Some sloops and light-rigged vessels have no clue-line-blocks: they lower the yard.

HORSES go over the yard-arm with an eye as in ships.

BRACE-PENDENTS, as ships AFTER-BRACE-PENDENTS, go over the yard-arm with an eye.

SHEET-BLOCK straps in the lift with a splice; and a bight is seized in the lift to the size of the yard-arm; and goes over it next the braces. Merchant-vessels sometimes have their topsail-sheets fitted in the same manner.

FORE-BRACES reeve through the pendent-block. The standing-part goes out, and clinches round the outer end of the bowsprit; the leading-part reeves through a sheave, on one side of the treble-block, out at the end of the bowsprit, and comes in upon deck.

AFTER-BRACES lead in upon the quarter, through a snatch-block, or a sheave-hole in the side; and belay to a cleat or timber-head.

LIFTS reeve through a span-block round the cap or mast-head, and lead down upon deck.

TACKLE OR HALIARD, for swaying up the yard, is either treble or double, according to the size of the vessel. The upper block hooks to an eye-bolt in the foreside of the mast-head, or to a strap round the mast. The lower-blocks hook to the thimble in the strap, on the middle of the yard; the fall reeves through a sheave-hole in the topsail-sheet-bitts, and leads aft.

HORSE lashes round the mast-head, with an eye spliced in the upper end, and sets up with deadeyes and a laniard below.

TOPSAIL-YARD.

TYE reeves from aft, through the sheave-hole in the mast-head, comes down, and clinches round the slings of the yard: the other end has a double-block spliced, that connects by its fall to a single block hooked in the channel; the fall leads through a leading-block on the gunwale, and belays to a cleat or timber-head.

CLUE-LINE-BLOCKS, HORSES, BRACE-PENDENTS, AND LIFTS, go on the yard as ships.

LIFTS reeve through a thimble in the topmast-shrouds, and come down upon deck.

BRACES reeve through the pendent-block, and the standing-part goes out and clinches round the bowsprit-end; the leading-part reeves through one of the sheave-holes of a double-block at the bowsprit-end, leads in upon deck, and belays where most convenient.

BOWLINES reeve through a thimble in a strap over the bowsprit-end; and go on the bridle at the sail, as in ships: the leading-part comes in upon deck.

MAINSAIL

Bends at the head to the gaff with earings and lacing, as the ship's mizen; and is seized to the hoops round the mast, through the holes in the foremast-leech.

THROAT-DOWNHAULER. The double-block hooks to the eye under the throat of the gaff, that connects by its fall to a single-block, hooked to a thimble, seized in the bight of a strap round the mast under the boom-saddle.

 

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TRICING-LINE reeves through a small block made fast to the above eye-bolt in the gaff: one end splices to the tack of the sail; the other leads down upon deck, and belays to a cleat near the mast.

SHEET-ROPE splices into the clue of the sail, and reeves through the sheave-hole in the boom; and a thimble is turned into the inner end, to which hooks the sheet or luff tackle, and the inner-block to a strap round the boom near the jaws. When the sail is hove out, it is lashed with an earing through the clue, and an eye-bolt in the boom-end.

TRYSAIL OR STORM-MAINSAIL

Bends as the mainsail, and rigs with the same materials, if no other allowed; but mostly with sheets, and no boom, but like a ship's mizen.

SQUARE-SAIL OR CROSS-JACK

Bends similar to a ship's main or fore course.

BOWLINES reeve through a sheave in the double-block on the bowsprit-end, and on the bridle at the sail, the same as a ship's. The leading-part comes in upon deck, and belays round the bitts.

TOPSAIL

Bends as the ship's topsail, and rigs similar.

TOPGALLANT-SAIL sets flying like a ship's royal.

GAFF-TOPSAIL

Laces to a small gaff at the head.

HALIARDS reeve through a sheave-hole at the topgallant-mast-head, and bend to the inner-part of the gaff: the leading-part comes down upon deck.

TOPPING-LIFT reeves through a sheave-hole or small-block, seized to the topgallant-mast-head, then through a thimble or small-block seized at the outer end of the gaff: the standing-part makes fast round the topgallant-mast head, above the sheave-holes; and the leading-part comes down upon deck.

TACK makes fast the tack of the sail, a little above the rigging.

SHEET reeves through a thimble seized at the peek of the mainsail, and bends to the clue of the and leads down upon deck.

LOWER STUDDINGSAILS

Bend as ships, and is set flying like a ship's fore-studdingsail.

TOPMAST-STUDDINGSAILS

Bend nearly as ships.

HALIARDS reeve through single-blocks, made fast round the mast-head above the rigging: one end reeves through the jewel-block, and bends to the yard: the other end leads down upon deck.

SHEETS AND TACKS, as ships'.

 

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RINGTAIL-SAIL

Is similar to a topmast-studdingsail, and bends to a small yard on the head, and hoisted by the peek downhauler, which serves for haliards. The foot is expanded on a spar, or small boom, lashed to the outer end of the main-boom.

MIZEN

Is set on a small mast over the stern. If a square-sail, it bends to a yard, and is hoisted by haliards reeved through the mast-head, and is spread by sheets at the foot. If a spritsail, it bends to the mast with grommets, and is peeked with a sprit; and the foot hauls aft by the sheet to a small boom.

WATER-SAIL

Is similar to a lower studdingsail, and bends on the head to a small yard.

HALIARD reeves through a small block under the outer end of the main-boom, comes in and makes fast to the middle of the yard, and the leading-part round a cleat on the taffarel.

SHEETS make fast to the clues of the sail, and lead in over the quarters.

SAVEALL-TOPSAIL.

THE CLUES lash near to the lift-block of the cross-jack-yard.

HALIARDS bend to the earings of the sail, and reeve to a block on each quarter of the topsail-yard; and leads down upon deck.


SLOOPS AND SMACKS

Are vessels with one mast, and rig as cutters, but much lighter.

HOYS AND LIGHTERS

Are vessels with one mast, and sometimes a bowsprit; abaft the mast is a gaff-mainsail, before it a foresail, and a jib upon the bowsprit. The little rigging they have is similar to sloops.

SAILING-BARGES

Are vessels with one mast, and sometimes a bowsprit. Those that have boom-sails are rigged similar to sloops; but, having few hands on-board, the boom and gaff is more easily hoisted or topped, the power being increased by the addition of blocks.

THE BOOM-TOPPING-LIFT is a long pendent, that goes over the outer end of the boom, with an eye spliced in one end, and in the other end is spliced a double or single block, that connects by its fall to a single-block, hooked in an eye-bolt at the upper part of the mast-head; and the fall leads down to the shrouds at the side, and sometimes rigged similar to a ship's driver-boom, or cutter's main-boom.

TYE OR HALIARDS of the gaff are rigged to the fancy and ease of the master, &c. The standing-part is fastened to the arse of a standing-block, hooked to an eye-bolt in the mast-head,

 

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next below the topping-lift; then reeves through a single-block on the span at the peek; then carried up; and reeves through the block near where the standing-part is made fast; then through another block, on a span near the middle of the gaff, and leads up again, and reeves through another single block, hooked to an eye-bolt in the mast-head, below the other block or standing-part, and leads down upon deck; sometimes the standing-part goes over the mast-head, with an eye spliced in the end; then reeves through a block at the peek-end of the gaff, and then through a single-block at the mast-head, below the standing-part; and then through a single-block on a span near the peek; lastly, through another block at the mast-head, below the former block; and then leads down upon deck. The tye has mostly haliards in the lower end, like the cutters.

SAILING LIGHTERS OR BARGES, with a sprit-mainsail, rig with a sprit-yard at the head of the sail, hanging diagonally to the mast.

THE SHROUDS AND RUNNER-PENDENTS go over the mast-head, with eyes spliced at the ends, or with bights seized close to the mast; and rest upon a trudding or grommet, drove down to the tops on the mast-head.

THE STAY goes over all with a running-eye, and sets up with a large three or four fold tackle: the upper-block hooks in a large thimble, turned into the lower end of the stay, or is itself turned into the lower end of the stay, and the lower block is secured to the stern, by hooking into a large strap, for lowering the mast.

THE STAY OR STANDING-MAST is set up with a dead-eye, or block, in the lower end, and holes through the head of the stem.

SPRIT-YARD-PENDENT. One end splices to a collar or grommet, that is spliced round the middle of the sprit-yard; the other end reeves through a block at the mast-head, comes down, and then a thimble is spliced in, and served over the splice: in this thimble hooks a double-block (in large barges), that connects by its fall a double-block, hooked to an eye-bolt in the deck: a lufftackle is used in small barges.

STANDING-LIFT, to top the sprit-yard up, goes with an eye spliced in the end over the lower end of the yard; then leads through a block at the mast-head, has a thimble spliced in the end, to which hooks a double or luff-tackle block, and the lower-block hooks to an eye-bolt in the deck or side.

VANGS. Some large barges have vangs like a ship's mizen, and a downhauler at the peek-end of the sprit-yard.

HALIARDS OR TRICING-LINE make fast to the grommet at the nock of the sail, and reeve through a block at the mast-head, and lead down upon deck.

THE SPRITSAIL is bent to hoops, that slide on the mast above the snotter, and to hanks below it, that slide on a horse abaft the mast: the tack is secured with several turns round a cleat on the mast, or eye-bolt in the deck, and through the thimble in the tack of the sail. The turns are frapped together, and the end hitched: the nock is secured in a similar manner to a grommet, incircling the mast: the peek is extended to the upper extremity of the sprit-yard, by its going through the peek.

SHEET. One end bends to the clue of the sail, the other reeves through a block that traverses on an iron or wood horse (fixed athwart the vessel near the stern), and again reeves through a block, hooked to a thimble in the after-leech of the sail, four feet above the clue; then leads aft, and belays round the pin of the block on the horse.

BRAILS are made fast to cringles on the after-leech of the sail, then lead upon each side of the sail, and reeve through small-blocks, seized into the head-rope, and then through blocks lashed to

 

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the upper part of the shrouds on each side; and lead down through trucks seized to the shrouds below the middle, and belay round pins in the shroud-rack.

BRAILS go with two short legs; one spliced in the head-rope near the nock, the other about four feet up the head: the leading-part comes down one side of the sail, and reeves through a cringle, on the after-leech, five or six feet above the clue, and comes upon the other side, and reeves through a block, seized to the nock of the sail, and leads down by the mast.

THROAT DOWNHAULER splices to the nock of the sail, and leads down by the mast.

HORSE is a rope that goes with an eye over the mast-head, and sets up with a laniard through dead-eyes; one of which is spliced in the lower end of the horse, and the other hooks to an eyebolt near the heel of the mast.

SNOTTER is made of two or more turns of a rope, spliced at the ends, and marled closely together, to the circumference of the mast and lower end of the sprit-yard; then served with spun-yarn, and covered with leather, and a seizing clapped on, between the mast and lower end of the sprit yard, which rests in the grommet, by the stop or shoulders made at the end, when the sail is hoisted.

LARGE BARGES have a FORESAIL, JIB, CROSS-JACK-YARD, and TOPSAIL, similar to sloops.

SLOOPS, SMACKS, BARGES, and LIGHTERS, that go through bridges, have the mast confined in a trunk or wooden cap, above the deck, and fastened in by an iron strap on the aft-side: some have a strong iron hinge at the heel of the mast, or a bolt through the heel; so that it can be lowered at pleasure, by the stay-tackle easing away the fall by degrees. To raise the mast, the fall is brought to the windlass, and hove upon, until the mast is up in its place: the fall is then stopped to the windlass bitts.

SHIPS' LONG-BOATS, OR LAUNCHES,

Are often rigged like small sloops or schooners.

SHIPS' PINNACES AND ROWING BARGES

Sometimes have latteen-sails, and rig with a sliding-gunter, like houarios, or bend to yards, and hoist with

HALIARDS, that reeve through a sheave-hole in the mast-head: one end bends to the slings of the yard, on the fore-part of the mast, and the other end belays abaft the mast.

SHEETS bend to the clue of the sail, and lead aft.

SPRITSAILS, similar to those in sailing barges, are sometimes used.

SHIPS, CUTTERS, OR YAWLS,

Sometimes have lug-sails, and rig with a

HALIARD, like the pinnace.

SHEET AND TACK, like the lugger.

 

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NECESSARY ROPES, AND VARIOUS OPERATIONS, INCIDENTAL TO RIGGING, PERFORMED ON-BOARD.


AWNINGS. The ridge rope of the poop-awning reeves through the trucks, served along the midships of the awning; the standing-part makes fast with a clinch round the ensign-staff, the leading-part round a roller fixed in the aftside of an iron clasp-hoop on the mizen-mast, and sets up, by a fall, which connects a double-block, turned into its end, to a single-block lashed to an eye-bolt in the deck. The side ropes reeve through trucks, served alongside the awning, with an eye spliced into the end of the standing-part, through which it is seized with spun-yarn to the fore leg of the mizen-shrouds on each side. The leading-part reeves through a sheave-hole in the upper part of a wooden stantion, fixed against the stern on each side, and sets up with a small tackle.

The ridge rope of the quarter-deck-awning reeves through the trucks in the middle of the awning, and clinches through an eye in the fore side of the clasp-hoop on the mizen-mast; and the leading-part reeves round a roller, fixed in the aft-side of an iron clasp-hoop on the main-mast, and sets up as the poop-awning. The side ropes reeve through trucks along the sides of the awning, and seize to the foremost leg of the main-shrouds; the leading-part reeves through a block, seized to the foremost leg of the mizen-shrouds, and sets up as the ridge rope.

The ridge rope of the main-deck-awning reeves through the trucks in the middle, and clinches through an eye in the clasp-hoop on the main-mast; and the leading-part reeves round a roller, fixed in the aft-side of an iron clasp-hoop on the fore-mast, and sets up as the poop-awning. The side ropes reeve through the trucks, and are seized to the foremost leg of the fore-shrouds; the leading-part reeves through a block, seized to the foremost leg of the main-shrouds; and sets up as the quarterdeck-awning.

The awnings are spread and suspended by the middle thus. In the after ends three thimbles are seized, one in the middle, and one on each side, that go over hooks, seized to the hoop on the mast, and shrouds at the sides. The fore part is hauled forward, and stopt to the shrouds, and laces across through eyelet-holes, made at the edges of each awning. In harbour the awnings spread to wooden stantions, bolted along the sides; and, the hands being few, they are hauled forward by tricing-lines, reeved through single-blocks, seized to uprights instead of the masts. In the middle of the awnings, the legs of the crowfoot reeve through the holes in the euphroe, and make fast to the strands of the ridge rope, at equal distances; and that is suspended by the haliard that is spliced round the euphroe, and reeves through a single-block seized to the stay.

BENTINCK-SHROUDS have four or six short legs, with an eye spliced in the end of each, which seizes round the futtock-staff and shrouds, close up to the catharpins. The bights of those legs are parcelled and served together, and a large thimble seized therein; in which is turned in another large thimble. The bight of the bentinck-shrouds is parcelled, and served in the way of this thimble,

 

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round which they are seized with a round seizing. A thimble, or dead-eye, is turned into the lower ends, which sets up with a laniard to a spare dead-eye, or eye-bolt, in the chains, on the opposite sides.

BOATS. The NECESSARY ROPES belonging to these are: the PAINTER, which splices round a thimble in the ring-bolt within the bow. The STERNFAST splices round a thimble in the ring bolt within the stern. FENDERS are made of worn cable-laid rope, doubled three or four times, and sewed together with spunyarn thus: the rope is first doubled, and a laniard thrust through the bight, and a wall-knot crowned on the end: the ends are then brought up in the bight, and the four parts sewed together. RUDDER-LANIARDS: the ends are thrust through holes in the after part of the rudder, on contrary sides; and a double wall-knot, crowned, is made at the ends; the inner ends make fast on each quarter of the boat within side. SLINGS have a hook and thimble spliced in each end, with a long and short leg, by having a thimble seized in the bight at one-third the length.

BOOMKIN-SHROUDS, to support the boomkins, have their after ends hooked to eye-bolts, one above the cheeks of the head, the other in the cutwater: at the fore part, or bight, is seized in a dead-eye, or thimble, which sets up with a laniard to a dead-eye, or thimble, seized in a strap fixed round the outer end of the boomkin.

DOLPHINS are made of a piece of worn hawser-laid rope, nearly as long as the circumference of the mast, which has an eye spliced in each end, and is pointed over the whole length. They are occasionally lashed round the mast, through the eyes, as a support to the puddens.

ENTERING-ROPE. See ROPE.

FLAGS. Flags and pendents are hoisted by haliards which reeve through sheaves in the trucks at the mast-heads or small-blocks, seized where wanted. The two ends of the haliards splice together, and reach down to the tops, or down upon deck, and belay; one part of the haliards is bent to the upper part of the tabling, to the lower end, and to several places between, and in proportion as one is hoisted upon, the other is eased away, until the flag is hoisted. The haliards are then belayed.

Haliards of pendents are bent to slings spliced round the stick; consequently to haul a flag or pendent down, that part that was hauled upon must now be eased.

The ensign-haliards reeve through a sheave in the truck of the ensign-staff, and belay to a cleat near the heel.

The jack-haliards reeve through the sheave in the truck of the jack-staff, and belay to a cleat at the heel near the bowsprit.

Signal-pendent-haliards are reeved through blocks or thimbles seized to different parts of the ship, as the cross-trees, &c.

Signal-flags are hoisted at the mizen-peek, &c. Night-signals are made with lanterns, and are hoisted by the same haliards as the flags.

The broad-pendent is hoisted with the shortest side next the mast.

FRAPPING of a SHIP is performed by passing a number of turns of a cable over the gunwale and round the hull, and heaving it tight, by thrusting a capstan-bar through the middle of the turns, and twisting them together. The turns are then secured by stopping the end of the bar. This is mostly used when the upper works of a ship are not strong enough to resist the violent shocks of a heavy sea.

GRIPES are short ropes, spliced together in the middle, with a dead-eye seized in one bight. The splice lying on the back of the dead-eye, and a hook and thimble seized in the other bight, which hook to ring-bolts in the deck. The straps are ropes, in length once and a quarter the width of the

 

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boat, spliced together in the middle, and a dead-eye seized in each bight; they are used to secure the boats upon the deck in this manner: the straps are laid athwart the boat forward, in midships, and aft, and set up with laniards, through the holes in the dead-eyes of the straps, and those hooked to the ring-bolts in the deck.

GROMMETS. Worn rope spliced together in the form of a wreath, of various sizes, according to the purposes to which they are to be applied. Those for confining the nock of spritsails are served over with spunyarn, and are sometimes covered with leather.

GUN-TACKLES. Gun-tackling consists of ropes, blocks, &c. and is to run the guns in and out, and secure them to the ship's sides in bad weather. BREECHING is a rope to secure and prevent the gun from recoiling too much. It is formed with a cunt-splice in the middle, which passes over the pomiglion, or cascabel, of the gun, and through ring-bolts in each side of the carriage, and is clinched to large ring-bolts in the side of the ship, on each side of the port. PREVENTER-BREECHING is similar to the breeching, and is used for additional security. The GUN-TACKLE is used to run the gun out of the port, and keep it in a situation for firing. It has-a single-block that hooks to the eye-bolts in the sides of the carriage, and a single or double block, for 32-pounders, that hooks to other ring-bolts by the sides of the ports. RELIEVING, or TRAIN-TACKLES, are to run guns in, and so retain them, by hooking the double-block of the tackle to an eye-bolt in the train of the carriage, and its single-block to another eye-bolt in the deck; one of which is fixed opposite to every gun. QUOINS (Besides those used to elevate and depress the gun) are tapered pieces of wood, like wedges, that are thrust under the trucks of the carriages, and there kept, by being nailed to the deck; they are used to assist in keeping the gun securely housed.

Guns are housed, or secured, by taking out the quoins and lowering the breech, so that the muzzle may take the upper part of the port. When thus placed, the two sides of the breeching are frapped under the gun at the muzzle near the breast part of the carriage. The muzzle of the gun is confined by several turns of a rope, or gasket, made fast to it, and through the eye-bolts that are fixed in the ship's side, over the midships of the port.

The lower deck guns are usually kept housed and secured when at sea.

LASHING OF BOOMS, that is, the spare topmasts, yards, &c. stowed on the boatskids on each side. They are first secured in different places with several turns of lashing on one side, independant of the other; then they are cross-lashed together in a strong manner, and well frapped in the middle. In gales of wind, to prevent the boom's shifting, several turns, with a hawser, are taken round the booms, and through large triangular ring-bolts in the sides; and sometimes the turns are passed through an opposite port, and round the side; the turns are then hove tight, frapped, and belayed.

MATS are made thus: a small rope or line is first tightly extended, horizontally, at nearly a man's height, and made fast at each end; across which foxes are placed in a regular manner, and hang down from their middles: then, beginning with the first next the left hand, it is crossed or plaited with that which is next the right hand; then taking that which was to the right hand and crossing it with its next; and so on in succession. This will make the mat downwards; and when finished to the length intended, it is begun again at top till its breadth is completed. Each twist is to be pressed tight; and each couple of foxes is to be twisted together at the bottom, to keep in their twists till the next in succession are interwoven with them. When the mat is completed to its depth, the bottom is selvaged, by placing another small rope or line across in a tight manner similar to the head-line, round which one fox is half hitched, while the next fox is laid up at the back of it, and so on alternately.

 

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When mats are thrummed, it is thus performed: short pieces of the foxes are thrust under every other overlay of the foxes in every other row. To receive the thrums, a hole is opened with a small marline-spike: the thrums are afterwards cut off to an equal length, and their ends opened.

MARTINGAL-STAY, to support the jib-boom, splices with an eye over the outer end of the jib-boom, then leads in through a score, cut in the lower end of the martingal, (which is an ash bar, suspended from the fore side of the bowsprit-cap to which it fastens) has a double-block turned or spliced into the inner end, that sets up, by its fall, to a single-block hooked to an eye-bolt in the head.

NETTING is made by laying parallel to each other a number of small ropes of equal lengths; and by seizing each two together at certain distances; taking care that every seizing be between the seizings of the ropes immediately preceding. Or it is made by placing nails in the deck to regulate the size of the meshes, and seizing the ropes together close to the nails.

PARBUCKLE. A contrivance to hoist or lower bodies, by fastening the bight of a rope over a fixed object, and passing the ends of it under the body to be hoisted, &c. They are then turned upwards toward the bight, and hauled upon, or slackened, as occasion requires.

PASSING-ROPE. See Rope.

PREVENTER-SHROUDS are made of a spare hawser, the bight of which is well parcelled: the end is palled round the mast-head between that and the topmast, and seizes as the other shrouds. At each end is turned in a dead-eye, that sets up with a laniard to a spare dead-eye in the channel.

PORT-TACKLES have a span with a single-block, cross-seized in the bight; each end of the span is then thrust through holes in the side of the ship, and clinches, or splices, to a ring-bolt on each side of the port: observe, the port should be close shut, that the span may be of sufficient length. Through the single-block in the span is reeved a runner; in one end of which is spliced an eye, that goes over a hook driven in the side of the beam. The other end of the runner splices, or turns in to an eye, made by one end of the fall spliced round another single-block, which serves as a strap to the same. The other end of the fall reeves through another single-block strap, with an eye that goes over a hook driven into the same side of the beam, and the leading-part of the fall belays round an iron clamp, nailed on the side of the beam.

PORT-TACKLES on the QUARTERS have a span and single-block turned in the bight, as the lower ports, and the ends spliced in the ring-bolts in the ports without side. The fall is spliced round a timber-head, or eye-bolt, in the side, and the leading-part reeves through the block in the span, and is hauled upon by men on the deck.

PUDDENING of MASTS AND YARDS. A small rope, in length twice the diameter of the mast or yard, has an eye spliced in each end, then stretched, and parcelled with worn canvas, woolded round with rope-yarn, tapering towards the ends, and holding a large substance in the middle; then served over with spun-yarn, and sometimes pointed. It has a laniard spliced in one eye, and fixes to the mast or yard, by passing the laniard alternately through the eyes, and stopping the end. When used on masts, they are to sustain the weight of the yards, if an accident happens to the rigging; and, on the yards, to prevent the sheets from chafing the rope-bands, &c.

RELIEVING-TACKLES, used when the tiller-ropes are damaged, have one end made fast to a rope strap, with a thimble on each side of the tiller, and the other end to an eye-bolt in the side.

ROLLING-TACKLES, to main and fore topsail-yards, are hooked to a selvagee or strap round the lower cap, also to a strap or selvagee round the inner quarter of the yard, and is bowled tight by its fall on each side in the top, and belays round the mast.

 

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ROPES. ENTERING-ROPES hang from the upper part of the stantions at the gangways. The upper end is thrust through an eye in the stantion, and is walled and crowned; and diamond-knots are made at about nine inches asunder along the whole length. PASSING-ROPES, which lead round the ship through the eyes in the quarter, waist and forecastle stantions, have one end stopped through the eye of the gangway-stantions, with a wall-knot crowned, and are set up forward with a laniard through an eye-bolt in the knight-heads, and a thimble turned into the end: the same on the quarters. TILLER-ROPE is white rope, first stretched, then doubled and marked in the middle; and there nailed to the middle of the steering-wheel-barrel: seven turns are next taken round the barrel on each side in large ships, and five in smaller; the ends are then passed through a groove on each side the middle of the deck, under the wheel. To prevent wet going down, over each groove is a small box fitted with a sliding top, and a hole just sufficient to admit the rope which traverses backwards and forwards, as the turns of the rope increase or decrease upon the wheel, by the helm being put on either side; sometimes a leather collar is nailed on the top, and surrounds the rope for 3 or 4 inches high. Each end, passing through the holes in the decks, is reeved through vertical sheaves, so fixed in a block, one on each side the midships close up under the deck in the gun-room, as to direct each end into its respective side, where it reeves through a horizontal sheave, fixed in a block at the end of the sweep; from thence it leads back into midships, along a groove made in the back of the sweep, and is facilitated by rollers, fixed vertically in the back of the sweep. Each end is then passed through an eye, on each side of the upper part of a hoop, that is bolted on the fore end of the tiller; the ends are then passed under the sweep, through an eye on each side, in the middle of a hoop, driven on the tiller farther aft: lastly, an iron thimble is turned into each end, with a throat and round seizing, and sets up with a laniard to an eye-bolt, driven in each side of the tiller, farther aft. In large ships it sets up with a gun-tackle-purchase.

When the tiller is worked upon deck, the tiller-rope is stretched, middled, and marked, and placed on the wheel as before: then reeved through a swivel-block, fastened on each side the middle of the deck, under the wheel; and through another that is lashed to an eye-bolt on each side of the ship: then brought into midships, to an eye, on each side of the hoop on the head of the tiller; and is there seized or spliced with a thimble.

RUDDER-PENDENTS hook to the ring, in the end of the rudder-chains; the hook is moused; then stopped to hooks driven in the counter, over the rudder, at the quarters, and one between. A long tackle is hooked to a thimble, spliced in the ends of the pendents, and to an eye-bolt in the mizen-chains, and the fall leads in, through a port, upon the quarter-deck.

SKIATIC-STAY, for hoisting and lowering burdens out, or in, of ships, clinches or makes fast with two half-hitches, and the ends stopt, round the heads of the main and fore masts, with a tackle depending from it over the hatchway.

SPANNING OF BOOMS is performed by passing a rope alternately at angles from one side to the other round the outside boom, spar, or topmast, so as to confine them from rolling about.

SPANNING of RUNNERS is taking several turns round both runners abaft the mast, and frapping the turns.

STERN-LADDERS are made of cable-laid rope thus: double the rope, that it may be long enough to reach the water, nearly, from the upper part of the stern: then splice an eye in each end, or make an eye in the middle, by splicing the ends together, and a seizing. The steps are commonly tree-nails, thrust horizontally through the strands of the rope on each side, sixteen inches asunder, and a score is cut round the middle, for the concluding-line, or middle rope, which is fastened round every step

 

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with a clove-hitch in the score. The ladders are lashed to an eye-bolt, in the upper part of the quarter-piece or stern, one on each side.

STOPPERS. Shroud-stoppers, used to confine a shroud together where injured, are of different lengths and sizes; have a double wall-knot, crowned, and a laniard, made of sennit, at each end. When used, one laniard is passed round the shroud and stopper, with several turns above, and with the laniard the same below, the wound and the end put under the last turn, and jambed. FORE-TACK AND SHEET STOPPERS, for securing the tacks and sheets till belayed, are of hawser-laid rope, about ten feet long, have an eye spliced in one end, the other end opened out, and made selvagee fashion three-fourths the length. In large ships the fore-tacks lead in under the forecastle, and the stopper reeves through the eye round the topsail-sheet-bitts, and clap on the tack, with a round turn under the standing-part, and lead up with several turns in the cuntline, and the end held on. MAIN-TACK-STOPPERS are of cable or hawser-laid rope, about two fathoms long, have a double wall-knot crowned at one end, and a hook and thimble spliced in the other end, that hooks to a ring-bolt in the side, and claps on the tack, with several turns taken round the tack and stopper, with the laniard close under the knot. FOR DECK, DOG, and BIT, &c. STOPPERS, see that part of this work which relates to anchoring, &c.

SWIFTERS. Those for the bars of capsterns are reeved through holes in the extremities of the bars, so as to strain them firmly together like the spokes of a wheel.

TOP-BURTON-TACKLES, to support the yards, and ease the lifts, are sometimes hooked to a selvagee, or strap, round the outer quarter of topsail-yards, and swayed tight by their fall upon deck.

TOPPING-LIFT, to support the topmast-studdingsail-boom in a gale of wind, is a pendent clinched round the middle of the boom, then led up through a block lashed to the topmast-cap; the end is then turned up with a throat and round seizing, and a tackle hooked therein; sets up in the top by its fall. This should be done before the sail is set.

TRAVELLING-BACKSTAYS, used in bad weather to support the fore and main-topmasts, splice into a span, round the topmast, under the parral, and set up in the chains, with a luff-tackle, to an eye-bolt. They travel up and down the topmast occasionally, with tricing-lines, that splice into a thimble, on each side of the span, and through blocks seized to the topmast-trestle-trees, and lead into the top.

WINDING-TACKLE-PENDENT is made fast round the mast-head, with a round turn and two half-hitches. The strap of the fourfold-block is thrust through the eye in the end of the pendent, and a toggle driven through the strap. It is guyed out to the lower yard, to a block securely lashed, that the block may hang over the side. The upper-block is connected by its fall to a treble-block below, and the leading-part goes to the jear-capstan through the deck, or is swayed on by men.

YARD-TACKLES are sometimes carried aft and hooked to eye-bolts in the side, and used to prevent too great a strain on the braces in bad weather.



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