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SAIL-MAKING.


 

The Practice of Sail making with Sailmakers Tools.
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DESCRIPTION AND USE OF SAILS.


THE FOLLOWING DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPERTIES OF SAILS, THE EXPLANATION OF THE TERMS, AND METHOD OF CUTTING OUT AND MAKING THEM, IS FARTHER ELUCIDATED BY AN ACCURATE ENGRAVING OF EACH SAIL PREFIXED TO THE INSTRUCTIONS, AND IT IS PRESUMED IT WILL BE FOUND REPLETE. WITH MUCH USEFUL INFORMATION.


SAILS are made of canvas, of different textures, and are extended on or between the masts, to receive the wind and force the vessel through the water. They are quadrilateral or triangular; and are skirted round with bolt-ropes, as hereafter described. Quadrilateral sails are extended by yards, as the principal sails; by yards and booms, as studding-sails; a gaff, as mizen courses; or by a boom and gaff, as drivers, or boom-mainsails, of brigs, sloops, &c.

Triangular sails are spread by a stay, as staysails; or by a mast, and sometimes by a yard, acting as a kind of gaff, as lateen or shoulder-of-mutton-sails: the foremost leech, or edge, is attached to the yard, mast, or stay, the whole length.

The sails of a ship or vessel of 3 masts are, the courses or lower sails; driver; topsails, next above the courses; topgallant sails, next above the topsails; and the royals above them: beyond the leeches of the main and fore courses, topsails, and topgallant sails, are set the studdingsails; and between the masts, upon the stays, are the staysails.

The courses are the mainsail, foresail, mizen, and spritsail; which are, except the mizen, fixed on their respective yards at right angles with the ship's length; the mizen is bent to a yard or gaff parallel with the ship's length.

The sails of a vessel of two masts are, in a snow, similar to those on the fore and main masts of a ship, except the sail called a trysail, used instead of a mizen, which it resembles; it is extended towards the stern, and is fastened by hoops round a small mast, called a trysail mast, fixed near the aft-side of the main-mast in a block of wood in the quarter deck, at the foot, and attached to the main top at the head.

The sails of a brig with 2 masts are also similar to those on the main and fore masts of a ship, excepting the main sail, which is set in the plane of her keel, and is extended by a gaff at the head and a boom at the foot; the foremost leech being fastened by hoops round the main-mast.

Vessels with one mast, as sloops, cutters, smacks, hoys, &c. have a main-sail abaft the mast, as the brigs; before the mast they have a square sail, or cross-jack; and, above the cross-jack, a small sail, called a save-all topsail; above that is a topsail, called a swallow-tailed topsail, and the next is the topgallant sail. Some large sloops have a royal above the topgallant-sail, and studdingsails beyond the leeches of the square-sail. Before the mast is a foresail, a jib, and a flying jib. Abaft the after leech of the main-sail, in calm weather, is hoisted a ring-tail-sail; over the head of the main-sail a gaff topsail; and over the stern under the boom a water-sail.

 

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BOATS. Some have a main-sail, foresail, and jib, as in sloops; others have spritsails. Some have spritsails, and lateen or settee sails, according to their various uses, the fancy of the owners, or the country to which they belong.

There is an additional part of a sail, called a bonnet: it is laced at the bottom, or foot, of the foresail, and storm main-sails, of some vessels with one mast, in moderate winds. It is made like the foot of the sail it is intended for, and has latchings in the upper part, to correspond with and go through holes in the foot of the sail by which it is fastened.

In quadrilateral sails, the upper edge is called the head; the sides, or skirts, are called leeches and the lower edge is named the foot. If the head is parallel with the foot, the two lower corners are called clues, and the upper corners earings.

In triangular sails, and in quadrilateral ones, where the head is not parallel to the foot, the foremost corner at the foot is called the tack; the after lower corner, the clue; the upper inner corner, the nock; and the upper outer corner, the peek; the foremost perpendicular, or goring edge, the fore leech; and the hindmost, the after leech.

The heads of quadrilateral sails, and the fore leeches or head of triangular sails, are attached to their yards, or gaffs, by a number of small cords, called rope-bands, or by a line, called the lacing.

The heads of quadrilateral sails, when not parallel to the foot, lace to the yard or gaff by a line, reeved spirally through each hole in the head, and round the yard or gaff. The nock and peek are lashed by the earings.

The fore leech of mizen courses, drivers, and fore and aft main-sails, lace to the mast by a line, reeved through the holes in the leech, backwards and forwards, on the foreside of the mast, or to hoops round the mast.

Staysails are extended upon the stays, between the masts, with hanks, or grommets, and are drawn up and down as a curtain slides upon its rod; their lower parts are stretched out by a tack and sheet.

The lower corners of main-sails and foresails of ships are extended by a tack and a sheet: the foremost lower corners of fore and aft sails by a tack, and the after lower corners by a sheet.

The clues of a topsail are drawn out to the extremities of the lower yard by two large ropes, called the topsail sheets; the clues of the topgallant-sails are extended upon the topsail yard-arms by the topgallant sheets; and the clues of the royal-sails are lashed to the topgallant yard-arms.

Studdingsails are set beyond the skirts or leeches of the main-sail, foresail, topsail, and topgallant-sail, of ships, snows, and brigs. Their upper edges, or heads, are extended by yards; their lower ones, by booms run out beyond the extremities of the yards. These sails are set in favourable winds and moderate weather, or in chacing.

All sails derive their names from the mast, yard, boom, or stay, to or upon which they are extended or attached: thus, the principal sail, extended upon the main-mast, is called the main-sail or main course; that upon the main-topmast is termed the main-topsail; that upon the main-topgallant mast is named the main-topgallant sail; and the main-topgallant royal is so called from its being spread across the upper part of the main-topgallant mast. The foresail or fore course is so denominated from the foremast; the fore-topsail from the fore-topmast; the fore-topgallant sail from the foretopgallant-mast; and the fore-topgallant royal from being spread on the upper part of the fore-topgallant mast: the mizen course and driver boom sail from the mizen mast; the mizen topsail from the mizen topmast; the mizen topgallant sail from the mizen topgallant mast; and the mizen topgallant royal from its being spread on the upper part of the mizen-topgallant mast. The main staysail

 

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from the main-staysail-stay; the main-topmast staysail from the main-topmast preventer stay; middle staysail from the middle staysail-stay; and the main-topgallant staysail from the main-topgallant staysail-stay. These staysails are between the main and foremasts.

The staysails between the main and mizen masts are, the mizen staysail, the mizen topmast and sometimes a mizen topgallant sail above the latter.

The staysails, between the foremast and the bowsprit, are the fore staysail, the fore topmast staysail, and jib; (East India ships have two jibs;) there are, besides, two square sails extended by yards under the bowsprit and jib-boom; that under the bowsprit is the spritsail or course, and that under the jib-boom the sprit topsail.

The studdingsails, being extended beyond the different yards of the main and foremasts, are like-wise named, according to their stations, the lower studding-sail, the topmast studding-sail, and the topgallant studdingsail.

The ropes, by which the lower yards and sails are hoisted to their proper heights on the mast, are called the jears. The ropes employed for this purpose to all other sails are called haliards.

The principal sails are expanded by haliards, sheets, and bowlines; and the courses are always stretched out below by a tack and sheet: they are drawn or trussed up together by buntlines, clue-lines, leech-lines, reef-tackles, slab-lines, spilling-lines, and brails.

The courses, topsails, and topgallant-sails, are wheeled about the mast, to suit the various directions of the wind, by braces: the higher studding-sails, and, in general, all the stay and boom sails, are drawn down to be furled or reefed by down-haulers.


The sails of fishing-vessels are generally tanned: lightermen, &c. use the following composition to colour and preserve their sails, viz. horse grease and tar, mixed to a proper consistance, and coloured with red or yellow ochre, with which, when heated, the sails are payed over.

The following method is also much approved, viz. the sail, being spread on the grass, is made thoroughly wet with sea-water, and then payed over, on both sides, with brown or red ochre mixed with sea-water to the consistence of cream, it is then well rubbed over, on both sides, with linseed oil. The sail may be used within 24 hours after being oiled.

The tanning of sails in the royal navy has been tried, but is not approved of.

 

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EXPLANATION OF THE TECHNICAL TERMS RELATIVE TO SAILS, AND DESCRIPTION OF THE TOOLS USED IN SAIL-MAKING.


BAG-REEF. A fourth or lower reef, sometimes used in the royal navy.

BALANCE-REEF. A reef-band that crosses a sail diagonally, and is used to contract it in a storm.

BANDS. Pieces of canvas, from one sixth to a whole breadth, strongly sewed across the sail to strengthen it.

BOLT-ROPE. The rope sewed on the edges of sails to prevent their rending. The bolt-rope on the perpendicular or sloping edges is called the leech-rope; that at the bottom, the foot-rope; and that on the top of the sail, the head-rope.

BONNET. An additional part of a sail, made to fasten with latchings to the foot of the sails of some vessels with one mast, in moderate winds. It is exactly similar to the foot of the sail it is intended for.

BOWLINE. A rope fastened by the bridles to the bowline cringles, on the leech of topsails and other square sails, to keep tight the windward or weather leech of the sail.

BRAILS. Ropes to draw up the foot, lower corner, and the skirts, of mizen-courses, and other large fore and aft sails for furling.

BRIDLES of the bowline. Short ropes, or legs, fastened to the bowline cringles on the leeches of sails.

BUNT. The middle-part of the foot of square sails, and the foremost leech of staysails cut with a nock.

BUNTLINE. A rope fastened to the buntline cringles, on the foot of square sails, to draw them up to their yards.

BUNTLINE CLOTH. The lining sewed up the sail, in the direction of the buntline, to prevent the sail being chafed.

CANVAS. For the royal navy, canvas or sail-cloth is 24 inches wide; and 38 Yards are called a bolt. To distinguish the different qualities, each bolt is numbered, and should weigh as follows; No. 1, 44 lb. No. 2, 41; No. 3, 38; No. 4, 35; No. 5, 32; No. 6, 29; No. 7, 24; and, No. 8, 21 pounds: from No. 1 to 6 is termed double, and above No. 6 single, canvas.

CLUE. The lower corner of a sail, where the clue-rope is spliced, and the sheet fastened.

CLUE-ROPE. A short rope, larger than the bolt-rope on the sail, into which it is spliced, at the lower corners of square sails, and the after corners of staysails and boomsails. It is there formed into a loop, to which the sheets are fastened.

COURSES. The mainsail, foresail, spritsail, and mizen of ships.

CRINGLES. Small holes formed on the bolt-ropes of sails by intertwisting the strand of a rope alternately round itself and through the strands of the bolt-rope, till it assume the shape of a ring. To the cringles the end of a rope is fastened, to haul the sail up to the yard, &c.

 

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DRABLER. An additional part of a sail, laced to the bottom of the bonnet of a square-sail, in Dutch sloops, &c.

DROP of a sail. A term sometimes used to courses and topsails instead of depth.

EARINGS. Small ropes used to extend the upper corners of sails to their yards, or gaffs.

FID. A round tapering pin, made of hard wood, to thrust between the strands of a rope and make a hole to admit the strand of another rope, in splicing.

GASKET, A plaited cord used to fasten the folded parts of a sail to the yard, when furling or reefing.

GORES. Angles cut slopewise at one or both ends of such cloths as widen or increase the depth of a sail.

GROMMET. A small wreath made by splicing together the ends of a short piece of rope or line.

HALIARDS. The ropes or tackle employed to hoist the yards or sails.

HANKS. A sort of wooden rings, formed by the bending of a piece of tough wood, which are confined to the stays by notches cut in the ends.

HEADSTICK. A short round stick with a hole in each end, strongly sewed to the head of some triangular foresails and jibs, to prevent the head of the sail from twisting; the head-rope is thrust through the holes before it it sewed on the sail.

HEAVING-MALLET. A mallet with a small cylindrical head, used as a lever to strain tight the cross stitches and beat them close, when sewing on the bolt-rope.

HOIST. The foremost leeches of staysails and mast-leech of booms sails.

HOLES in sails are made with an instrument, called a stabber or a pegging-awl, and are fenced round by stitching the edge to a small grommet; such are the holes on the head of a sail for the rope-bands or laceing of square sails, and for seizings on sails that bend to hoops and hanks. Holes are likewise made across the sail in the reef-bands; at the clues, for marling on the clue-rope; and at the top brims of topsails, for marling on the foot-rope. Holes, when finished, should be stretched up with a pricker or marline-spike.

HOUSE-LINE. Small line, of 3 threads, used to marl the clue-rope at the clues, and to seize the corners of sails.

LACEING. The rope or line used to confine the heads of sails to their yards or gaffs.

LASHING. A short rope used to confine one object to another, by several turns round it and securing the end.

LATCHINGS. Loops formed on the line that is sewed to the head of a bonnet to connect it with the foot of a sail: these loops are 6 inches asunder and 6 inches long, except the two middle ones, which are 12 inches long, to fasten off with. The loops are alternately reeved through holes in the foot of the sail and through each other, and fasten by the two long loops in the middle with two half-hitches, by loosing of which they unreeve themselves.

LATEEN-SAIL. A triangular sail, bent at the foremost leech to a yard that hoists obliquely to the mast, and is connected with it, at one third the length of the yard.

LEECHES, or skirts. The perpendicular or sloping edges of sails.

LININGS. The canvas sewed on the leeches and middle of a sail to strengthen it.

MARLING. Securing clue-ropes to the clues of sails, by passing a line round the rope and through each marling-hole with a hitch knot.

 

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MARLING-SPIKE. A tapered iron pin, fixed in a short wooden handle, bent towards the point. It is used to open the strands of a rope for splicing, and to strain tight the seizing of clues, &c.

MAST-CLOTH. The lining in the middle on the aft side of topsails, to prevent the sail being chafed by the mast.

NEEDLES have three sides towards the point, and are of various sizes. They bear the following names, viz. large marline, small marline, double bolt-rope, large bolt-rope, small bolt-rope, store, old work, tabling, and flat-seam, needles- The needles should be no larger than is necessary to carry the twine, and the edges should be taken off, that the canvas may not be cut.

NOCK. The foremost upper corner of boomsails, and of staysails cut with a square tack.

PALM. A flat round piece of iron, used instead of a thimble, and chequered in the middle, to hinder the head of the needle from slipping. It is sewed on a piece of leather or canvas, having a hole for the thumb to go through, which encircles the hand so that the iron, when used, is against the palm.

PARCELLING is encircling a rope, after it is wormed, with narrow pieces of old canvas, well tarred, to make a fair surface for the serving.

PEEK. The upper corner of triangular sails, and upper outer corner of fore and aft sails.

PEGGING-AWL. An instrument for making holes with. It has 4 sharp edges towards the point, and is smaller than a stabber.

POINTS. Short pieces of flat plaited cordage, tapering from the middle to the ends, used to reef the square sails.

PRICKER. A small instrument, like a marline-spike, but straight, to make the holes with.

REEF. The portion of sail contained between the reef-bands and nearest edge of the sail, at head or foot.

REEF-BANDS. The bands in which the reef-holes are made, when sewed across the sail.

REEF-HANKS. Short pieces of log-line, or other small line, sewed at certain distances on the reefs of boom-sails.

REEF-TACKLE PENDANT. A rope employed to hoist the reef of a topsail to the yard, to reef the sail.

REELS FOR TWINE are short cylindrical pieces of wood, having the sides hollowed and a hole bored through the middle. A BENCH-REEL is similar to a spinning-wheel, and is used to expedite winding the twine from the skains to the twine-reel. A YARN-REEL is a circular board, nailed in the middle to a piece of oak, 4 inches square and 16 inches long, and is used to wind spunyarn on; through the centre is bored a hole by which it turns round a bolt, as on an axis.

RING-TAIL-SAIL. A small sail, extended, by a small mast and a boom, over the stern. A boat's main-sail is generally made to answer both purposes.

ROACH-LEECH. A term signifying the curve on the mast-leech of some fore and aft sails, &c.

ROPE-BANDS. Short pieces of plaited cordage, used to fasten the head of a sail to its yard.

RUBBER. A small iron instrument, in a wooden handle, to rub down or flatten the seams.

SAIL-HOOK. A small iron hook, with an eye in one end, to which a cord is spliced: it is used to confine the work, while sewing, by hooking on the canvas, the cord being fastened to some convenient place.

SEAMS. The two edges of canvas where laid over each other other and sewed down.

SEIZING. Joining one part of a rope to another with several round and cross-turns of small cord or line.

 

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SELVAGE. The edges of cloth as finished in weaving.

SERVING is winding small line or spunyarn tightly round a rope by a mallet, to preserve it from wet, &c. The line or spunyarn being wound up in a ball, two or more turns are taken from it round the rope, confining the end under the turns; the mallet is then placed on the rope, and 2 or more yarns are passed round the rope and mallet, and round the handle, then, turning the mallet (whilst another person passes the ball round the rope,) it leaves the spunyarn on the rope, and draws it tight.

SERVING-MALLET. A wooden instrument, composed of a short cylindrical head, with a handle through its centre. Along the upper surface of the head is cut a circular groove, to fit the convexity of the rope.

SERVING-BOARD A small piece of board, 7 or 8 inches long and 3 inches broad, tapering to one end as a handle. It has a small notch or groove cut in the middle of the broad end, and one or two on the sides, in which the spunyarn is twisted. Its use is the same as the mallet, but for small rope only.

SHEET. A rope to spread the foot of a sail, attached to the clues of square sails, and the after clue of other sails, except studdingsails: on them it is fastened to the inner clue.

SHOULDER-OF-MUTTON-SAIL is triangular, similar to the lateen sail, but is attached to a mast instead of a yard.

SLACK-CLOTH. A certain quantity of cloth, allowed to be gradually gathered up, in sewing on the bolt-rope to the sail, more than the length of bolt-rope; otherwise the rope, by stretching in the wearing, might occasion the sail to split.

SLIDING-GUNTER-SAIL. A triangular sail, used in boats, bent at its foremost leech to hoops or grommets that slide on the lower mast: the peek or head is attached to a small topmast, that slides up, in the direction of the lower-mast, through two hoops fixed, at its head, about three feet asunder. When the topmast is lowered, the sail furls close up to the lower mast.

SPLICE. Two ends of a rope joined neatly together, by opening the strands and placing them equally in each other, and thrusting the ends through the intervals of the opposite strands alternately, the opening being previously made with a fid or marline-spike.

SPUNYARN. Three or four yarns of half-worn rope, tarred and twisted together by a winch or whirls.

STABBER. An instrument similar to a pricker, only being triangular instead of square.

STAY. A large rope employed to sustain the mast, by extending from its upper part towards the fore part of the ship, where it is securely fastened.

STAY-HOLES. Holes made through staysails, at certain distances along the hoist, through which they are seized to the hanks on the stay.

STUCK. The term used for being stitched.

TABLING. A broad hem made on the skirts of sails, by turning the edge over and sewing it down. It is to strengthen the sail for sewing on the bolt-rope.

TABLED. The edges turned over and sewed down.

TACK. A rope used to confine the clues of the mainsail and foresail forward occasionally in a fixed position, and also to confine the foremost lower corners of staysails, boomsails, and foresails of hoops; and the outer lower corners of studdingsails.

TACK OF A SAIL. That place to which the tack is fastened.

 

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THIMBLE. An iron ring, having a groove formed in its outer circumference. Thimbles are fixed in the cringles of sails where iron hooks are used, as the hook of a tackle, &c.

THUMB-STALL. A ferrule, made of iron, horn, or leather, with the edges turned up, to receive the thread in sewing. It is worn on the thumb to tighten the stitches.

TOP-BRIM. A space in the middle of the foot of a topsail, containing one-fifth of the number of its cloths. It is so called from its situation, being near the fore part of the top, or plat-form on the mast, when the sail is extended.

TOP-LINING. The lining sewed to the aftside of topsails, to preserve the sail from the chafing of the top.

TWINE is of two sorts, extra and ordinary; the extra is for seaming, and runs 360 fathoms to the pound; the ordinary is used to sew on the bolt-rope, and runs 200 fathoms to the pound. Twine for the navy is of three threads.

WINCH, to make or twist spunyarn with, is made of 8 spokes, 4 at each end, and 4 wooden pins 15 inches long driven through the end of them. Through the centre of the spokes is bored a hole for an iron bolt to pass through, that serves for an axis. The motion is given to the winch by the hand; on the edges of the spokes is a small hook to stop the yarn when twisting, after which the spunyarn is wound round the body of the winch.

WHIRLS. Short wires with a hook at one end, going through a hole in a cylindrical piece of wood; the wood in which they turn is hollowed on the outside to receive a strap of canvas or leather three of these whirls are retained by notches cut on the edge of a semi-circular rib of wood hollowed on the back, 3 inches square, and 10 inches long, fastened against an upright fixed by a tenon into a large block of wood: a spoke wheel, about 3 feet diameter, turns on a large pin, or axis, driven into the middle of the upright; and round this wheel and the woods of the whirls passes a tight canvas or leather strap; so that turning the spoke-wheel puts the whirls in motion, and the yarns, being hung to the hooks, are twisted together.

WORMING is winding small lines or spunyarn along the cuntline of a rope, to produce a fair surface for serving.

 

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GENERAL RULES AND DIRECTIONS FOR SAIL-MAKING.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR CUTTING OUT SAILS.

SAILS are cut out cloth by cloth. The width is governed by the length of the yard, gaff, boom, or stay; the depth by the heighth of the mast. The width and depth being given, find the number of cloths the width requires, allowing for seams, tabling on the leeches, and slack cloth; and, in the depth, allow for tabling on the head and foot. For sails cut square on the head and foot, with gores only on the leeches, as some topsails, &c. the cloths on the head, between the leeches, are cut square to the depth; and the gores on the leeches are found by dividing the depth of the sail by the number of cloths gored, which gives the length of each gore. The gore is set down from a square with the opposite selvage, and, the canvas being cut diagonally, the longest gored side of one cloth makes the shortest side of the next; consequently, the first gore being known, the rest are cut by it.

For the length of gores corresponding to the depth on the selvage, see the Table of Gores annexed to these directions.

In the leeches of topsails cut hollow, the upper gores are longer than the lower ones; and, in sails cut with a roach leech, the lower gores are longer than the upper ones. This must be regulated by judgment, and care taken that the whole of the gores do not exceed the depth of the leech. Or, by drawing on paper the gored side of the sail, and delineating the breadth of every cloth by a convenient scale of equal parts of an inch to a foot, the length of every gore may be found with precision. In the subjoined plates of sails, the gore is marked on every cloth.

Sails, gored with a sweep on the head or the foot, or on both, have the depth of their gores marked on the selvage, from the square of the given depth on each cloth, and are cut as above; the longest selvage of one serving to measure the shortest selvage of the next, beginning with the first gored cloth next the middle, in some sails, and the first cloth next the mast leech, in others.

For those gores that are irregular no strict rule can be given; they can only be determined by the judgment of the sail-maker, or by a drawing.

In the royal navy, mizen topsails are cut with three quarters of a yard hollow in the foot; but, in the merchant-service, top and topgallant sails are cut with more or less hollow in the foot.

Flying jibs are cut with a roach-curve on the stay, and a three-inch gore in each cloth, shortening from the tack to the clue. Lower studding-sails are cut with square leeches, and topmast and topgallant-mast studdingsails with goring leeches.

For the cutting of all other sails, we refer to the particular description of each sail, and to the annexed Tables of Dimensions.

The length of reef and middle bands is governed by the width of the sail at their respective places; the leech-linings, buntline-cloths, top-linings, mast-cloths, and corner-pieces, are cut agreeably to the depth of the sail; each cloth and every article should be properly marked with charcoal, to prevent confusion or mistake.

 

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Sails that have bonnets are cut out the whole depth of the sail and bonnet included, allowing enough for the tablings on the foot of the sail and head and foot of the bonnet. The bonnet is cut off after the sail is sewed together. If a drabler is required, it is allowed for in the cutting out the same as the bonnet.

INSTRUCTIONS FOR SAIL-MAKING.

SEAMS. Sails have a double flat seam, and should be sewed with the best English-made twine of three threads, spun 360 fathoms to the pound, and have from one hundred and eight to one hundred and sixteen stitches in every yard in length.

The twine for large sails, in the royal navy, is waxed by hand, with genuine bees-wax, mixed with one sixth part of clear turpentine; and, for small sails, in a mixture made with bees wax, 4 1b; hogs lard, 5 lb; and clear turpentine, 1 lb. In the merchant-service, the twine is dipped in tar, softened with a proper proportion of oil.

It is the erroneous practice of some sail-makers not to sew the seams any farther than where the edge is creased down for the tabling; but all sails should be sewed quite home to the end, and, when finished, should be well rubbed down with a rubber.

In the merchant-service, seams are sometimes made broader at the foot than at the head, being stronger.

Broad seams are not allowed to be made on courses, in the royal navy, but goring leeches are adopted in lieu of them. Boom-mainsails and the sails of sloops generally have the seams broader at the foot than at the head.

The seams of courses and topsails are stuck or hitched up, in the middle of the seams, along the whole length, with double seaming-twine; and have from 68 to 72 stitches in a yard. In the merchant-service, it is common to stick the seams with two rows of stitches, when the sail is half worn, as they will then last till the sail is worn out.

The breadth of the seams of courses, topsails, and other sails, in the royal navy, to be as follow, viz. courses and topsails, for 50 gun ships and upwards, one inch and a half, and, for 44 gun ships and under, one inch and a quarter, at head and foot: all other sails, one inch at head and foot.

TABLINGS. The tablings of all sails are to be of a proportionable breadth to the size of the sail, and sewed at the edge, with 68 to 72 stitches in a yard. Those for the heads of main and fore courses to be four to six inches wide; for sprit courses and mizens, drivers, and other boom-sails, 3 to 4 inches wide; for topsails, 3 inches to 4 inches and a half; topgallant and sprit topsails, 3 inches; royal sails, 2 inches and a half; jib and other staysails, 3 inches to 4 inches and a half, on the stay or hoist; and, for studding-sails, 3 inches to 4 inches on the head.

Tablings on the foot and leeches of main and fore courses to be 3 inches to 5 inches broad; sprit course and topsails, 3 inches; topgallant and sprit topsails, 2 inches and a half; royals, 2 inches: fore leeches of mizen, driver, and other boomsails, 3 inches and a half to 4 inches; after leech, 3 inches; and on the foot 2 or 3 inches.

Tablings on the after leech of jibs and other staysails to be from 2 to 3 inches broad; and, on the foot, 2 to 2 inches and a half: on studding-sail leeches one inch and a half to two inches and a half; and, on the foot, from one to two inches.

LININGS. Main and fore courses are lined on the leeches, from clue to earing, with one cloth, seamed on, and stuck, or stitched, in the middle; and have a middle-band half-way between the lower reef-band and the foot; also four buntline-cloths, at equal distances between the leeches, the upper-end of which

 

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are carried under the middle-band, that the lower side of the band may be tabled upon, or sewed over, the end of the buntline-pieces. They have likewise two reef-bands; each, in breadth, one third of the breadth of the canvas; the upper one is one sixth of the depth of the sail from the head, and the lower band is at the same distance from the upper one; the ends go four inches under the leech linings, which are seamed over the reef-bands.

All linings are seamed on, and are stuck, with 68 to 72 stitches in a yard.

Main, fore, and mizen, topsails have leech linings, mast and top linings, buntline-cloths, middle bands and reef bands. The leech linings are made of one breadth of cloth, so cut and sewed as to be half a cloth broad at the head, and a cloth and a half broad at the foot; the piece cut out being half the breadth of the cloth at one end, and tapering to a point at the other.

The middle-bands are put on half-way between the lower reef and foot; the buntline-cloths join the top-linings; and the buntline-cloths and top-linings are carried up to the lower side of the middle band, which is tabled on them.

The mast-lining is of two cloths, and extends from the foot of the sail to the lower reef, to receive the beat or chafe of the mast.

The middle-band is made of one breadth of canvas, of the same number as the toplining. It is first folded and rubbed down, to make a crease at one third of the breadth; then tabled on the selvage, and stuck along the crease; then turned down, and tabled and stuck through both the double and single parts, with 68 to 72 stitches in a yard.

It is the opinion of many, that middle-bands should not be put on until the sail is half worn.

Main and fore topsails have three and sometimes four reef-bands from leech to leech, over the leech linings; the upper one is one eighth of the depth of the sail from the head, and they are the same distance asunder, in the royal navy, but more in the merchant-service. The reef-bands are each of half a breadth of canvas, put on double; the first side is stuck twice, and the fast turned over so that the reef-holes may be worked upon the double part of the band, which is also stuck with 68 to 72 stitches in a yard.

The toplining of topsails is of canvas, No. 6 or 7. The other linings of this, and all the linings of other sails, should be of the same quality as the sails to which they belong.

Top-linings and mast-cloths are put on the aftside, and all other linings on the fore-side, of sails.

Mizens are lined with one breadth of cloth from the clue five yards up the leech, and have a reef-band sewed on, in the same manner as on other sails, at one fifth the depth of the sail from the foot; they have also a nock-piece and a peek-piece, one cut out of the other so that each contains one yard.

Mizen topsails, of 50 gun ships and upwards, have three reefs, the upper one is one eighth of the depth of the sail from the head, and the reefs are at the same distance asunder. Mizen topsails, of ships of 44 guns and under, have two reefs one seventh part of the depth of the sail asunder, the upper one being at the same distance from the head.

Main and main top studding-sails have each one reef, at one eighth of the depth of the sail from the head.

Reef-bands should not be put on until the sail is sewed up, a contrary practice being very erroneous.

Lower staysails, fore top and main top staysails, and flying jibs, have clue-pieces two yards long.

Square tack-staysails have half a breadth of cloth at the fore part, with a clue-piece containing two yards, and a peek-piece, containing one yard.

HOLES are made by an instrument called a pegging awl, or a stabber, and are fenced round by stitching the edge to a small grommet, made with log or other line; when finished, they should be well stretched or rounded up by a pricker or a marline-spike.

 

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Sails have two holes in each cloth, at the heads and reefs of courses, topsails, and other square sails; one hole in every yard in the stay of flying jibs; and one in every three quarters of a yard in the stays of square tack and other staysails.

Reef and head holes of large sails have grommets of 12-thread line, worked round with 18 to 21 stitches; smaller sails have grommets of 9-thread line, with 16 to 18 stitches, or as many as shall cover the line, and smaller holes in proportion.

The holes, for marling the clues of sails and the top-brims of topsails, have grommets of log-line, and should have from 9 to 11 stitches; twelve holes are worked in each cloth.

Main courses have marling-holes from the clue to the lower bow-line cringle up the leech; and from the clue to the first buntline-cringle on the foot. Fore-courses have marling-holes one-eighth of the depth of the sail up the leech, and from the clue to the first buntline cringle at the foot. Main and fore topsails have marling-holes three feet each way from the clue, and at the top-brims. Spritsails, mizen topsails, lower staysails, main and fore top staysails, and jibs, have marling-holes two feet each way from the clues. All other sails are sewed home to the clues.

Marling-holes of courses are at three fourths of the depth of the tablings at the clues from the rope; and those of topsails are at half the depth of the tablings at the clues, and top-brim, from the rope.

BOLT ROPE should be well made, of fine yarn, spun from the best Riga rhine hemp well topt, and sewed on with good English-made twine of three threads, spun 200 fathom to the pound; the twine in the royal navy is dipped in a composition made with bees-wax, 4 lb; hogs lard, 5 lb; and clear turpentine one pound; and, in the merchant-service, in tar softened with oil.

THE NUMBER OF YARNS IN EACH STRAND OF BOLT-ROPES, AND THREADS FOR SEWING THEM ON, REQUIRED BY GOVERNMENT.
Size of the
rope in
inches.
Threads
in each
strand.
Threads to sew
them on.
Size of the
rope in
inches
Threads
in each
strand.
Threads to sew
them on.
Ordinary. Extra. Ordinary. Extra.
6 98 10 2 3 1/4 29 4 2
5 3/4 90 10 0 3 25 4 2
5 1/2 83 10 0 2 3/4 21 4 0
5 1/4 75 8 2 2 1/2 17 4 0
5 68 8 2 2 1/4 14 2 2
4 3/4 62 8 0 2 11 2 2
4 1/2 56 8 0 1 3/4 9 2 0
4 1/4 50 6 2 1 1/2 7 2 0
4 44 6 2 1 1/4 5 2 0
3 3/4 39 6 0 1 3 2 0
3 1/2 34 6 0 - - - -

Bolt-ropes of courses, topsails, and all other sails, should be neatly sewed on through every cuntline of the rope; and, to avoid stretching, the rope must be kept tightly twisted while sewing on, and care taken that neither too much nor too little slack is taken in: they are to be cross stitched at the leeches, every 12 inches in length; at every seam, and in the middle of every cloth at the foot, with three cross-stitches: four cross-stitches should be taken at all beginnings and fastenings off; the first stitch given twice, and the last three times. Small sails have two cross-stitches at every seam, and three at every fastening off.

Annexed is a table of the sixes of bolt-ropes for every sail.

On main and fore courses two inches slack cloth should be allowed in the head and foot, and one inch and a half in the leeches, in every yard in length.

 

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Topsails are allowed 3 inches slack in every cloth in the foot, and one inch and a half in every yard in the leech, and 2 inches in every cloth left open in the top-brim.

Mizen courses have two inches slack in every yard in the foremost leech, but none in the after leech or foot.

Spritsail courses have no slack cloth.

Jibs have four inches slack in every yard in the stay, one inch in every cloth in the foot, and none in the leech.

Staysails have 3 inches slack in every yard in the stay, one inch in every cloth in the foot, but none in the leech.

Topgallant-sails have two inches slack in every cloth in the foot, and one inch in every yard in the leech.

Studding-sails have an inch and a half slack in every yard in goring leeches, but no slack in square leeches, and one inch in every cloth in the head and foot.

Bolt-ropes should be stoved in a stove by the heat of a flue, and not in a baker's oven or a stovetub; and tarred in the best Stockholm tar. The flexibility of them should be always considered, in taking in the slack, which must rest on the judgment of the sail-maker.

The clues and top-brims should be wormed while the bolt-rope is sewing to the sail, and before both parts are confined.

Fourteen turns or twists of the strands in the length of the clue rope are left at the lower corners of all sails for the clues, which are wormed with sizeable spunyarn, served, marled, and seized. The clue-ropes of main courses extend, and are marled, from the clue to the lower bowline-cringle up the leech, and to the first buntline-cringle on the foot; on fore-courses one-eighth of the depth of the sail up the leech and to the first buntline-cringle at the foot: the clue-ropes of main and fore top-sails extend 3 feet each way on the leech and foot: and spritsails, mizen topsails, lower staysails, main and fore top staysails, and jibs, have the clue-rope 2 feet each way from the clue.

Earing-cringles are made of an additional length (of 14 twists or turns) of the leech-rope left at the head of the sail, which, being turned back, forms the cringle by splicing its end into the leech-rope and cross-stitching the whole of the splice; the first stitch to be given twice, and the last stitch 3 times.

Cringles should be made of the strands of new bolt-rope, half an inch smaller than the bolt-rope on the sail.

Splices are made by opening the ends of two ropes, and placing the strands between each other; openings being made in the untwisted part of the rope nearest the end with a marline spike, the strands are thrust through them; and the large ends are regularly tapered from the middle by cutting away some of the yarns every time they are thrust through. The small strands, as those of the foot or leech rope, are stuck twice through the openings made in the large rope; and the large strands are stuck 3 times through the leech or foot rope. The middle strand of the taper, being the longest, is stuck in last, and once more than the others. All splices are cross-stitched as far as they run.

Reef and reef-tackle pendant cringles are stuck through holes made in the tablings, and the lower ends are put through the bolt-rope once more than the upper ends, being more liable to be drawn out.

The openings of bowline and buntline cringles are at the distance of four turns or twists of the strands in the bolt-rope asunder, and the ends are first stuck in an opening, made with a marline spike, under two strands of the bolt-rope; then, passing over the next, they are stuck under one strand; and again

 

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passing over another, they are finally stuck under the next. The ends of the buntline cringles, next the service of the clues of courses, should be left long enough to be worked under the service, to meet or reach the ends of the clue rope. (See plate.)

BONNETS.

Bonnets have a head-tabling, to which a line that forms the latchings is sewed in bights, which are about 6 inches asunder; the leeches and foot are tabled, &c. similar to the foot of the sail the bonnet is intended for.


RULES FOR ASCERTAINING THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS, TWENTY-FOUR INCHES WIDE, CONTAINED IN THE DIFFERENT SAILS.


MAIN AND FORE COURSES, TOPSAILS, TOPGALLANT-SAILS, AND ROYALS.

Add the number of cloths in the head and foot together, and halve them, to make them square; then multiply the number of squared cloths by the depth of the sail, and add to that the additional canvas contained in the foot-gores, linings, bands, and pieces.

MIZEN COURSE.

Add the depth of the fore and after leech together, and halve it for a medium depth; then multiply the number of cloths by the same; and add to that the additional canvas contained in the foot-gores, linings, bands, and pieces.

MAIN -STAYSAILS, FORE STAYSAILS, JIBS, FORESAILS, AND LATEEN SAILS.

Halve the number of cloths, and multiply them by the depth of the leech; and add to that the additional canvas contained in the foot-gores, linings, bands, and pieces.

MIZEN STAYSAILS, MAIN-TOPMAST-STAYSAILS, MIDDLE STAYSAILS, MIZEN-TOPMAST-STAYSAILS, AND MAIN-TOPGALLANT-STAYSAILS.

Add the depth of the tack to the depth of the after leech, and halve them for a medium depth: add the number of cloths in the head and foot together, and halve them, to reduce them square; then multiply the number of squared cloths by the medium depth; and add to that the additional canvas contained in the foot-gores, linings, bands, and pieces.

LOWER STUDDING-SAILS, SPRIT-COURSES, CROSS-JACK, AND OTHER SQUARE-SAILS.

Multiply the number of cloths by the depth of the sail, and add the additional canvas contained in the foot-gores, linings, bands, and pieces.

DRIVER SAILS, BOOMSAILS, SETTEE, LUG, AND SPRITSAILS, GAFF-TOPSAILS, AND RING-TAIL-SAILS.

Add the depth of the fore and after leech together, and halve them for a medium depth; add the cloths in the head and foot of the sail together, and halve them to reduce them square. Then multiply the number of squared cloths by the medium depth, and add the additional canvas contained in the foot-gores, linings, bands, and pieces.

 

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RULES FOR FINDING THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THE DIFFERENT GORES.


HOLLOW FOOT-GORES OF MAIN AND FORE COURSES, &c.

Add the several gores together, and multiply by half the number of cloths that are gored, then divide by 36, the number of inches in a yard.

FOOT-GORES OF MIZEN-COURSES.

The number of cloths in the sail must be multiplied by the additional length that the square cloth in the middle is more than those at the tack and clue; then, the gores to the tack and clue being subtracted, the remainder is the answer.

GORES OF TRIANGULAR SAILS, STAYSAILS, &c.

The depth of the gores on the stay of triangular sails is found by dividing the depth of the leech by the number of cloths. The gores of quadrilateral staysails, or those with a bunt, are found by subtracting the depth of the bunt from the depth of the leech, and dividing the remainder by the number of cloths in the sail.

FOOT-GORES OF DRIVERS AND OTHER BOOMSAILS.

The gores from where they begin to the mast-leech must be added together, and multiplied by half the number of cloths in the foot; then, the clue-gores being subtracted, the remainder is the answer, as nearly as can be found by any rule in use.

 

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IN describing each sail separately, the necessity of many repetitions is obviated by the reader's referring to the preceding general instructions for the different operations; and, though the engravings of the sails are in general for a twenty gunship, they will, with the directions, be found to answer for all classes of ships in the Royal-Navy and Merchant service.

MAIN-COURSE.

This sail is quadrilateral, square on the head, and made of canvas No. 1 or 2. It bends at the head to the main-yard, which hangs to the mast at right-angles with the ship's length, and parallel to the deck. This sail extends within 18 inches of the cleats on the yard-arms, and drops to clear the foot from the boat upon the booms.

One cloth is gored on each leech; and the gore on the foot is of one inch per cloth, beginning at two cloths within the nearest buntline cringle, and increasing to the clues. Sometimes, in the merchant-service, two cloths are gored on the leeches, and the gore on the foot is 2 inches per cloth.

This sail has two reef-bands, of one-third the breadth of a cloth: the upper reef-band is at one- sixth of the depth of the sail from the head, and the lower reef-band is at the same distance from the upper one. It has also a middle-band, of one breadth of cloth, half-way between the lower reef-band and the foot, and linings of one breadth of cloth from the clue to the earing on the leeches; likewise four buntline-cloths, at equal distances asunder, extending from the foot to the middle-band.

A middle-band is seldom used, in the merchant service, and the buntline-cloths run up one quarter of the depth of the sail: when used, they are generally put on when the sail is half worn.

Two reef-cringles are made on each leech, one at each reef-band; three bowline-cringles are made at equal distances between the lower reef-cringle and the clue; and buntline cringles are made on the foot, one at the end of each buntline cloth.

In sewing on the bolt-rope, two inches slack are taken up in every cloth, in the head and foot, and one inch and a half in every yard in the leeches.

The marling-holes extend from the clue to the lower bowline cringle on the leech, and to the first buntline cringle at the foot: The clue is wormed with 3/4 of an inch ratline, parcelled with old canvas, well tarred, and served with spunyarn, it is then marled to the sail with marline or house-line, and seized with several turns of inch-line, strained tight with three cross-turns.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL.

Add the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the product, to make it square; then multiply by the depth, and add the quantity in the gores, linings, bands, and pieces.

To find the quantity in the foot gores, add together the number of inches gored on each cloth on one side of the sail, and multiply the product by the number of gored cloths.

EXAMPLES.

29 cloths in the head.
31 cloths in the foot.
--
1/2) 60
--
30 square cloths.
10 yards deep.
__
300 yards in the sail
11 1/4 foot gores.
22 leech linings
13 buntline cloths.
11 1/4 reef bands
18 middle band.
--
Total 376 yards for a ship of 20 guns
No. of gored cloths on one side of the sail.
1
2
3
4
5 No. of inches in the gore on each cloth
6
7
8
9
--
45 inches
9 gored cloths.
--
405 inches, or 11 yards & 1/4 in the foot gores.
 

A 20 Gunships Main Course
Scale 1/8 of an Inch to a Foot
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A 20 Gunships Fore Course
Scale 1/8 of an Inch to a Foot
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FORE-COURSE.

This sail is quadrilateral, square on the head, and made of canvas No. 1 or 2. It is bent, at the head, to the fore-yard, which hangs to the fore-mast at right angles with the ship's length, and parallel to the deck. This sail extends within 18 inches of the cleats on the yard-arms, and drops to the main-stay at the foot.

One cloth is gored on each leech, and a gore is made on the foot, to drop the clue, 5 to 6 inches per cloth, beginning at two cloths within the nearest buntline-cringle to the clues. Sometimes, two cloths are gored on each leech, in the merchant-service.

Two reef-bands, of one-third the breadth of a cloth, are put on at one-sixth of the depth of the sail asunder, the upper one being at that distance from the head: a middle-band, of one breadth of cloth, is put on half way between the lower reef-band and the foot: the linings on the leeches are of one breadth of cloth, and extend from the clue to the earing: and four buntline-cloths, at equal distances asunder, on the foot, are carried up to the middle-band. In the merchant-service, middle bands are seldom used, and the buntline-cloths run up one quarter of the depth of the sail.

Marling-holes are made in the tabling from the clue to the nearest buntline-cringle on the foot, and one-eighth of the depth of the sail up the leech. They are turned on the contrary side to the roping, in fixing the sail.

Two reef-cringles are made on the leeches, one at the end of each reef-band; as also are two bowline-cringles, the upper bowline-cringle is made in the middle of the leech, and the lower one equally distant from the upper one and the clue: a buntline-cringle is also made at the end of each buntline-cloth on the foot. The ends of the buntline-cringles next the clues should be left long enough to be worked under the service and meet the ends of the clue-rope.

In sewing on the bolt-rope, two inches of slack-cloth should be taken up in every cloth, in the head and foot, and one inch and a half in every yard in the leeches.

The clue is wormed with spunyarn, parcelled with slips of tarred canvas; served with 3 or 4 yarn spunyarn, marled on with marline or house-line, and seized with several turns of inch-line, strained tight with three cross-turns.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL.

Add the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the product, to make it square; then multiply by the depth, and add the quantity in the gores, linings, bands, and pieces.

To find the quantity in the foot gores, add together the number of inches gored on each cloth on one side of the sail, and multiply the product by the number of gored cloths.

EXAMPLES.

26 cloths in the head.
25 cloths in the foot.
1/2) 51
25 1/2 square cloths.
9 yards deep.
--
229 1/2 yards in the sail.
7 1/4 foot-gores.
20 leech linings.
12 buntline cloths.
23 1/2 bands.
--
Total 292 1/4 yards for a ship of 20 guns.
No. of gored cloths in one side of the foot.
1
2
3
4 No. of inches in the gore on each cloth.
6
7
12
--
37 inches
7 No. of of gored cloths
--
259 inches, or 7 yards 1/4 in the foot gore, nearly.
 

100
 

MIZEN-COURSE.

This sail is quadrilateral, and made of canvas, No. 2 or 3. The head is bent to the mizen yard or gaff, and extends within 9 inches of the cleats. The fore-leech is attached to the mizen-mast within 6 or 7 feet of the deck, so that it hangs fore and aft in the plane of the ship's keel.

The head is cut with a gore of 16 to 22 inches per cloth, agreeable to the peek: the foot is gored one-inch per cloth, leaving two cloths square in the middle. One cloth on the mast-leech is sometimes gored in the navy, and sometimes two cloths in the merchant-service.

This sail has a reef-band, 6 or 8 inches broad, at one-fifth of the depth of the mast-leech from the foot. The after leech is lined from the clue with one breadth of cloth 5 yards in length, and the nock and peek with pieces so cut from each other that each contains one yard.

One cringle is made on each leech at the ends of the reef-band; and one at the distance of every three-quarters of a yard on the mast-leech; or sometimes holes are worked in the tabling of the mast-leech: a cringle is also made 5 yards from the clue on the after leech for the throat-brails.

Two inches of slack-cloth in every yard should be taken up in sewing the bolt-rope on the mast-leech, but none in the foot or after-leech. The marling-holes extend two feet each way from the clue; the clue is seized with three-quarter line, and is left 9 inches long from the seizing.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL.

Add the depth of the fore and after-leech, and take the product for a medium depth; multiply the medium depth by the number of cloths, and add the quantity of canvas in the foot-gores, pieces, and reef band.

To find the quantity in the fore-gores. Multiply the number of cloths by the depth the square cloths its the middle are more than those at the tack; from the product subtract the gores from the square cloths to the tack and clue.

EXAMPLE.

13 1/2 yards, depth of the after-leech.
8 yards, depth of the mast-leech.
--
1/2) 21 1/2
--
10 1/4 medium depth.
10 number of cloths.
--
107 1/2 yards in the sail.
2 reef-band.
7 pieces.
2 1/4 foot-gores.
--
Total 118 1/4 yards, for a ship of 20 guns.
Example for the gores.
10 number of cloths.
10 inches. Depth of the square cloths below the depth at the tack_
--
100
20 inches. Gores from the tack and clue,
--
80 inches or 2 yards 1/4 nearly.
 

A 20 Gunships Mizen Course
Scale 1/8 of an Inch to a Foot
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A 20 Gunships Main Topmast
Scale 1/8 of an Inch to a Foot
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MAIN-TOPSAIL.

This sail is quadrilateral, square on the head and foot, in the navy, and made of canvas, No. 2 or 3: it is bent at the head to the main-topsail yard, which hangs to the main top-mast at right angles with the ship's length, and parallel to the main-yard: the sail extends within 18 inches of the cleats on the yard-arms, and drops to the main-yard, when its own yard is hoisted to the hounds.

The cloths on the leeches are gored sufficiently for the foot to spread the cleats on the main-yard.

This sail has three or four reef-bands, put on at one-eighth of the depth of the sail asunder, the upper one being at that distance from the head. A middle-band is put on half-way between the lower reef-band and the foot; and the leeches are lined from clue to earing with one cloth, so cut, as, when put on, to be half a cloth broad at the head, and a cloth and a half broad at the foot. This sail has also a top-lining on the aft-side, of canvas, No. 6 or 7, which covers one-fifth of the cloths in the foot.

Two mast-cloths are put on in the middle of the sail, on the aft-side, between the middle-band, and lower reef band, and buntline-cloths are put on the fore-side of the sail, one on each side of the top-lining, which have the ends carried up under the middle-band.

One reef-cringle is made on the leeches at the end of each reef-band, and a reef-tackle-pendent-cringle between the lower reef and upper bowline-cringles: below these are four bowline-cringles; the upper one is on the middle of the leech, and the other three are equally distant from each other between the upper one and the clue. One buntline-cringle is made in the middle of each bunt-line cloth at the foot.

Three inches of slack-cloth are taken up in sewing on the bolt-rope in every cloth in the head and foot; 2 inches are allowed for every cloth left open in the top-brim; and one inch and a half is taken up in every yard in the leeches.

The bolt-rope against the top-brim is wormed, parcelled, &c. as the clues, and is marled to the sail. The marling-holes extend 3 feet each way from the clue, and along the breadth of the top-lining at the top-brim.

In the merchant-service, the foot is gored from 2 to 4 inches per cloth, one-third of the breadth of the foot from the clues; the leech-linings are but 9 inches broad at the head, and 15 inches broad at the foot; the toplining and buntline-cloths cover one third of the cloths in the foot, and are carried up one-third of the depth of the sail; the buntline-cloths are half a yard shorter than the toplining; and the leeches have only three bowline-cringles.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL.

Add the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the product to make it square; then multiply by the depth, and add the quantity in the linings and bands.

EXAMPLE

19 1/2 cloths in the head.
30 cloths in the foot.
--
1/2) 49 1/2
--
24 3/4 square cloths.
13 1/4 yards deep.
--
327 1/4 yards in the sail.
28 leech linings.
32 3/4 top linings and mast-cloths.
8 3/4 buntline-cloths.
34 1/2 reef and middle band.
--
Total 431 3/8 yards for a ship of 20 guns.
 

102
 

FORE-TOPSAIL.

This sail is quadrilateral, square on the head and foot in the royal navy, and made of canvas No. 2 or 3. The head is bent to the fore-topsail-yard, and it hangs to the main-mast at right-angles with the ship's length, and parallel to the fore-yard, extending, at the head, within 18 inches of the cleats on the yard-arms.

The cloths on each leech are gored sufficiently for the foot to spread the length of the fore-yard. Sometimes, in the merchant-service the foot is gored 2 to 4 inches per cloth, from one-third of the breadth of the foot to the clues.

One reef-cringle is made at the end of each reef-band, and a reef-pendent-cringle between the lower reef and upper bowline-cringles. The reef and reef-pendent-cringles are stuck through holes made in the tabling; and beneath them are made three bowline-cringles; the upper one upon the middle of the leech, and the others equally asunder between that and the clue: two buntline-cringles are also made in the middle of each buntline-cloth on the foot.

The linings, cloths, bands, clues, &c. are the same as for the main topsail.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL.

Add the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the product to make it square, then multiply by the depth and add the quantity in the linings, and bands.

EXAMPLE.

16 1/2 cloths in the head.
26 1/2 cloths in the foot.
--
1/2) 43
21 1/2 square cloths.
11 3/4 yards deep.
--
252 5/8 yards in the sail.
25 1/4 yards in the leech-linings.
25 1/4 yards in the top-lining and mast-cloths.
7 1/4 yards in the buntline cloths.
28 3/8 yards in the reef and middle-bands.
--
Total 341 1/8 yards for a 20 gun ship,
 

A 20 Gunships Fore Topsail
Scale 1/8 of an Inch to a Foot
Popup larger image.
 

A 20 Gunships Main Topgallant Sail
A 20 Gunships Mizen Topsail
Scale 1/8 of an Inch to a Foot
Popup larger image.
 

103
 

MIZEN-TOPSAIL.

This sail is quadrilateral, square on the head, and made of canvas No. 4, 5, or 6: it is bent at the head to the mizen topsail yard, and hangs to the mizen topmast at right angles with the ship's length, and parallel to the cross-jack-yard, extending within 12 inches of the cleats on the yardarms.

The cloths on the leeches are gored sufficiently for the foot to spread the length of the cross-jackyard, and the clues reach the sheet-blocks on the cross-jack-yard-arms, when both yards are hoisted.

The gore on the foot is three quarters of a yard deep, and begins at two cloths from the buntline cringle, on the side next the clues. In the merchant-service, the foot is sometimes square.

Mizen-topsails, for 50 gun-ships and upwards, have three reef-bands at one-eighth of the depth of the sail asunder from the head; and, for 44 gun-ships and under, two reef-bands, one-seventh of the depth of the sail asunder; also a middle-band, of one breadth of cloth, half-way between the lower reef-band and the foot. In the merchant-service, they have 2 reefs, as the 44 gun-ship, but no middle-band.

The leeches are lined with one-breadth of cloth, so cut as to be half a cloth broad at the head, and a cloth and a half broad at the foot. In the merchant service, they are lined with part of a cloth, 9 inches broad at the head, and 15 inches at the foot.

The top-lining covers one-fifth of the cloths in the foot: the upper-end is carried as high as the middle-band, and the band is tabled on it. The buntline-cloths join the top-lining, and are carried under the middle-band. In the merchant-service, the top-lining covers one-third of the cloths in the foot, and is carried up one-third of the depth of the sail, and the buntline-cloths are half a yard shorter than the top-lining.

One inch and a half of slack-cloth is taken up, in sewing on the bolt-rope, in every yard in the leeches, three inches in every cloth in the head and foot, and and 2 inches are allowed for every cloth in the top-brim.

One reef-cringle is made on the leeches at the end of each reef-band, and three bowline-cringles are made on each leech, the upper one in the middle of the leech, and the others equally distant between that and the clue. Forty-four gun ships and upwards have a reef-pendent-cringle between the lower reef and upper bowline-cringles.

The clue and top-brim are wormed, parcelled, served, and marled as other topsails.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL.

Add the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the product to make it square, then multiply by the depth of the sail, and add the quantity in the foot-gores, linings, and bands.

EXAMPLE.

13 1/2 cloths in the head.
19 1/4 cloths in the foot.
--
1/2) 33
--
16 1/2 square cloths.
9 1/4 yards deep.
--
152 5/8 yards in the sail.
66 3/4 yards in the foot-gores, linings, bands, and pieces.
--
Total 219 3/8 yards for a ship of 20 guns.
 

104
 

MAIN-TOPGALLANT-SAIL.

This sail is quadrilateral, and square on the head and foot, in the navy, and made of canvas No. 6 or 7: the head is bent to the main-topgallant-yard, which hangs to the main-topgallant-mast at right angles with the ship's length, and parallel to the main-topsail-yard, extending within 6 inches of the cleats on the yard-arms. The clues reach to the main-topsail-yard-arms, when both yards are hoisted.

The cloths on the leeches are gored sufficiently for the foot to spread the length of the main-top-sail-yard. A gore of 2 or 3 inches per cloth is often made on the foot, in the merchant-service, beginning at one-third of the breadth from the clue.

The cloth at the clue is so cut as to fall to the foot and form its own lining; and earing-pieces of one quarter of a yard are put on each corner at the head.

Three bowline-cringles are made on each leech, the upper one in the middle, and the others equally asunder between that and the clue.

FORE-TOPGALLANT-SAIL.

This sail is quadrilateral, and square on the head and foot, in the navy, and made of canvas No. 6 or 7: the head is bent to the fore-topgallant-yard, which hangs to the fore-topgallant-mast at right angles to the ship's length, and parallel with the fore-topsail-yard, extending within 6 inches of the cleats on the yard-arms: the clues reach to the fore-topsail-yard-arms, when both yards are hoisted.

The cloths on the leeches are gored sufficiently for the foot to spread the length of the fore-topsail-yard: the cloth at each clue is so cut as to fall to the foot and form its own lining, and a piece, of one quarter of a yard, is put on each corner at the head. In the merchant-service, a gore is sometimes made on the foot, of 2 or 3 inches per cloth, beginning at one-third of the breadth from the clue.

Three bowline-cringles are made on each leech; the upper one in the middle, and the others equally distant from that and the clue; as this sail may be occasionally used for the main-topgallant-sail. In the merchant-service, it has no cringles.

MIZEN-TOPGALLANT-SAIL.

This sail is quadrilateral, and square on the head and foot, in the navy, and made of canvas No. 7 or 8. The head is bent to the mizen-topgallant-yard, and it hangs to the mizen-topmast at right angles with the ship's length, and parallel with the mizen-topsail-yard, extending within 6 inches of the cleats on the yard-arms. The clues reach to the mizen-topsail-yard-arms, when both yards are hoisted.

The leeches are gored sufficiently for the foot to spread the length of the mizen topsail-yard, and the pieces on the clues and earings are each a quarter of a yard in length.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN MAIN, FORE, AND MIZEN TOPGALLANT SAILS.

Add the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the product to make it square, then multiply by the depth, and add the quantity in the pieces.

EXAMPLE FOR THE MAIN-TOP-GALLANT-SAIL.

13 1/2 cloths in the head.
20 cloths in the foot.
--
1/2) 33 1/2
--
16 3/4 square cloths.
6 1/2 yards deep.
--
108 7/8 yards in the sail.
3 1/2 yards in the foot gores.
2 5/8 yards in the pieces.
--
115 yards for a 20 gun ship.

EXAMPLE FOR THE FORE-TOP-GALLANT-SAIL.

11 1/2 cloths in the head.
17 1/2 cloths in the foot.
--
1/2) 29
--
14 1/2 square cloths.
5 3/4 yards deep.
--
83 1/4 yards in the sail.
1 1/2 yards in the pieces.
--
84 3/4 yards for a 20 gun ship.

EXAMPLE FOR THE MIZEN-TOP-GALLANT-SAIL.

9 1/2 cloths in the head.
14 cloths in the foot.
--
1/2) 23 1/2
--
11 3/4 square cloths.
5 yards deep.
--
58 3/4 yards in the sail.
1 yards in the pieces.
--
59 3/4 yards for a 20 gun ship.

 

A 20 Gunships Main Royal
A 20 Gunships Mizen Topgallant Sail.
A 20 Gunships Fore Topgallant Sail.
Scale 1/8 of an Inch to a Foot
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A 20 Gunships Mizen Royal
A 20 Gunships Fore Royal.
A 20 Gunships Main Stay Sail.
Scale 1/8 of an Inch to a Foot
Popup larger image.
 

105
 

MAIN-ROYAL-SAIL.

This sail is quadrilateral, square on the head and foot, and made of canvas No. 8: the head is bent to the main-royal-yard, which hangs to the main-topgallant-mast-head at right angles with the ship's length, and parallel with the main-topgallant-yard, extending within 4 inches of the cleats on the yard-arms.

The cloths on the leeches are gored sufficiently for the foot to spread the length of the main-topgallant-yard, and the clues reach to the main-topgallant-yard-arms, when both yards are hoisted.

FORE-ROYAL-SAIL.

This sail is quadrilateral, square on the head and foot, and made of canvas No. 8: the head is bent to the fore-royal-yard, which hangs to the fore-topgallant-mast-head at right angles with the ship's length, and parallel with the fore-topgallant-yard, extending within 4 inches of the cleats on the yard-arms.

The cloths are gored on the leeches sufficiently for the foot to spread the length of the fore-topgallant-yard, and it drops for the clues to reach the fore-topgallant-yard-arms, when both yards are hoisted.

MIZEN-ROYAL-SAIL.

This sail is quadrilateral, square on the head and foot, and made of canvas No. 8: the head is bent to the mizen-royal-yard, which hangs to the head of the mizen-topmast or top-gallant-mast, at right angles with the ship's length, and parallel with the mizen-top-gallant-yard, extending within 4 inches of the cleats on the yard-arms.

The cloths are gored on each leech sufficiently for the foot to spread the mizen-topgallant-yard, and the clues reach to the mizen topgallant-yard-arms when both yards are hoisted.

*** This sail is seldom used.

RULE FOR FINDING THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN MAIN, FORE, AND MIZEN-ROYAL SAILS.

Add the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the product to make it square, then multiply by the depth of the sail.

EXAMPLE FOR THE MAIN ROYAL SAIL.

8 cloths in the head.
13 cloths in the foot.
--
1/2) 21
--
10 1/2 square cloths.
4 1/2 yards deep.
--
47 1/4 yards for a 20 gun ship.

EXAMPLE FOR THE FORE ROYAL SAIL.

7 cloths in the head.
11 cloths in the foot.
--
1/2) 18
--
9 square cloths.
3 3/4 yards deep.
--
33 3/4 yards for a 20 gun ship.

EXAMPLE FOR THE MIZEN ROYAL SAIL.

4 cloths in the head.
8 cloths in the foot.
--
1/2) 12
--
6 square cloths.
3 1/4 yards deep.
--
19 1/2 yards for a 20 gun ship.

 

106
 

MAIN STAYSAIL.

This sail is triangular, square on the foot in the royal-navy, and made of canvas No. 1 to 3. It is extended upon the main-staysail-stay, between the main and fore mast, so that the foot will clear the boat upon the booms.

*** This sail is seldom used in large vessels.

A regular gore is made on the stay of 17 to 19 inches per cloth. The cloth at the tack is so cut as to fall to the foot and form its own lining. The clue-piece extends two yards up the leech, and the peek-piece is one yard in length.

Holes are made on the stay 27 inches asunder, and marling-holes are made 2 feet each way from the clue. In sewing on the bolt-rope, 3 inches slack should be taken up in every yard in the stay, and one inch in every cloth in the foot, but none in the leech.

Iron thimbles are sometimes stuck at the tack and peek, but when none, the tack and peek are the same as the clue.

In the merchant-service, this sail is frequently cut with a bunt, and a gore is sometimes made on the foot, with a sweep. It also frequently has a reef-band at about 4 feet from the foot, and sometimes a bonnet.

FORE STAYSAIL.

This sail is triangular, square on the foot, and made of canvas No. 1 to 3. It is extended on the fore-stay between the fore-mast and bow sprit.

A regular gore is made on the stay of 21 to 23 inches per cloth. The cloth at the tack is so cut as to fall to the foot, and form its own lining; the clue-piece extends two yards up the leech, and the peek-piece is half a yard in length.

The holes on the stay are 27 inches asunder, and the marling-holes extend 2 feet each way from the clue. Three inches slack should be taken up in every yard in the stay when sewing on the bolt-rope, and one inch in every cloth in the foot. The tack and peek are sometimes fixed on, or are marled, as the clue.

Thimbles are sometimes stuck at the tack and peek, but when none, the tack and peek are the same as the clue.

RULE FOR FINDING THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN MAIN AND FORE STAYSAILS.

Multiply half the number of cloths by the depth of the leech, and add the quantity in the pieces.

EXAMPLE FOR THE MAIN-STAYSAIL.

11 half the number of cloths.
10 yards depth the leech.
--
110 yards in the sail.
4 yards in the pieces.
--
Total 114 yards for a 20 gun ship.

EXAMPLE FOR THE FORE-STAYSAIL.

7 1/2 half the number of cloths.
9 yards depth the leech.
--
67 1/2 yards in the sail.
3 yards in the pieces.
--
70 1/2 yards for a 20 gun ship.

 

A 20 Gunships Fore Stay Sail
A 20 Gunships Mizen Stay Sail
Scale 1/8 of an Inch to a Foot
Popup larger image.
 

107
 

MIZEN STAYSAIL.

This sail is quadrilateral, square on the foot, and made of canvas No. 2 or 3: it has a bunt three-fifths of the depth of the leech in the navy, and one-third or one-fourth of the depth of the leech in the merchant-service; and it is extended on the mizen-stay between the main and mizen masts. The foot drops within 6 or 7 feet of the quarter-deck.

Two cloths are generally gored on the bunt, and the stay from 10 to 12 inches per cloth. If the depth of the bunt be subtracted from the depth of the leech, the remainder, divided by the number of gored cloths, gives the depth of each gore on the stay.

The bunt or fore-part is lined with half a breadth of cloth; the clue-piece is two yards long, and the peek-piece one yard. In the merchant-service the tack, peek, and nock pieces are generally but three-quarters of a yard in length.

Holes are made in the stay, three-quarters of a yard asunder, and marling-holes two feet each way from the clue. Three inches of slack cloth should be taken in with the rope in every yard in the stay, and one inch in every cloth in the foot, but none in the leech.

Thimbles are sometimes stuck at the tack and peek; but, when thimbles are not used, the tack and peek are frequently marled as the clue.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL.

Add the depth of the bunt to the depth of the leech, and halve the same for a medium depth; add the cloths in the head and foot, and halve the product to make it square; then multiply the number of square cloths by the medium depth, and add the quantity in the lining and pieces.

EXAMPLE.

9 yards; depth of the leech.
5 yards; depth of the bunt.
--
1/2) 14
--
7 medium depth.
14 number of squared cloths.
--
98 yards in the sail.
5 1/2 yards in the bunt-lining.
3 yards in the pieces.
--
Total 106 1/2 yards for a ship of 20 guns.
 

108
 

MAIN TOPMAST STAYSAIL.

This sail is quadrilateral, cut square on the foot, and made of canvas No. 5, or 6. It is extended on the main-topmast preventer-stay, between the main and fore topmasts. The leech is 4 or 5 yards deeper than the main-topsail, and there are one or two cloths more in the foot than the leech is yards in depth.

In large merchant-ships, the leech is 4 or 5 yards deeper than the main-topsail, but, in smaller ships, only 1 or 2 yards; and there are from 1 to 3 cloths more in the foot than the leech is yards in depth.

The bunt is two-fifths of the depth of the leech: but in the merchant-service it is from two-fifths to one-half of the depth.

Two cloths are generally gored on the bunt, and the stay is gored 22 inches per cloth. If the depth at the nock-seam be subtracted from the depth of the leech, the remainder, divided by the number of gored cloths, gives the depth of each gore on the stay.

The bunt is lined with half a breadth of cloth. The clue-piece is two yards long, and the peek-piece one yard. In the merchant-service this sail generally has tack, nock, and peek pieces, each, three quarters of a yard in length.

The holes on the stay are 27 inches asunder, and marling-holes are made two feet each way from the clue. Three inches of slack-cloth should be taken up in every yard in the stay, and one inch in every cloth in the foot, but none in the leech. Thimbles are sometimes stuck in the tack and peek: when there are none, the tack and peek are the same as the clue, and are fixed or marled on.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL.

Add the depth of the bunt to the depth of the leech, and halve the product for a medium: add the number of cloths in the foot and upper part together, and halve the product to make it square: then multiply the number of squared cloths by the medium depth, and add the quantity in the lining and pieces.

EXAMPLE.

18 yards; depth of the leech.
7 yards; depth of the bunt.
--
1/2) 25
--
12 1/2 medium depth.
18 half the number of square cloths in the foot and upper part.
--
225 yards in the sail.
3 1/4 yards in the bunt-lining.
3 yards in the pieces.
--
Total 231 1/3/4 yards for a ship of 20 guns.
 

A 20 Gunship's Main Topmast Stay Sail
Scale 1/8 of an Inch to a Foot
Popup larger image.
 

A 20 Gunship's Middle Stay Sail
A 20 Gunship's For Topmast Stay Sail
Scale 1/8 of an Inch to a Foot
Popup larger image.
 

109
 

FORE TOPMAST STAYSAIL.

This sail is triangular, cut square on the foot, and made of canvas No. 5, 6, or 7. It is extended on the fore-topmast-staysail-stay, and the foot is spread on the bowsprit. The leech is of the same depth as the fore-topsail; and 2 or 3 cloths are allowed in the foot for every yard in the depth of the leech. In the merchant-service, one cloth only is allowed in the foot for every yard in the depth of the leech.

The stay is gored 30 inches per cloth. The depth of the gore on each cloth in the stay is found by dividing the depth of the leech by the number of cloths.

The cloth at the tack is so cut as to fall to the foot and form its own lining. The clue-piece is two yards long, and the peek-piece one yard. In the merchant-service, the piece at the clue is in general but one yard in length, and the tack and peek pieces half a yard each.

The holes on the stay are 27 inches asunder, and the marling-holes extend two feet each way from the clue. Three inches slack should be taken up, in sewing on the rope, in every yard in the stay, and one inch in every cloth in the foot.

Thimbles are sometimes stuck at the tack and peek: when there are none, the tack and peek are the same as the clue, and are fixed or marled on. The clue is seized with small line.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL.

Multiply half the number of cloths in the foot by the depth of the leech, and add the quantity in the pieces.

EXAMPLE.

7 half the number of cloths.
12 yards deep.
--
84
4 yards in the pieces.
--
Total 88 yards for a 20 gun ship.
 

110
 

MIDDLE STAYSAIL.

This sail is quadrilateral, cut square on the foot, and made of canvas No. 6, or 7. It has a square bunt five-twelfths of the depth of the leech, and it is extended on the middle-staysail-stay, between the main-topmast-stay and main-topgallant-stay.

The leech is from 4 to 7 yards deeper than the main-topgallant-sail, and there are from 6 to 8 cloths more in the foot than the leech is yards in depth. Sloops and brigs in the navy have only from one to three cloths more in the foot than yards in the depth of the leech.

In the merchant-service, the leech is sometimes of the same depth as the main-topgallant-sail, but generally, one, two, or three yards more; and the sail has from 5 to 10 cloths more in the foot than yards in the depth of the leech.

The stay is gored 13 inches and a half per cloth. If the depth of the bunt be subtracted from the depth of the leech, the remainder, divided by the number of cloths, gives the depth of each gore on the stay.

The bunt is lined with half a breadth of cloth, the clue with a piece two yards long, and the peek with a piece one yard in length. Three inches of slack-cloth should be taken up in every yard in the stay, when sewing on the rope, and one inch in every cloth in the foot.

Thimbles are sometimes stuck at the tack and peek: when there are none, the tack and peek are the same as the clue, and are marled on.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL.

Add the depth of the bunt to the depth of the leech, and halve the same for a medium depth; then multiply the medium depth by the number of cloths, and add the quantity in the lining and pieces.

EXAMPLE.

10 1/4 yards; depth of the leech.
4 1/4 yards; depth of bunt.
--
1/2) 14 1/2
--
7 1/4 medium depth.
16 number of cloths.
--
116 yards in the sail.
5 1/8 yards in the lining and pieces.
--
Total 121 1/4 yards for a 20 gun ship.
 

A 20 Gunship's Mizen Topmast Stay Sail
A 20 Gunship's Main Topgallant Stay Sail
Popup larger image.
 

111
 

MIZEN TOPMAST STAYSAIL.

This sail is quadrilateral, cut square on the foot, and made of canvas No. 7. It has a bunt three-sevenths or one-third of the depth of the leech, and is extended on the mizen-topmast-stay between the main and mizen topmasts.

The leech is one or two yards deeper than the mizen-topsail, and there are from 2 to 5 cloths more in the foot than the leech is yards in depth.

One cloth is generally gored on the bunt, and the stay is gored twenty-four inches per cloth. If the length of the nock-seam be subtracted from the depth of the leech, the remainder, divided by the number of cloths in the stay, gives the depth of each gore.

The bunt is lined with half a breadth of cloth; the clue-piece is 2 yards long, and the peek-piece one yard. In the merchant-service the clue-piece is generally one yard long, and the peek-piece half a yard. Three inches slack should be taken up in every yard in the stay, and one inch in every cloth in the foot.

Thimbles are generally stuck in the tack and peek; but, when no thimbles, the tack and peek are the same as the clue.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL.

Add together the depth of the bunt and the depth of the leech, and halve the product for a medium: then add the number of cloths in the stay and foot, and halve the product to make it square: multiply the number of square cloths by the medium depth, and add the quantity in the lining and pieces.

EXAMPLE.

10 1/2 yards; depth of the leech.
3 yards; depth of bunt.
--
1/2) 13 1/2
--
6 3/4 medium depth.
11 1/2 square cloths.
--
77 5/8 yards in the sail.
4 1/2 yards in the lining and pieces.
--
Total 82 1/8 yards for a 20 gun ship.
 

112
 

MAIN TOPGALLANT STAYSAIL.

This sail is quadrilateral, cut square on the foot, and made of canvas No. 7. It has a bunt from one-third to three-sevenths of the depth of the leech, and is extended on the main-topgallant-staysail-stay between the main and fore topgallant-masts.

The leech is nearly of the same depth as the leech of the middle-staysail, and there are from 3 to 6 cloths more in the foot than the leech is yards in depth. In the merchant-service, there are from 2 to 8 cloths more in the foot than the leech is yards in depth.

The stay is gored 24 inches per cloth. If the depth of the bunt be subtracted from the depth of the leech, the remainder, divided by the number of cloths, gives the depth of the gore on each cloth.

The bunt is lined with half a breadth of cloth, the clue-piece is two yards long, and the peek-piece one yard. In the merchant-service, the clue-piece is only one yard; and the tack, nock, and peek pieces are each half a yard in length.

The holes on the stay are 27 inches asunder. In sewing on the bolt-rope, three inches slack should be taken up in every yard in the stay, and one inch in every cloth in the foot.

Thimbles are generally stuck at the tack, nock, and peek. When there are no thimbles, the tack and peek are the same as the clue.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL.

Add the depth of the bunt and depth of the leech together, and halve the product for a medium depth, which multiply by the number of cloths in the sail, and add the quantity in the lining and pieces.

EXAMPLE.

10 1/4 depth of the leech.
2 1/4 depth of bunt.
--
1/2)13
--
6 1/2 medium depth.
13 number of cloths.
--
84 1/2 yards in the sail.
4 1/8 yards in the lining and pieces.
--
Total 88 5/8 yards for a ship of 20 guns.
 

A 20 Gunship's Lower Main Studding Sail
A 20 Gunship's Lower Fore Studding Sail
Scale 1/8 of an Inch to a Foot
Popup larger image.
 

113
 

LOWER MAIN STUDDINGSAILS.

These sails are quadrilateral, cut square on the head, foot, and leeches, and made of canvas No. 6 or 7. They spread beyond the skirts or leeches of the main-course, the heads being bent to the main-studdingsail-yards, and the feet extended on the boom.

The sails are 2 or 3 yards deeper than the main-course. In large ships, two cloths more, and, in small ships, one cloth less, are allowed, for the breadth, than the number of yards in the depth. But, in the merchant-service, they are only one yard deeper, or of the same depth as the maincourse; and from 2 to 7 cloths are allowed in the foot more than the number of yards in the depth.

A reef-band, 6 inches wide, is put on at one-eighth of the depth from the head, and pieces of one-quarter or half a yard in length are sometimes put on at the clues and earings.

One inch of slack-cloth should be taken up, in sewing on the bolt-rope, in every cloth in the foot. The rope should be sewed home to the clue, and a reef-cringle made at each end of the reef-band.

LOWER FORE STUDDINGSAILS.

These sails are quadrilateral, square on the head, foot, and leeches, and made of canvas No. 6 or 7. They are spread beyond the skirts, or leeches of the fore-course, the heads being bent to the fore-studdingsail-yards, and the feet extended on the boom.

The depth is the same as the main-course, or from one to two yards more, and the breadth is one cloth less than the main-studdingsail.

One quarter or half a yard of cloth is sometimes put on at the clues and earings. One inch of slack-cloth should be taken up in every cloth in the foot, when sewing on the bolt-rope, which is to be sewed home to the clues.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THE LOWER MAIN AND FORE STUDDINGSAILS.

Multiply the depth of the sail by the number of cloths, and add the quantity in the pieces.

EXAMPLE FOR THE MAIN-STUDDINGSAIL.

13 yards deep.
12 number of cloths.
--
156 yards in the sail.
1 1/4 yards in reef band.
1 yard in the pieces.
--
Total 158 1/4 yards for a 20 gun ship.

EXAMPLE FOR THE FORE-STUDDINGSAIL.

11 yards deep.
11 number of cloths.
--
121 yards in the sail.
1 yard in the pieces.
--
Total 122 yards for a ship of 20 guns.

 

114
 

MAIN TOPMAST STUDDING SAILS.

These sails are quadrilateral, and made of canvas No. 6 or 7. They are spread beyond the skirts or leeches of the main-topsail, the heads being bent to their respective yards, and the feet extended on the boom.

The depth is one yard more than the main-topsail, and two cloths less are allowed for the breadth of the foot than the number of yards in the depth of the leech.

Four cloths are gored on the outer leech, in the navy, and from 4 to 7 cloths in the merchant-service; and a regular gore is made on the head and foot of 4 inches per cloth, decreasing to the outer earing at the head, and increasing to the tack or outer clue at the foot.

A reef-band, 6 inches broad, is put on at one-eighth of the depth of the sail from the head.

One inch and a half slack-cloth should be taken up in every yard in the gored leech, when sewing on the bolt-rope, and one inch in every cloth in the foot, but none in the square leech. The rope is to be sewed home to the clue. One reef-cringle is made on the leeches at each end of the reef-band, and a downhaul-cringle is made on the outer leech, about half the depth of the leech from the head.

FORE TOPMAST STUDDINGSAILS.

These sails are quadrilateral, and made of canvas No. 6 or 7. They are spread beyond the leeches of the fore-topsail, the heads being bent to their respective yards, and the feet extended on the boom.

The depth is one yard more than the main-topsail, and one cloth less is allowed for the breadth of the foot than in the main-topmast-studdingsail.

Four cloths are gored on the outer leech, in the navy, and from 4 to 7 cloths, in the merchant service; and a regular gore is made on the head and foot of 4 inches per cloth, decreasing to the outer earing at the head, and increasing to the tack or outer-clue at the foot.

One inch and a half slack-cloth should be taken up in every yard in the gored leech, when sewing on the rope, and one inch in every cloth in the foot, but none in the square leech. The rope is to be sewed home to the clue, and a downhaul-cringle is made on the outer leech at about half the depth of the sail from the head.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THE MAIN AND FORE TOPMAST STUDDINGSAILS.

Add the number of cloths in the head and foot together, and halve the product to make it square, then multiply the number of square cloths by the depth, and add the quantity in the bands, &c.

EXAMPLE FOR THE MAIN TOPMAST STUDDINGSAIL.

8 cloths in the heal.
12 cloths in the foot.
--
1/2) 20
--
10 square cloths.
24 yards deep.
1 1/4 yards in the reef-bands.
--
Total 141 1/4 yards, for a 20 gun ship.

EXAMPLE FOR THE FORE TOPMAST STUDDINGSAIL.

7 cloths in the head.
11 cloths in the foot.
--
1/2) 18
--
9 square cloths.
12 1/2 yards deep.
--
Total 112 1/2 yards, in a 20 gun ship.

 

A 20 Gunship's Main Topmast Studding Sail
A 20 Gunship's Fore Topmast Studding Sail
Scale 1/8 of an Inch to a Foot
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A 20 Gunship's Main Topgallant Studding sail
A 20 Gunship's Fore Topgallant Studding Sail
Scale 1/8 of an inch to foot
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115
 

MAIN TOPGALLANT STUDDING-SAILS

These sails are quadrilateral, and made of canvas No. 7 or 8. They spread beyond the skirts or leeches of the main-topgallant-sail, the heads being bent on their respective yards, and the feet extended on the boom.

The depth is half a yard more than the main-topgallant-sail. In large ships, there are 5 cloths more allowed for the breadth of the foot than the number of yards in the depth, but in small ships there are only 3 more, or the same as the number of cloths in the breadth of the foot as yards in the depth of the leech.

The outer leech is gored from two to four cloths, and an even gore is made on the head and foot from 3 to 5 inches per cloth, decreasing to the outer earing at the head, and increasing to the tack at the foot.

One inch and a half of slack-cloth should be taken up in every yard, when sewing the bolt-rope on the gored leech, and one inch in every cloth in the foot, but none in the square leech. The rope is sewed to the clue, and the clue is seized with small line.

FORE TOPGALLANT STUDDING-SAILS

These sails are quadrilateral, and made of canvas No. 7 or 8. They are spread beyond the leeches of the foretopgallant-sail, the heads being bent on their respective yards, and the feet extended on the boom.

The depth is half a yard more than the main-topgallant-sail. In large ships, there are 5 cloths more allowed for the breadth of the foot than the number of yards in the depth, but in small ships there are only 3 more, or the number of cloths in the foot as yards in the depth of leech.

The outer leech is gored from two to four cloths, and an even gore is made on the head and the foot from 3 to 5 inches per cloth, decreasing to the outer earing at the head, and increasing to the tack at the foot.

One inch and a half of slack-cloth should be taken up in every yard in the gored leech, when sewing on the rope, and one inch in every yard in the foot, but none in the square leech.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN MAIN AND FORE TOPGALLANT STUDDING-SAILS

Add together the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the product to make it square; then multiply the number of square cloths by the depth of the sail.

EXAMPLE FOR THE MAIN TOPGALLANT-SAIL.

6 cloths in the head.
8 cloths in the foot.
--
1/2) 14
--
7 square cloths.
7 yards deep.
--
Total 49 yards, for a 20 gun ship.

EXAMPLE FOR THE FORE TOPGALLANT-SAIL.

5 cloths in the head.
7 cloths in the foot.
--
1/2) 12
--
6 square cloths.
6 1/4 yards deep.
--
Total 37 1/2 yards, for a 20 gun ship.

 

116
 

JIB.

This sail is triangular, and made of canvas No. 6 or 7. It is the foremost sail of a ship, and differs in shape but little from a staysail. The foot is extended from the outer end of the bowsprit by the jib-boom, and it slides on the jib-stay, which is attached to the fore-topmast head. The leech is about twice the depth of the leech of the fore-staysail, and one cloth more is allowed for the breadth of the foot, than the leech is yards in depth.

The stay is cut with a curve, or roach. The length of the regular gore per cloth may be found by dividing the depth of the stay by the number of cloths. The gores should be allowed full, and the curve cut fair after the sail is sewed together.

The foot has an even gore of 3 inches per cloth, decreasing from the tack to the clue, which is governed by the stive of the bowsprit. For brigs, this sail has a circular foot, and sometimes for ships, in the merchant-service. The seams are generally one inch broader at the foot than at the head, when cut with a circular or roach foot.

The clue-piece is two yards, and the peek-piece is one yard long, and the cloth at the tack is so cut as to fall to the foot and form its own lining.

Marling-holes are made two feet each way from the clue, and one hole is made in every yard in the stay. In sewing on the bolt-rope, four or five inches of slack-cloth should be taken up in every yard in the stay, and one inch in every cloth in the foot.

Iron thimbles are sometimes seized in at the tack and peek; but, when thimbles are not used, the tack and peek are the same as the clue, and are frequently marled on.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL.

Multiply the depth of the leech by half the number of cloths in the sail, and add to the product the quantity in the foot-gores and pieces.

To find the quantity in the foot-gores. Multiply half the number of cloths in the foot by the regular gore per cloth, and the product, multiplied by the whole number of cloths gives the answer.

EXAMPLE.

18 yards, depth of the leech.
9 1/2 half the number of cloths.
--
171 yards.
--
15 yards in the foot gores.
4 yards in the pieces.
--
Total 190 yards, for a 20 gun ship.
Gores.
9 1/2 half the number of cloths.
3 inches, gore per cloths.
--
28 1/2 inches.
--
19 cloths in the foot.
--
Total 541 1/2 inches, or 15 yards.
 

A 20 Gunship's Jib
Scale 1/8 of an Inch to a Foot
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A 20 Gunship's Spritsail Course
A 20 Gunship's Spritsail Topsail
Scale 1/8 of an Inch to a Foot
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117
 

SPRITSAIL COURSE.

This sail is quadrilateral, square on the head, foot, and leeches, and made of canvas No. 2 or 3. It is bent at the head to the spritsail-yard, and hangs under the bowsprit at right angles with the ship's length, extending within 9 inches of the cleats on the yard-arms.

Two reef-bands, one-third of the breadth of a cloth, are put on diagonally; the ends on the leeches being 27 inches from the clues, and those at the head on the first or second seam from the earings. Sometimes a reef-band is put on from leech to leech, at one-fifth of the depth of the sail from the head.

A water-hole, from 4 to 6 inches diameter, is made in the second cloth from each leech, near the foot, or opposite the reef-cringles. The marling holes extend two feet each way from the clues.

A reef-cringle is made on the leeches at the end of each reef-band, and two buntline-cringles are made on the foot-rope, at one-third of the breadth of the foot from each clue.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL.

Multiply the number of cloths by the depth, and add the quantity in the reef-bands.

EXAMPLE.

19 number of cloths.
5 1/2 yards; depth of the leech.
--
104 1/2 yards in the sail.
7 1/2 yards in the reef-bands.
--
Total 112 yards, for a 20 gun ship.

SPRITSAIL TOPSAIL.

This sail is quadrilateral, cut square on the head and foot, and made of canvas No. 6 or 7. The head is bent to the spritsail topsail-yard, which hangs under the jib-boom at right angles with the ship's length, and the foot is spread on the spritsail-yard. It has as many cloths in the head as the fore-topgallant-sail; and is of the same depth as the main-topgallant-sail, in the navy, but from one to two yards deeper, in the merchant-service.

The leeches are gored from 4 to 5 cloths sufficiently for the foot to spread to the cleats on the outer ends of the spritsail-yard.

Two inches of slack-cloth should be taken up in every cloth in the foot, when sewing on the bolt-rope, and one inch in every yard in the leeches.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL.

Add together the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the sum, to make it square: then multiply the number of square cloths by the depth.

EXAMPLE.

11 1/2 cloths in the head.
19 1/2 cloths in the foot.
--
1/2) 31
--
15 1/2 square cloths.
6 yards deep.
--
Total 93 yards, for a 20 gun ship.
 

118
 

DRIVER BOOMSAIL.

This sail is quadrilateral, made of canvas No. 5 or 6, and is occasionally hoisted to the mizen-yard or gaff, in light fair winds. The fore leech is attached to the mizen-mast, and the head to the mizen-yard or gaff; the foot is extended by the boom which hangs fore and aft in the plane of the ship's keel.

The fore-leech is nearly of the same depth as the fore-leech of the mizen course, and the after-leech is from 2 to 4 yards deeper than the after-leech of the mizen-course.

The head, foot, and mast-leech, are cut with a roach or curve; and, as no strict rule can be laid down, the gores must be judiciously encreased or diminished according to the sweep required.

The gore on the head is at the rate of from 9 to 12 inches per cloth; and on the foot from 6 to 9 inches; or about 27 inches for every cloth in the mast-leech. From 4 to 6 cloths next the clue are cut square; or, the fifth cloth next the clue being square, the other four cloths are short-gored one inch per cloth to the clue.

From 4 to 6 cloths are gored on the mast-leech; and, if the depth of the leech be divided by the number of cloths in it, the quotient will be the regular gore per cloth, which must be augmented on the middle cloths so as to form the sweep required.

The clue-lining is two or three yards in length, and the tack, nock, and peek pieces are each one yard in length.

The seams are 6 inches broad, 6 feet up the sail from the foot; and 2 inches broad 4 feet down from the head: the remainder is one inch broad.

Two inches of slack-cloth should be taken up with the rope in every yard in the mast-leech, and one inch in every cloth in the foot.

Iron thimbles are generally spliced in the rope at the tack, nock, peek, and clue, which are other-wise fitted as the mizen-course.

Cringles for the lacing are made on the mast-leech 30 inches asunder.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL.

Add together the number of cloths in the head and foot. and halve the product to make it square add together the depth of the fore and after leeches, and halve the sum for a medium depth: then multiply the number of square cloths by the medium depth, and add the quantity in the foot-gores and pieces.

To find the quantity in the foot gores. Add together the depth of the gore on each cloth to the tack, and halve it for a medium; then multiply by the number of cloths gored to the tack.

EXAMPLE.

14 cloths in the head.
18 cloths in the foot.
--
1/2) 32
--
16 square cloths.
12 1/2 yards; medium depth.
--
200 yards in the sail.
18 yards in the foot gore.
5 yards in the pieces.
--
Total 223 yards for a 20 gun ship.
Gores to the tack
  {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 18.}
  Total 100 Inches
1/2) 100
--
50 inches.
13 cloths gored to the tack.
--
Total 650 inches, or 18 yards.
 

A 20 Gunship's Driver Boom Sail
Scale 1/8 of an Inch to a Foot
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160 Ton Brigg's Mainsail
Scale 1/8 of an Inch to a Foot
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119
 

A BRIG'S MAINSAIL.

This sail is quadrilateral, and made of canvas No. 5 or 6. The fore-leech is in depth nearly the length of the main-mast from the under part of the hounds to the boom, and is fastened, in different places, to hoops which encircle the mast. The depth of the after-leech is about one-third more than the depth of the fore-leech. The head is bent to the gaff, and spreads within 9 inches of the cleats on the outer end; and the foot is extended by the boom, which hangs abaft the main-mast, and spreads within 18 inches of the sheave-hole at the outer end.

The seams are three inches broad 8 feet, up the sail from the foot, and two inches broad 8 feet down from the head: the remainder is one inch broad.

The head and mast-leech are sometimes gored with a small circular sweep, which must be regulated by practice. The regular gore on the head is from 4 to 5 inches per cloth, and the sweep may be cut after the sail is sewed together.

The foot is gored with a circular sweep, at the rate of 5 or 7 inches per cloth, leaving 4 or 5 square cloths at the clue, or at the rate of 14 to 18 inches per cloth for every cloth in the mast-leech, which has 5 or 6 gored cloths in it.

This sail has three reef-bands, 6 inches broad, parallel to the foot. The upper one is nearly half way up the fore-leech, and the others are at equal distances between that and the foot; it also sometimes has a balance-reef from the nock to the upper reef-cringle on the after-leech.

The after-leech is lined with one breadth of cloth from the clue to one yard above the upper reef band; half a yard of the lining is cut down at the upper end, and the inner part is doubled under, or cut off. The peek-piece is one yard in length, and the fore-leech is lined with half a breadth of cloth; or sometimes pieces, one yard in length, are put on at the tack and nock, and small triangular pieces at each hole.

Four inches of slack-cloth should be taken up with the rope in every yard in the mast-leech.

Large iron thimbles are stuck in the cringles at the clue, peek, nock, and tack; also in the cringles made on the leeches at the ends of the reef-bands: a luff-cringle is made on the mast-leech, equidistant from the lower reef-band and the foot, which also has a thimble.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL.

Add together the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the product to make it square: add together the depth of the fore and after leeches, and halve their sum for a medium depth: then multiply the number of square cloths by the medium depth, and add the quantity in the gores, linings, and pieces.

To find the quantity in the foot gores. Add together the gores on each cloth, and multiply half the sum by the number of cloths gored.

EXAMPLE.

13 1/2 cloths in the head.
19 cloths in the foot.
--
1/2) 32 1/2
--
16 1/4 square cloths.
11 1/4 yards: medium depth.
--
183 yards in the sail.
20 1/2 yards in the foot gore.
18 1/4 yards in the reef-bands, and linings.
--
Total 221 3/4 yards.
Gores each cloth
  {1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 12, 20, 24.}
  Total 105 Inches
1/2) 105
--
50 1/2 inches.
14 number of gored cloths.
--
Total 735 inches, or 20 yards and a half, nearly.
 

120
 

CUTTER'S MAINSAIL.

This sail is quadrilateral, and made of canvas No. 1 or 2. The fore-leech is nearly of the depth of the mast from the under part of the hounds to the boom, and is fastened in different places to hoops which encircle the mast: the after-leech is about one-third deeper than the fore-leech. The head is bent to a gaff and spreads within 18 inches of the cleats at the outer end; and the foot spreads within 2 or 3 feet of the sheave-hole at the outer end of the boom, which hangs fore and aft abaft the mast.

Six or eight cloths are gored on the fore-leech, and its length divided by that number of cloths gives the length of the gore on each cloth; the head is gored at the rate of 5 or 7 inches per cloth; and sometimes the fore-leech and head are cut with a small circular sweep, which must be cut by judgement, or after the sail is sewed together.

In the merchant-service, the head is generally wider, and peeks less, than in the royal-navy.

The foot is gored with a circular sweep at the rate of 5 to 7 inches per cloth from the tack to the middle of the foot; then, two or three cloths being less square, the remaining cloths to the clue are gored at the rate of a full inch per cloth.

Four reef-bands, 8 inches broad, are put on parallel to the foot; the upper one is about three-sevenths of the depth up the fore-leech from the foot, and the others at equal distances between that and the foot.

The seams are 5 inches broad 12 feet up the sail from the foot, and 3 inches broad 8 feet down from the head: the remainder is one inch and a half broad.

In sewing on the rope four or five inches of slack-cloth should be taken up in every yard in the depth of the fore-leech.

Large iron thimbles are stuck in the cringles at the clue, peek, nock, and tack, and also in the reef-cringles at the ends of the reef-bands. A luff-cringle is made on the fore-leech between the lower reef-band and the tack, which also has a thimble.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL.

Add together the depth of the fore and after leeches, and halve the same for a medium depth: add the number of cloths in the head and foot together, and halve the sum to make it square: then multiply the number of square cloths by the medium depth, and add the quantity in the foot gores, linings, and pieces.

To find the quantity of canvas in the foot gores. Add together the gores from the tack to the first square cloth in the foot, and multiply halve the sum by the number of cloths in the foot: then add together the gores from the clue to the first square cloth, and multiply half the sum by the number of cloths gored to the clue; which, subtracted from the product of the gores to the tack, gives the answer.

EXAMPLE.

24 yards: depth of the after leech.
18 yards; depth of the fore-leech.
--
1/2) 42
--
21 yards: medium depth.
25 7/8 square cloths.
--
543 3/8 yards.
42 1/4 yards in the foot-gores.
53 3/4 yards in the reef-bands, linings and pieces.
--
Total 639 3/8 yards.
Gores to the tack.
  {20, 17, 15, 13, 11, 9, 7, 5,4,3,2,2,1,1}
  Total 110 inches.
1/2)110
--
55 inches.
30 cloths in the foot.
--
1650 inches.
--

Gores to the clues.
  {3,2,2,2,2,2,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1.}
  Total 20 inches
1/2)20
--
10 inches.
13 cloths gored to clue.
--
130 inches.

1650 inches in the tack-gores.
130 inches in the clue gores.
--
Total 1520 inches, or 42 1/4 yards.

 

200 Ton Cutter's Main Sail
Scale 1/8 of an Inch to a Foot
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200 Ton Cutter's Trysail or Storm Sail
Scale 1/8 of an Inch to a Foot
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121
 

CUTTER'S TRYSAIL.

This sail is occasionally used, instead of the main-sail, in stormy weather, and is quadrilateral, generally cut square on the head, and made of canvas No. 1 or 2. It is extended as the main-sail, the fore-leech being attached to hoops which encircle the mast. The head is bent to a gaff, and the foot is extended by the boom.

In the head of the trysail there are two-fifths of the number of cloths that are in the head of the main-sail: the fore-leech is about three-fourths of the depth of the fore-leech of the main-sail, and the after-leech is one-sixth deeper than the fore-leech.

Eight or ten cloths are gored on the fore-leech; and its depth, divided by the number of cloths, gives the length of each gore: if cut with a sweep, the gores can only be regulated by practice, or the sweep cut after the sail is sewed up.

The foot is gored with a circular sweep at the rate of 5 or 7 inches per cloth from the tack, leaving two or three square cloths at the clue.

The seams should be 5 inches broad 12 feet up from the foot; and 3 inches broad 8 feet down from the head. The remainder is one inch and a half broad.

This sail has three reef-bands, 6 inches wide, parallel with the foot; the upper one is three-eighths of the depth of the fore-leech from the foot, and the others are at equal distances between the foot and the upper one. It also has three strengthening bands of half a breadth of cloth, at equal distances between the upper reef-band and the head, which are seamed on, and stuck along the middle.

The after-leech is lined with one breadth of cloth, from the clue to one yard and a half above the upper reef-band, where it is cut half way across; and, one half of it being cut off, it is so continued about one yard higher.

Four or five inches of slack-cloth should be taken up with the rope in every yard in the fore-leech.

Iron thimbles are stuck in cringles made at the clue, peek, nock, and tack; also in reef-cringles on the leeches at the ends of the reef-bands, and in a luff-cringle made on the fore-leech between the lower reef-cringle and the foot.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL.

Add together the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the sum to make it square; then add the depth of the fore and after leeches together, and halve the sum for a medium depth. Multiply the medium depth by the number of cloths, and add the quantity in the bands, linings, and pieces.

To find the quantity in the foot-gores. Add together the gores in each cloth, and multiply half the sum by the number of gored cloths.

EXAMPLE.

9 cloths in the head.
19 cloths in the foot.
--
1/2) 28
--
14 square cloths.
14 1/4 yards: medium depth.
--
206 1/2 yards.
35 yards in the foot gores.
41 1/2 in the reef-bands, linings, and pieces.
--
Total 283 yards.
Gores on each cloth.
  {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 23.}
  Total 158
1/2)158
--
79 inches.
16 number of gored cloths.
--
Total 1264 inches, or 35 yards.
 

122
 

SLOOP'S MAINSAIL.

This sail is quadrilateral, and made of canvas No. 1 or 2. The fore-leech is nearly of the depth of the mast from the under part of the hounds to the boom, and is attached to hoops which encircle the mast. The after-leech is about one-third deeper than the fore-leech. The head is bent to the gaff, and spreads within 12 inches of the outer end; and the foot is extended by the boom, which hangs fore and aft abaft the mast, and spreads within one or two feet of the sheave-hole at the outer end.

The head is gored at the rate of 3 to 6 inches per cloth, and is sometimes cut circular; and the foot is gored with a circular sweep, at the rate of 5 inches, to 6 inches and a half per cloth, 4 or 5 cloths next the clue being left square. The gore on the foot is governed by the number of cloths in the mast-leech; from 12 to 14 inches gore being allowed on each cloth in the foot for every cloth in the mast-leech.

From 6 to 8 cloths are gored on the fore-leech; and its depth, divided by that number of cloths, gives the length of each gore. It is sometimes cut circular.

This sail generally has three or four reef-bands, 4 or 6 inches broad, parallel to the foot; the upper one is about half way up the fore-leech, and the others are at equal distances between the upper one and the foot. Sometimes the reefs are fitted without bands. It also frequently has a balance-reef from the nock to the upper reef-cringle.

The after-leech is lined with one breadth of cloth from the clue to two feet above the upper reef-band: this lining is cut down the middle at the upper end; and, half of it being cut away, the remaining part is so continued half a yard higher. The mast-leech is lined with half a breadth of cloth from the tack to the nock; and the peek-piece is one yard and a half in length. Sometimes pieces one yard and a quarter long are put on at the nock and tack, and small triangular pieces at each hole, instead of a mast-lining.

The seams should be 4 inches broad 9 feet up the seam from the foot; and two inches broad 6 feet down the seam from the head. The remainder should be one full inch broad.

The bolt-rope on the mast-leech should be 2 inches and a half or 3 inches in circumference; and on the head, foot, and after-leech, one inch and a half. The clue-rope should be 3 inches and a half or 4 inches. Sometimes the foot-rope is not put on till the sail is half worn. When sewing on the rope, 4 inches of slack-cloth should be taken up in every yard in the mast-leech.

Iron thimbles are stuck in cringles at the tack, nock, peek, and clue. Thimbles are also stuck in cringles at the ends of the reef-bands, and in a luff-cringle on the mast-leech.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL.

Add together the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the product to make it square: add the depth of the fore and after leeches together, and halve the sum for a medium depth: then multiply the number of square cloths by the medium depth, and add the quantity in the foot gores, linings, bands, and pieces.

To find the quantity in the foot gores. Add together the gores on each cloth, and multiply half the product by the number of gored cloths.

EXAMPLE.

13 cloths in the head.
21 cloths in the foot.
--
1/2) 34
--
17 square cloths.
13 1/4 medium depth.
--
233 3/4 yards.
24 yards in the foot gores.
27 yards in the reef-bands, linings, and pieces.
--
Total 284 1/4 yards.
Gores on each cloth.
  {1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 16, 20.}
  Total 108 inches.
1/2)108
--
54 inches medium gore per cloth.
16 No. of gored cloths.
--
Total 864 inches, or 24 yards.
 

Sloop's Mainsail
Scale 1/8 of an Inch to a Foot
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Sloop's Trysail or Storm Mainsail
Scale 1/8 of an Inch to a Foot
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123
 

SLOOP'S TRYSAIL, OR STORM MAINSAIL.

This sail is quadrilateral, generally cut square on the head, and made of canvas No. 1 or 2. It is occasionally used for the mainsail in stormy weather. The fore-leech is from three-fourths of the depth to the same depth as the mainsail, and the after-leech is one-eighth deeper than the fore-leech. The head has two-fifths of the number of cloths that are in the head of the mainsail, and the foot is three-times the breadth of the head.

This sail is extended as the mainsail; the fore-leech being attached to hoops which encircle the mast: the head is bent to a gaff, and the foot is extended by the boom.

Eight or ten cloths are gored on the fore-leech; and its depth, divided by the number of cloths, gives the length of each gore: is cut with a sweep, the gores can only be regulated by judgement.

The foot is gored with a circular sweep, at the rate of 6 or 8 inches per cloth.

This sail has three or four reef-bands, from 4 to 6 inches wide, parallel with the foot; the upper one is neatly half-way up the fore-leech, and the others are at equal distances between that and the foot. It also has two or three strengthening bands, half a cloth broad, at equal distances asunder, above the upper reef-band, which are stuck, or stitched, along the middle.

The after-leech is lined with one breadth of cloth, from the clue to one yard and a quarter above the upper reef-band, which is there cut down the middle; and one part being cut away, the other is so continued about one yard higher. The fore-leech is lined with half a breadth of cloth and, the peek with a piece one yard and a half in length. Sometimes a piece, one yard in length, is put on at the nock.

The seams should be 5 inches broad, 12 feet up the seam from the foot; and 3 inches broad, 8 feet down the seam from the head. The remainder is one inch and a half broad.

The bolt-rope for the mast-leech should be 2 inches and a half or 3 inches in circumference; for the head, foot, and after-leech, one inch and a half. The ropes-ropes should be three inches and a half or four inches. When sewing on the rope 4 or 5 inches of slack-cloth should be taken up in every yard in the fore-leech.

Iron thimbles are stuck in the clue, peek, nock, and tack; also in the cringles at the ends of the reef-bands; and in a luff-cringle, made on the fore-leech, between the lower reef-cringle and the tack.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL.

Add together the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the product, to make it square: add together the depth of the fore and after leeches, and halve the same for a medium depth; then multiply the number of square cloths by the medium depth, and add the quantity in the foot-gores, bands, lining, and pieces.

To find the quantity in the foot gores. Add the gores on each cloth together, and multiply half the sum, by the number of gored cloths.

EXAMPLE.

5 cloths in the head.
15 cloths in the foot.
--
1/2)20
--
10 square cloths.
13 yards: medium depth.
--
130 yards.
27 yards in the foot gores.
28 yards in the linings, bands, and pieces.
--
Total 185 yards.
Gores on each cloth.
  {1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 16, 20.}
  Total 128 inches.
1/2) 128
--
64 inches.
15 number of gored cloths.
--
Total 960 inches: or 27 yards, nearly.
 

124
 

SLOOP'S SQUARE-SAIL, OR CROSS-JACK.

This sail is quadrilateral, square on the head and leeches, and made of canvas No. 6 or 7. The head is bent to the cross-jack-yard, and it hangs at right angles with the ship's length, and parallel to the deck, extending within 6 inches of the cleats on the yard-arms. The depth of this sail is four-fifths of the depth of the fore-leech of the mainsail.

The foot is gored one inch per cloth, encreasing to each clue; two or three square cloths being left in the middle.

This sail has two reef-bands, four inches broad; the lower one is at one-sixth of the depth of the sail from, and parallel, to the foot; and the upper one is at the same distance from the head.

One yard of cloth is put on at each clue, half a yard at each earing, and half a yard against every cringle on the leeches. These linings are all put on the aftside.

A reef-cringle is made at each end of the upper reef-band; and three bowline-cringles are made on each leech; the upper bowline-cringle is on the middle of the leech, and the others are equally distant from that and the clue.

Sometimes the clues are marled on; and, for this purpose, ten marling-holes are made each way from the clues.

The bolt-rope, on the foot and leeches, should be one inch and a half or two inches in circumference; and, on the head, one inch or one inch and a half. The clue-rope, when any, should be two inches and a half. When sewing on the bolt-rope, one inch of slack-cloth should be taken up in every cloth in the head and foot.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL.

Multiply the number of cloths by the depth, and add the quantity in the foot-gores, bands, and pieces.

To find the quantity in the foot-gores. Add together the gores on each cloth on one side of the sail, and multiply the sum by half the number of gored cloths.

EXAMPLE.

15 number of cloths.
9 1/4 yards deep.
--
146 1/4 yards
3 1/2 yards in the foot-gores.
3 1/4 yards in the reef-bands.
6 yards in the pieces.
--
Total 159
Gores on one side of the sail.
  {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.}
  Total 21 inches.
21
6 half the number of gored cloths.
--
Total 126 inches, or 3 yards and a half.
 

Sloop's Square Sail or Cross Jack
Scale 1/8 of an Inch to a Foot
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Sloop's Topsail
Sloop's Save all Topsail
Sloop's Gaff Topsail
Scale 1/8 of an Inch to a Foot
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125
 

SLOOP'S TOPSAIL.

This sail is quadrilateral, square on the head, and made of canvas No. 6 or 7. It is bent at the head to the topsail yard, extending within 18 inches of the cleats, and hangs to the mast at right angles with the ship's length, and parallel to the cross-jack-yard. The depth in the middle is one-third of the depth of the cross-jack, or square-sail.

From one to two cloths are gored on the leeches, sufficiently for the foot to spread to the cleats on the cross-jack-yard; and the foot is hollowed from one-third to half of the depth of the sail in the middle, (on account of the jib-stay,) or at the rate of 10 or 12 inches per cloth from the middle to the clue, the middle cloth being left square.

This sail has one reef-band, 4 inches broad, at about one-third of the depth of the middle-cloth from the head. Pieces, half a yard in length, are put on at each earing; and six small pieces, cut out of half a yard of cloth, are put on the leeches, one against each bowline-cringle. The pieces are all put on the aftside.

About three-quarters of an inch of slack-cloth should be taken up in every yard in the leeches, half an inch in every cloth in the head, and one inch in every cloth in the foot.

The bolt-rope on the foot and leeches, should be one inch and a half, or two inches, in circumference; and, on the head, one inch, or one inch and a half. The clue-rope should be 2 inches and a half.

Sometimes one reef and three bowline-cringles are made on each leech. The reef-cringles are made at the ends of the reef-band; the upper bowline-cringle in the middle of the leech; and the others equally distant from that and the clue.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL.

Add together the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the sum, to reduce it square; then multiply the number of square cloths by the depth in the middle, and add the quantity in the foot-gores, bands, and pieces.

To find the quantity in the foot gores. Add the gores on one side of the sail together, and multiply the sum by half the number of gored cloths.

EXAMPLE.

12 1/2 cloths in the head.
15 cloths in the foot.
--
1/2) 27 1/2
--
13 1/4 square cloths.
3 1/2 yards deep.
--
48 1/8 yards.
12 7/8 in the foot-gore.
3 yards in the reef-band, and pieces.
--
Total 64 yards.
Gores on one side of the sail.
  {2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18.}
  Total 66 inches.
66 inches.
7 half the number of gored cloths.
--
Total 462 inches, or 12 7/8 yards, nearly.
 

126
 

SLOOP'S SAVE-ALL TOPSAIL.

This sail is quadrilateral, square on the head and foot, and made of canvas No. 8. The head is extended by haliards, fastened to its earing-cringles, in the upper part of the hollow foot of the top-sail, and the foot spreads the cross-jack-yard between the clues of the topsail. It is seldom used but in calm weather.

Two or three cloths only are left square for the head, and the rest are gored for the leeches. The cloth at each clue is so cut as to fall to the foot and form the clue-pieces; and the clues and earings are the same as those of other small sails.

The bolt-rope, on the head, foot, and leeches, should be one inch in circumference.

SLOOP'S GAFF TOPSAIL.

This sail is quadrilateral, and made of canvas No. 8. The fore-leech is four-fifths of the depth of the fore-leech of the mainsail, and is attached to the topgallant-mast: the head is bent to a small gaff or yard, by which it is hoisted to the top-gallantmast-head, and the foot spreads the gaff of the mainsail. This sail is only used in light breezes.

The depth of the gore on each cloth in the mast-leech is found, by dividing the depth of the leech by the number of cloths. The head is gored 6 or 8 inches per cloth, and the foot 6 or 8 inches per cloth: short gore to the clue, that the foot may answer the peek of the mainsail.

The bolt-rope on the fore-leech should be one inch and a half in circumference; and, on the head, foot, and after-leech, one inch. The clue-rope, when any, should be two inches.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THE SLOOP'S SAVE-ALL TOPSAIL.

Add together the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the sum, to make it square; then multiply the number of square cloths by the depth, and add the quantity in the clue-pieces.

EXAMPLE FOR THE SAVE-ALL TOPSAIL.

3 cloths in the head.
15 cloths in the foot.
--
1/2)18
--
9 square cloths.
1 1/4 yards deep.
--
15 1/4 yards in the sail.
1/4 yards in the pieces.
--
Total 16 1/2 yards.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THE SLOOP'S GAFF TOPSAIL.

Add together the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the sum, to make it square: add the depth of the fore and after-leeches together, and halve the same for a medium depth: then multiply the number of square cloths by the medium depth.

EXAMPLE FOR THE GAFF TOPSAIL.

2 cloths in the head.
13 cloths in the foot.
--
1/2)15
--
7 1/2 square cloths.
10 1/4 medium depth.
--
Total 76 3/8- yards.

 

127
 

SLOOP'S TOPGALLANT-SAIL.

This sail is quadrilateral, cut square on the head and foot, and made of canvas No. 8. It is bent on the head to the topgallant-yard, which hangs above the topsail-yard at right angles with the vessel's length. The head spreads the topgallant-yard, and extends within six inches of the cleats; and the foot spreads to the cleats on the topsail-yard. This sail is from 3 to 5 yards deep; or the depth of the leeches of the topsail.

One or more cloths are gored on the leeches; and sometimes pieces, half a yard in length, are put on the aftside of the sail at the clues and earings.

The bolt-rope on the foot and leeches should be one inch in circumference; and on the head three-quarters of an inch, or one inch.

One inch of slack-cloth should be taken up with the rope in every cloth in the foot, and three-quarters of an inch in every yard in the leeches.

SLOOP'S WATER-SAIL.

This sail is quadrilateral, cut square on the head, and made of canvas No. 7. It is occasionally spread under the boom of the main-sail in fair winds. The leeches are either cut square, or have one gored cloth. The depth of this sail is from one-half to three-fourths of the length of the boom, and it is 4 or 5 cloths wide.

The bolt-rope, on the head, foot, and leeches, should be one inch and a half in circumference.

*** When sloops have lower-studding-sails, they are similar to the water-sail: the leeches are square, and they are one yard deeper than the leech of the cross-jack, or square sail.

Some ships have a water-sail, similar to a sloop's water-sail.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THE SLOOP'S TOPGALLANT-SAIL.

Add together the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the sum to make it square; then multiply the number of square cloths by the depth, and add the quantity in the pieces.

EXAMPLE FOR THE TOPGALLANT-SAIL.

11 cloths in the head.
13 cloths in the foot.
--
1/2)24
--
12 square cloths.
5 1/2 yards deep.
--
66 yards in the sail.
2 yards in the pieces.
--
Total 68 yards.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THE SLOOP'S WATER-SAIL.

Multiply the depth of the sail by the number of square cloths.

EXAMPLE FOR THE WATER-SAIL.

5 number of cloths.
12 yards deep.
--
Total 60 yards.

 

128
 

SLOOP'S FORE-SAIL.

This sail is triangular, made of canvas N. 1 or 2; and bends with hanks to the stay next before the mast. The depth of the leech is nearly the same as the depth of the fore-most-leech of the main-sail: and there are as many cloths in the foot as will bring it clear of the mast.

The depth of the hoist, or fore-part, divided by the number of gored cloths, gives the length of each gore. The foot has a short gore of one inch per cloth, increasing to the clue; leaving 1 or 2 square cloths at the tack.

The leech-cloth is left three-quarters of a yard longer than the depth of the leech, for the head-lining, and tabling; and the cloth at the tack is so cut as to fall to the foot and form its own lining.

The seams should be 3 or 4 inches wide at the foot, and decreasing to one inch at the hoist.

Two reef-bands, 4 inches broad, are generally put on at one-eighth of the depth of the sail asunder; the lower one being at that distance from the foot. Sometimes a bonnet is used instead of the lower-reef.

The leech is lined with a breadth of cloth from the clue to half a yard above the upper reef-band, where it is cut half-way across; and, one-half of it being cut away, the other part is so continued about one yard higher. Sometimes small triangular pieces are sewed on at each hole in the hoist.

The bolt-rope on the stay should be 2 inches and a half or 3 inches in circumference, and on the foot and leech one inch and a half or two inches. The clue-rope should be 3 inches. Three or four inches of slack-cloth should be taken up with the rope in every yard in the hoist.

The hoist-rope is put through the holes in the head-stick; then served with spunyarn, and spliced into the leech-rope. The middle of the head-stick, is then seized to the head of the sail; and a thimble is seized in the bight of the rope.

Thimbles are generally stuck in the cringles at the tack and clue.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL.

Multiply half the number of cloths in the sails by the depth of the leech, and add the quantity in the foot-gores, bands, and pieces.

To find the quantity in the foot-gores. Multiply the number of cloths by the depth of the gores when added together; and five-eighths of the product is the answer.

EXAMPLE.

4 half the number of cloths.
11 1/2 yards: depth of the leech.
--
46 yards.
3 yards in the foot-gores.
6 1/2 yards in bands and pieces.
--
Total 55 1/2 yards.
Gores   {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.}
  Total, 21 inches.
21 inches.
8 number of cloths.
--
5/8)168
--
105 inches; or 3 yards, nearly,
 

Sloop's Topgallant Sail
Sloop's Water Sail
Sloop's Foresail
Scale 1/8 of an Inch to a Foot
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Sloop's Jib
Sloop's Storm Jib
Scale 1/8 of an Inch to a Foot
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129
 

SLOOP'S JIB.

This sail is triangular, made of canvas No. 2 to 6, and is sometimes bent to hanks on the stay before the fore-sail. The depth of the leech is one yard for every cloth in the foot, and the foot is made wide enough to spread the bowsprit.

The depth of the hoist, or fore-part, divided by the number of cloths gored, gives the length of each gore. The foot is gored with a sweep, at the rate of 5 to 6 inches per cloth, encreasing to the clue; leaving one square cloth at the tack.

The leech-cloth is left three quarters of a yard longer than the depth of the leech, for the head-lining and tabling; the cloth at the tack is cut so as to fall to the foot and form its own lining; and the clue-piece is two yards in length.

The seams on the foot should be 3 or 4. inches broad, and should decrease to one full inch on the hoist.

If hoisted with a stay, the rope on the hoist should be 2 inches and a half or 3 inches in circumference; but if not hoisted with a stay, the rope on the hoist should be 5 inches. The rope on the foot and leeches should be 2 inches and a half, and the clue-rope 3 inches.

Four or five inches of slack-cloth should be taken up in every yard in the hoist, when roping, and the rope on the hoist put through the holes in the head-stick; then served with spunyarn, and spliced into the leech-rope. The head-stick is seized round the middle to the head of the sail, and a thimble seized in the bight of the rope.

Thimbles are generally stuck in the cringles at the tack and clue. This sail sometimes has a bonnet.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL.

Multiply half the number of cloths in the sail by the depth of the leech, and add the quantity in the foot-gores and pieces.

To find the quantity in the foot gores. Multiply the number of cloths by the depth of the gores when added together; and five-eights of the product is the answer.

EXAMPLE.

6 1/2 half the number of cloths.
12 1/4 yards; depth of the leech.
--
79 5/8 yards.
16 yards in the foot-gores.
3 3/8 yards in the pieces.
--
Total 99 yards.
inches in each gore.
  {1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 14}
  Total 71 inch.
71 inches.
13 number of cloths.
--
5/8) 923
--
576 inches, or 16 yards.

Note. The sloop's second jib is seven-eighths of the size of the first jib; and the third jib is three-fourths of the size of the first jib: but they are both made like the first jib, as above.

 

130
 

SLOOP'S STORM JIB.

This sail is triangular, and made of canvas No. 1 or 2. It is two-thirds of the size of the first jib, and is used in stormy weather, in lieu of a larger one.

The depth of the hoist, divided by the number of gored cloths in it, gives the length of each gore. The foot is gored at the rate of 5 or 6 inches per cloth, encreasing to the clue.

The seams should be 3 or 4 inches broad at the foot, and should decrease to one inch on the hoist. The bolt-rope on the hoist, should be 5 inches in circumference, and on the foot and leech 2 inches and a half. The clue-rope should be 3 inches.

Two strengthening bands of half a breadth of cloth are put on, parallel to the foot, at one-third of the depth of the sail asunder. The clue is lined with a breadth of cloth one yard and a half in length; a piece, one yard long, is put on at the peek; and the cloth at the tack is so cut as to fall to the foot and form its own lining. Thimbles are sometimes seized in the peek, tack, and clue.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL.

Multiply half the number of cloths in the sail by the depth of the leech, and add the quantity is the bands, and pieces.

To find the quantity in the foot-gores. Multiply the number of cloths by the depth of the gores when added together; and five-eighths of the product is the answer.

EXAMPLE.

4 half the number of cloths.
8 yards deep.
--
32 yards.
6 3/4 yards in the foot-gores.
6 yards in the bands and pieces.
--
Total 44 yards.
inches in each gore.
  {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12.}
  Total 48 inches.
48 inches.
8 number of cloths.
--
5/8) 384
--
Total 240 inches, or 6 yards & 3 quarters, nearly.

SLOOP'S FLYING JIB.

This sail is triangular, made of canvas No. 6, and is two thirds of the size of the first jib. It is the foremost sail, and hoists without a stay.

The depth of the hoist, or fore-part, divided by the number of cloths, gives the length of each gore. The foot is gored with a sweep, at the rate of 8 or 9 inches per cloth, encreasing to the clue.

The piece at the clue is one yard and a half in length; that at the peek is one yard; and the cloth at the tack is so cut as to fall to the foot and form its own lining.

The seams should be two inches and a half broad at the foot, and should decrease to one inch at the hoist. The rope on the hoist should be 3 inches and a half in circumference; on the foot, two inches; and on the leech one inch. Three inches of slack-cloth should be taken up with the rope in every yard in the hoist. Thimbles are sometimes spliced in the tack, peek, and clue.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL.

Multiply half the number cloths in the sail by the depth of the leech, and add the quantity in the pieces.

To find the quantity in the foot gores. Multiply the number of cloths by the depth of the gores when added together; and five-eighths of the product is the answer.

EXAMPLE.

4 1/2 half the number of cloths.
8 yards deep.
--
36 yards.
11 1/4 yards the foot-gores.
3 yards in the pieces.
--
Total 50 1/24 yards.
inches in each gore.
  {1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 18.}
   Total 75 inches.
75 inches.
9
--
5/8) 675
--
Total 422 inches, or 11 yards and 1/4, nearly.
 

Sloop's Flying Jib
Sloop's Ring Tail Sail
Scale 1/8 of an Inch to a Foot
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131
 

SLOOP'S RINGTAIL SAIL.

This sail is quadrilateral, and made of canvas No. 7, or 8. It is occasionally hoisted abaft the after-leech of the main sail, to which the fore-leech is made to answer. The head is bent to a small yard at the outer end of the gaff; and the foot is spread on the boom, which is prolonged by a piece lashed to the outer end.

The depth of the fore-leech, being divided by the number of cloths in it, gives the length of the gore on each cloth. The head has a regular gore to answer the peek of the mainsail, and the foot is gored with a gore of one inch per cloth, encreasing to the tack.

The bolt-rope on the head, foot, and after-leech, should be one inch in circumference; and on the fore-leech, one inch and a half.

*** A sail of this kind, but more square, is sometimes extended in light winds, on a small mast, erected for that purpose on the upper part of the stern of some vessels; the foot being spread out by a boom that projects horizontally from the stern.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL.

Add together the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the sum to make it square: add the depth of the leeches together, and halve the sum for a medium depth, which multiplied by the number of square cloths gives the answer.

EXAMPLE.

3 cloths in the head.
8 cloths in the foot.
--
1/2) 11
--
5 1/2 square cloths.
16 yards, medium depth.
--
Total 88 yards.
 

132
 

SMACK'S MAINSAIL.

This sail is quadrilateral, and made of canvas No. 1 or 2. The fore-leech is nearly of the depth of the mast from the under part of the hounds to the boom, and is attached to hoops which encircle the mast. The after-leech is about one-fifth deeper than the fore-leech. The head is bent to the gaff, and spreads within 12 inches of the cleats at the outer-end; and the foot is spread upon the boom, extending within 18 inches of the sheave-hole at the outer-end of it.

The depth of the fore-leech, divided by the number of cloths to the mast, gives the length of the regular gore per cloth; but, if cut with a sweep, the gores must be regulated by judgement. The head is gored at the rate of 4 or 5 inches per cloth; and the foot with a circular sweep at the rate of 12 or 14 inches per cloth, for every cloth in the mast-leech, it having a short gore to the clue on 5 or 6 cloths, at the rate of 3 or 4 inches per cloth.

The fore-leech is lined with a breadth of cloth from the tack to the nock; and the after-leech is lined with a breadth of cloth from the clue to 2 yards above the upper reef-band, where it is cut half way across; and, one part being cut away, the other is so continued about one yard higher. The peek is lined with a piece one yard and a half in length.

The seams should be 4 inches broad 9 feet up from the foot, and 2 inches broad 6 feet down the seam from the head, the remainder of the seam should be one inch broad.

Four reef-bands, from 6 to 8 inches broad, are put on parallel with the foot; the upper one is at three-sevenths of the depth of the fore-leech from the foot, and the others are at equal distances from the upper-one. Sometimes a balance-reef is put on from the nock to the upper reef-cringle on the after-leech.

The bolt-rope on the mast-leech should be 3 inches in circumference, and on the head, foot, and after-leech, one inch and a half. The clue-rope should be 4 inches. And 4 inches of slack-cloth should be taken up with the rope in every yard in the mast-leech.

Iron thimbles, are stuck in the cringles at the tack, nock, peek, and clue; in cringles made on each leech, at the ends of the reef-bands; and in a luff-cringle made on the fore-leech between the lower reef-cringle and the tack.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL.

Add together the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the sum to make it square: add the depth of the fore and after leeches together, and halve the product for a medium depth: then multiply the number of square cloths, by the medium depth, and add the quantity in the bands and pieces.

To find the quantity of canvas in the foot-gores. Add together the gores from the tack to the first square cloth in the foot, and multiply half the sum by the number of cloths in the foot: then add together the gores from the clue to the first square cloth, and multiply half the sum by the number of cloths gored to the clue; which, subtracted from the product of the gores to the tack, gives the answer,

EXAMPLE.

15 cloths in the head.
25 cloths in the foot.
--
1/2 40
--
20 square cloths.
16 yards: medium depth.
--
320 yards.
46 3/8 yards in the foot gores.
46 yards in the linings and pieces.
--
Total 412 3/8 yards.
Gores to the tack.
  {22, 19, 17, 15, 13, 11, 9, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 2, 1, 1, 1.}
  Total 138 inches.
1/2) 138
69 inches.
25 number of cloths in the foot.
--
1725
--

Gores to the clue.
  {1, 2, 4, 6, 9.}
  Total 22 inches.
1/2)22
--
11 inches.
5 cloths gored to the clue
--
55 inches.
--

Inches
1725 in the tack-gores.
55 in the clue-gores.
--
Total 670 inch. or 46 3/8 yds.
 

Smack's Mainsail
Scale 1/8 of an Inch to a Foot
Popup larger image.
 

Smack's Foresail
Smack's Jib
Scale 1/8 of an Inch to a Foot
Popup larger image.
 

133
 

SMACK'S FORESAIL.

This sail is triangular, made of canvas No. 1 or 2, and bends with hanks to the stay next before the mast. The leech is of the same depth as the fore-leech of the mainsail, and there are as many cloths in the foot as will keep clear of the mast.

The depth of the hoist, divided by the number of cloths, gives the length of the gore on each cloth. The foot is gored with a short gore, encreasing to the clue of one inch per cloth, leaving two or three square cloths at the tack.

The leech-cloth is cut square at the upper end, and is so doubled as to form its own lining. The cloth at the tack is cut in the same manner. The leech is lined with a breadth of cloth from the clue to one yard and a half above-the upper reef-band, where it is cut half across; and one part being cut away, the other part is so continued about one yard higher. A broad tabling is generally made on the hoist, but sometimes small triangular pieces are put on at each hole instead of it.

The seams should be 3 or 4 inches wide at the foot, and to decrease to one full inch at the hoists.

Two reef-bands, 4 inches broad, are sometimes put on parallel to the foot, at about one-ninth of the depth of the leech, asunder; but a bonnet is more frequently used to this sail.

The bolt-rope on the stay should be 2 inches and a half, or 3 inches in circumference, and on the foot and leech, one inch and a half or 2 inches. The clue-rope should be 2 inches and a half or 3 inches. Three or four inches of slack-cloth should be taken up with the rope in every yard in the hoists.

Iron thimbles are generally stuck in the cringles at the tack and clue, and in the bight of the rope at the peek. Sometimes this sail has a head-stick.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL.

Multiply the depth of the leech by half the number of cloths in the sail, and add the quantity in the foot-gores, bands, and linings.

To find the quantity in the foot gores. Add together the gores on each cloth; multiply the sum by the number of cloths in the sail, and five-eighths of the product is the answer.

EXAMPLE.

14 1/2 yards: depth of the leech.
5 1/2 half the number of cloths.
--
79 3/4 yards.
5 1/2 yards in the foot-gores.
7 yards in the band and linings.
Total 92 1/4 yards.
Gores on each cloth.
  {1/2, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.}
  Total 28 1/2 inches.
28 1/2 inches
11 number of cloths.
--
5/8) 313 1/2
--
Total 198 inches, or 5 yards and a half.
 

134
 

SMACK'S JIB.

This sail is triangular, made of canvas No. 1 or 2, and generally hoists by haliards, without a stay, next before the fore-sail. The foot is made to spread the bowsprit, and the depth of the leech is from three-quarters of a yard to one yard for every cloth in the foot.

The depth of the hoists, or fore part, divided by the number of cloths, gives the length of each gore. The fourth and fifth cloths from the tack are cut square on the foot, and the cloths each way from them are gored with a sweep, at one inch per cloth, encreasing to the tack and clue.

The upper end of the leech-cloth is cut square, and is doubled back to form its own lining. The tack and clue are lined with a breadth of cloth two yards in length. When this sail is made to hoist with a stay, it either has small triangular pieces put on at each hole in the hoists, or a broad tabling.

The seams should be 3 or 4 inches wide at the foot, and to decrease to one full inch at the hoist.

The rope on the stay should be 5 inches in circumference, and that on the foot and leech, 2 inches. Four or five inches of slack-cloth should be taken up with the rope in every yard in the hoists.

Thimbles are stuck in the cringles at the tack and clue; and one is seized in the bight of the rope at the peek, which is seized with spunyarn. This sail sometimes has a head-stick.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL.

Multiply the depth of the leech by half the number of cloths in the sail: and add the quantity in the foot-gores, and pieces.

To find the quantity in the foot-gores. Add together the gores on each cloth to the clue; multiply the sum by the number of cloths in the sail, and five-eighths of that product is the answer.

EXAMPLE.

12 yards: depth of the leech.
8 1/2 half the number of cloths.
--
102 yards.
23 yards in the foot-gores.
5 yards in the pieces.
--
Total 130 yards
Gores on each cloth to the clue.
  {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12.}
  Total 78 inches.
78 inches.
17 number of cloths.
--
5/8) 1326
--
Total 828 inches, or 23 yards.
 

135
 

THE FOLLOWING SAILS ARE SOMETIMES, THOUGH BUT VERY SELDOM, USED, AND ARE NOT USUALLY MADE IN THE GENERAL PRACTICE.

SKY-SCRAPERS. These sails are triangular, and made of canvas No. 8. The foot spreads half of the royal-yards, and each sail has half the number of cloths in the foot, as are in the head of its respective royal-sail. The peek is hoisted by a haliard to the truck on the mast-head. To find the quantity of canvas: multiply half the number of cloths by the depth.

ROYAL STAYSAILS are quadrilateral, and made of canvas No. 8. They are the same as a topgallant-staysails, only with one or two cloths less, and are hoisted next above them. The rule for finding the quantity of canvas is the same as that for the topgallant-staysails.

STORM MIZEN. This sail is triangular, and similar to a fore-topmast-staysail. It is made of canvas No. 2 or 3, and bends on the fore part to a horse, abaft and parallel to the mizen-mast. The foot is extended towards the taffarel by a sheet. To find the quantity of canvas, multiply half the number of cloths by the depth.

SPRITSAIL-TOPGALLANT-SAIL is quadrilateral, cut square on the head, and is similar to the spritsail-topsail. It is made of canvas No. 8, and is bent on the head, to the spritsail-topgallantsail-yard, which hangs at right angles under the outer end of the jib-boom. The foot spreads the spritsail-topsail-yard, and contains the same number of cloths in it as the head of the spritsail-topsail. One or two cloths are gored on each leech. The rule to find the quantity of canvas is the same as that for the spritsail-topsail.

WINGSAIL FOR KETCHES. This sail is quadrilateral, and similar to the mizen-course of a ship. It is made of canvas No. 6 or 7, and bends abaft the main-mast to hoops which encircle the mast. The head is extended by a gaff. The rule to find the quantity of canvas is the same as that for the mizen-course of a ship.

 

136
 

BOAT'S SETTEE SAIL.

This sail is quadrilateral, and made of canvas No. 7 or 8. The head is bent to a latteen-yard, which hangs obliquely to the mast at one-third of its length, and extends within 6 inches of the cleats.

The cloth at the tack is cut goring to the nock, and the bunt is of the depth of the reef; which is one-fifth of the depth of the leech. The leech is five-sixths of the length of the head.

The length of the head, divided by the number of cloths in it, gives the length of each gore. The foot is cut with a circular sweep, after the sail is sewed together.

Two small holes are made in each cloth along the head; and holes are made across the sail, on each seam, at one-fifth of the depth of the leech from the foot, for the reef. A small reef-cringle is made on the after-leech-rope, and cringles are made at the nock and peek.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL.

Add together the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the sum to reduce it square: add the depth of the bunt and depth of the leech together, and halve the sum for a medium depth; which, multiplied by half the number of square cloths, gives the answer.

EXAMPLE.

7 yards; medium depth.
5 1/2 half the number of cloths.
--
Total 73 yards.

BOAT'S LATTEEN SAIL.

This sail is triangular, and made of canvas No. 7 or 8. It is so called from its head being bent to the latteen-yard, which hangs obliquely to the mast at one-third of its length, extending within 6 inches of the cleats.

The length of the head, divided by the number of cloths, gives the length of the gore on each cloth. The foot is cut square.

Two small holes are made in each cloth along the head, through which the lacings are reeved.

*** This sail, when the head of it (then called the fore-leech) is laced to a mast and topmast, is called a sliding-gunter-sail; the topmast being made to slide down the mast by means of hoops.

It is likewise called a shoulder-of-mutton-sail, when laced by the fore-leech to a single mast.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL.

Multiply half the number of cloths by the length of the head.

EXAMPLE.

3 1/2 half the number of cloths.
6 1/2 yards; length of the head.
--
Total 22 3/4 yards.
 

Sky Scraper
Settee Sail
Lateen Sail
Sliding Gunter Sail
Sliding Gunter Furl'd
Shoulder of mutton Sail
Lug Sail
Scale 1/8 of an Inch to a Foot
Popup larger image.
 

137
 

BOAT'S LUG SAIL.

This sail is quadrilateral, and made of canvas No. 7 or 8. The head is bent to a yard, which hangs obliquely to the mast at one third of its length, and extends within 4 inches of the cleats.

Two or three cloths are gored on the fore-leech, and an even gore of 6 inches per cloth is made on the head. The foot is gored with a sweep; the cloth at the clue being cut with a 3-inch short gore, the next cloth is square, and the cloths from thence to the tack are gored at the rate of 6 or 8, inches per cloth.

The fore-leech is as deep as the length of the head, and the after-leech is longer than the fore-leech by nearly half the depth of the fore-leech.

Two small holes are made in each cloth in the head.

This sail has two reefs parallel with the foot, the upper one is half way up the fore-leech, and the other is equally distant from that and the foot. Sometimes reef-bands 3 or 4 inches broad are put on at the reefs, but when these are not used, a small hole is made in every seam instead of them.

Small cringles are made on the leeches at each reef; earing-cringles are made at the nock and peek; and 10 or 12 strands in the length of the rope are seized at the tack and clue.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL.

Add together the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the sum to make it square: add the depth of the leeches together, and halve the sum for a medium depth: then multiply the number of square cloths by the medium depth, and add the quantity in the foot-gores and reef-bands.

To find the quantity in the foot-gores. Multiply the number of gored cloths to the tack by the foot-gore on the cloth next the tack.

EXAMPLE.

6 square cloths.
4 yards: medium depth.
--
24 yards.
3 1/4 in the foot-gore.
1 in the reef-bands.
--
Total 28 1/4 yards.
5 number of cloths gored to the tack.
20 inches: gore on the cloth next the tack.
--
Total 100 inches, or 3 yards and a quarter, nearly.
 

138
 

BOAT'S SPRITSAILS.

There sails are quadrilateral, and made of canvas No. 7 or 8, the fore-leeches are attached to their respective masts by lacings, reeved through holes made in them; and the heads are elevated and extended by sprits, or small yards, that cross the sail diagonally from the mast to the peek; the lower end of the sprit, rests in a wreath or collar of rope called a snotter, which encircles the mast at the foot of the sail.

The fore-leeches of the main and fore sprit-sails are the depth of the mast within 12 inches of the gunwale, and have one or two gored-cloths. The heads of them have an even gore of 12 or 14 inches per cloth.

The fore-leech of the mizen sprit-sail is the depth of the mast, so as to clear the gunwale; and is square. The head has an even gore of 11 inches per cloth.

Small holes are made in the fore-leeches: those in the main and fore sprit-sails are one yard, and those in the mizen are three-quarters of a yard asunder. Holes are also made in the seams, across the sail, at one-fifth of the depth of the after-leech from the foot, for the reef.

Ten or 12 turns or twists of the strands in the length of the rope is seized, to form bights, at the tack, nock, peek, and clue.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN SPRITSAILS.

Add together the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the sum to make it square: add the depth of the leeches together, and halve the sum for a medium depth; then multiply the number of square cloths by the medium depth.

EXAMPLES.

MAIN-SPRITSAIL

6 square cloths.
6 1/2 medium depth.
--
Total 37 1/2 yards.

FORE-SPRITSAIL

5 square cloths.
5 1/2 medium depth.
--
Total 27 1/2 yards.

MIZEN-SPRITSAIL

3 square cloths.
3 1/2 medium depth.
--
Total 9 1/2 yards.

BOAT'S FORESAIL.

This sail is triangular, and made of canvas No. 8. The leech is of the same depth as the fore-leech of the fore-spritsail, and the foot is made wide enough to spread from the stem to the mast.

The depth of the fore-part, or hoist, divided by the number of cloths, gives the length of each gore. The foot is cut square.

Two inches of slack-cloth should be taken up with the rope in every yard in the depth of the hoist.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL.

Multiply half the number of cloths in the sail by the depth of the leech.

EXAMPLE.

1 1/2 half the number of cloths.
5 yards: depth of the leech.
--
Total 7 1/2 yards.

 

Boat's Sprit Sails and Jib
Jib, Mizen, Fore, Main, Foresail
Scale 1/8 of an Inch to a Foot
Popup larger image.
 

139
 

BOAT'S JIB.

This sail is triangular, and made of canvas No. 8. The leech is of the same depth as the leech of the fore-sail, and the foot is as wide as the length of the bowsprit.

The depth of the fore part, or hoist, divided by the number of cloths, gives the length of each gore. The foot is cut with a sweep, at the rate of 6 or 7 inches per cloth, with a short gore to the clue.

Two inches of slack-cloth should be taken up with the rope in every yard in the hoist.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL.

Multiply half the number of cloths by the depth of the leech.

To find the quantity in the foot-gores. Multiply the gores, when added together, by the number of cloths; and five-eighths of the product is the answer.

EXAMPLE.

1 1/2 half the number of cloths.
4 1/2 yards: depth of the leech.
--
6 3/4 yards.
1 3/4 yards in the foot-gores.
--
Total 8 1/2 yards.
Gores.
3 inches.
6
12
--
21 inches
3 number of cloths.
--
Total 63 inches-, or one yard and three quarters.

OBSERVATIONS.

In order to strengthen sails, it has been recommended to have the holes in the heads and reefs placed thus: one hole to be made in the seam, another in the middle of the canvas, and so on alternately; the hole in the seam to be half an inch lower than the hole in the middle of the canvas. By this the strain would lie upon the holes in the seam, which are more capable of bearing it than those holes which are in the single canvas.

It is likewise recommended to cut these holes with a hollow punch, instead of making them with a stabber or pricker

 

140
 

AWNINGS.

Awnings are made of canvas No. 1 or 2. The length of the main-deck awning is from the centre of the fore-mast to the centre of the main-mast. The width is shaped agreeably to the breadths of the ship, taken at the main-mast, the fore-mast, and at the midway between.

The length of the quarter-deck awning is from the centre of the main-mast to the centre of the mizen-mast. The width is shaped agreeably to the breadths of the ship, taken at the main-mast, the mizen-mast, and at the midway between.

The length of the poop or after-awning is from the centre of the mizen-mast to the ensign-staff, about seven feet above the deck. The width is shaped agreeably to the breadths of the ship, taken at the mizen-mast, the taffarel, and at the midway between.

Vessels in harbour, particularly in the royal navy, have uprights, (instead of masts); one fixed at the break of the quarter-deck, one at the forecastle, and one at the knightheads forward. The lengths and breadths are taken as before, only at those uprights instead of at the masts.

The canvas is cut out to the given breadths of the awning, allowing about nine inches to hang down on each side, which is sometimes scalloped and bound with green baize, and is sewed together with an inch seam, and tabled all round with a two or three inch tabling. Half the diameter of the masts is cut out in the middle at each end, and lacing-holes are made across the ends to connect one awning to another.

On the upper part, along the middle and sides, is sewed one inch and half or two inch rope, to which the trucks are sewed at about three-quarters of a yard asunder. A thimble is spliced in each end of the rope.

Sometimes curtains are made to hang to the sides of the awnings, of the same length as the awnings. Their depth is taken from the sides of the awning to the gunwale, supposing the awning to be in its place. The seams and tablings are the same as those of the awnings, and lacing-holes are made along the upper tabling of the curtain, and the side tabling of the awning.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN AWNINGS.

Multiply the number of cloths by the medium breadth. The medium breadth is found by adding together the three breadths, and dividing the sum by three.

To find the quantity in the curtains. Multiply the number of cloths by the length.

EXAMPLE.

FOR AWNINGS.

Main-deck awning.
24 number of cloths.
9 yards; medium breadth.
--
Total 216 yards.

FOR THE MEDIUM BREADTH

9 Breadth at main-mast.
8 Breadth at the fore mast.
10 Breadth at the midway bet.
--
3) 27
--
medium breadth. 9 yards.

FOR THE CURTAIN.

4 number of cloths.
15 yards in length.
--
60 yards.

 

Awnings Windsails, etc.
The Awnings and Windsails of a Twenty Gun Ship as fixed.
Scale 1/8 of an Inch to a Foot
Popup larger image.
 

141
 

QUARTER-CLOTHS.

Quarter-cloths are made of canvas No. 1 or 2. They are extended from the rough-tree-rail of the quarter-deck to the plank-sheer. The length is taken from the aft-part of the stern, along the rough-tree-rail upon the quarter, to the haunch, or where the rail ends: the depths are taken from the rail to the plank-sheer, at the fore part of the rail, at the taffarel, and at the midway between. They contain in general two whole cloths, and one gored cloth which is always placed at the lower part. The seams are one inch broad, and a two or three inch tabling is made all round.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN QUARTER-CLOTHS.

Multiply the number of whole cloths by the length, and add the quantity in the gored cloth.

To find the quantity in the gored cloth. Take the breadth of the gored-cloth at the ends and in the middle; add them together, and divide their sum by three for a medium breadth. Then multiply that medium breadth by the length of the cloth.

EXAMPLE.

20 yards; length.
2 number of whole cloths.
--
40 yards.
6 2/3 yards in the gored cloth.
--
Total 46 2/3 yards in the quarter-cloth.
To find the quantity in the gored cloth.
12 inches. Breadth at the fore part of the rail.
8 Breadth at the middle.
4 Breadth at the aft-part.
--
3)24
8 inches, or 1/3 of the breadth
multiplied by 20 yards,
--
the length is 6 yards, 24 inches.

MAST-COATS.

Mast-coats are made of canvas No. 1 or 2, to fit round the mast and hole in the deck. When fixed, they have the shape of a cone. Girth the mast about 18 inches above the deck, and girth round the deck three inches from the mast-hole. This gives the circumference at top and bottom. The length is obtained by measuring strait the distance between the places girthed. Divide the lower girths into an equal number of parts, suitably to the width of the canvas, allowing for the seams, which are one inch wide. The cloths must be gored upwards, to produce the circumference of the mast at the top-girth, and, when sewed together, cut with a sweep to set neatly round the mast. The upper part is then sewed into a double canvas collar, six inches wide.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN MAST-COATS.

Multiply the number of cloths by the length, and add the quantity in the collar.

EXAMPLE.

F. In.
1 8 length.
4 number of cloths.
- -
6 8
3 feet in the collar.
- -
9 8 or 31 yards, Total
 

142
 

RUDDER-COATS.

Rudder-coats are made of canvas No. 1 or 2, to fit round the rudder and the hole in the counter. Girth the circumference of the rudder-hole; then round the rudder and part of the stern-post about four feet below the counter, This gives the width at top and bottom. The length is obtained by measuring the distance between the places girdled.

Divide the upper girths into an equal number of breadths, suitably to the canvas, allowing for the seams. The cloths are gored downwards with a small sweep, that the coat may bag, and not set too tight when fixed. The seams are one inch wide, and a two or three inch tabling is made all round.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN A RUDDER-COAT.

Multiply the number of cloths by the length of the coat.

EXAMPLE.

F. In.
4. 9 length of the coat.
6 number of cloths.
- -
28 6 or 91 yards, Total

WINDSAIL, OR VENTILATOR.

The windsail or ventilator is made of canvas No. 1 or 2. It is used for circulating fresh air between deck; and is in the form of a cylinder. Four breadths are sewed together, and the outer selvages joined, with an inch seam, leaving one cloth four feet short of the top. A three inch tabling goes round the top and bottom. It is kept distended by circular hoops, made of ash, sewed to the inside; one at top, and one at every six feet distance. The upper part, or top, is covered with canvas, and a small rope sewed round the edge; into which are spliced, at the quarters, the ends of two pieces of rope, that are sewed up to the middle, and an eye formed by seizing the bights. The length of a windsail is taken nine feet above the deck to three or four feet below the lower hatchway.

RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THE VENTILATOR.

Multiply the number of cloths by the length.

EXAMPLE.

4 number of cloths.
9 yards in length.
--
Total 36 yards.
 


PARLIAMENTARY REGULATIONS RELATIVE TO SAILS AND SAIL-CLOTH.


THE manufacturing of sails and sail-cloth has attracted the attention of the legislature. Regulations have been established and encouragements given, from time to time, for the maker of sail-cloth as well as for the sail-maker.

The act of the 7 and 8 William III. c. 10. § 14 enacts, "That so much of English sail-cloth as shall be found fit for the service of his majesty's navy, shall have the preference of all foreign sail-cloth; and the commissioners of the navy are directed and required, from time to time, to contract and agree for such English-made sail-cloth, and to allow the makers and manufacturers thereof a recompence of two-pence per yard for the same above what they pay for foreign cloth of equal strength and goodness." The acts, however, that materially affect this subject, are the 9 Geo. II. c. 37. and the 19 Geo. II c. 27. both of which, though originally made to continue for severn years only, have been found so beneficial, that they have been continued, and still do regulate this branch of naval manufacture. We have therefore subjoined correct abstracts of both.

Abstracts of "An act for further encouraging and regulating the manufacture of British sail-cloth, and for the more effectual securing the duties now payable on foreign sail-cloth imported into this kingdom.

"All foreign-made sail-cloth or canvas, usually entered as hollands, duck, or vitry canvas, fit for the making of sails, and imported into Great Britain by way of merchandize, for which any duties are payable, shall be stamped at the time of the landing thereof, in the port where the same shall be imported or landed.

"The commissioners of the customs shall provide stamps for all foreign-made sail cloth or canvas imported, with which, after the duty is paid, it shall be stamped; and for that purpose the commissioners shall cause stamps to be distributed to the proper officers of the customs, at every port where such foreign-made sail-cloth or canvas shall be imported; which officers are required to stamp every such piece or parcel of foreign-made sail-cloth or canvas: the stamp denote the place or country from whence the said cloth or canvas shall be imported; and the commissioners in providing the stamps shall take care that they be so contrived that the impression may be durable, and so as the same may be the least liable to be counterfeited; and the said stamps may be altered or renewed, from time to time, as his majesty shall think fit; and if any person counterfeit or forge any such stamp or impression upon any foreign made sail-cloth, then such person so offending, and duly convicted thereof, shall forfeit the sum of fifty pounds; and if any person shall sell, or expose to sale, any such foreign made sail-cloth with a counterfeit stamp thereon, knowing the same to be counterfeit, such offender shall forfeit the sum of fifty pounds.

And for the better ascertaining and distinguishing the sail-cloth of the British manufacture from foreign sail-cloth, every manufacturer of sail-cloth in Great-Britain shall affix or impress, or cause to be affixed or impressed, on every piece of sail-cloth by him manufactured, a stamp, containing the name and place of abode of such manufacturer, in plain distinct letters and words at length; and if

 

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any manufacturer of sail-cloth, or other person, shall sell or expose to sale, or work up into sails, any piece or bolt of British sail-cloth without being stamped as aforesaid, such manufacturer or other person so offending, and being thereof lawfully convicted upon the oath of one or more credible witness or witnesses before any justice of the peace for the place where the offence be committed, shall forfeit the sum of ten pounds for every piece of sail-cloth by him or them sold or exposed to sale, or worked up into sails, not being so stamped; and if any person shall wilfully or maliciously cut off, destroy, or obliterate, any stamp so affixed, (except in the tarring or working up the same,) or shall affix or impress any stamp, on which shall be stamped the name or place of abode of any other person, and not his or their real name or names and place or places of abode, such person, being convicted of any of the said offences, shall, for every offence, forfeit the sum of five pounds; which last mentioned forfeiture shall be levied and recovered by distress, and sale of the offender's goods and chattels, by warrant under the hands and seals of two or more justices of the peace for the place where the offence shall be committed, and shall be applied to the use of the informer or informers.

And, for encouraging the use and consumption of the manufacture of British sail-cloth, every ship or vessel which shall be built in Great-Britain, and every ship or vessel which shall be built in any of his majesty's plantations in America, shall, upon her first setting out to sea, have or be furnished with one full and compleat set of sails made up of sail-cloth manufactured in Great-Britain; and in case such ship shall not, on her first setting out, be so fitted out and furnished, that then, and for every such neglect and default, the master of such ship shall forfeit the sum of fifty pounds.

No sail-maker, or other person, in this kingdom, shall make up into sails or tarpawlins any foreign-made sail-cloth or canvas, not stamped according to the directions of this act; and in case any person shall make or work up into sails or tarpawlins any foreign-made sail-cloth or canvas, other, than as aforesaid, such sails and tarpawlins shall be forfeited; and such sail-maker, &c. shall likewise forfeit the sum of twenty pounds.

All sail-cloth made in Great-Britain shall be manufactured in the manner and according to the directions hereinafter mentioned, viz. every piece or bolt of British sail-cloth, that shall be 24 inches in breadth and thirty-eight yards in length, shall weigh according to the numbers and weights here mentioned; viz. No. 1, 44 pounds each bolt; No. 2, 41; No. 3, 38; No. 4, 35; No. 5, 32; No. 6, 29; No. 7, 24; No. 8, 21; No. 9, 18; and No. 10, 15 pounds each bolt.

And in case any piece or bolt of either of such respective numbers or sorts of British sail-cloth shall be made of a different breadth or length than before mentioned, such piece or bolt of British sail-cloth shall be encreased or diminished in weight, in proportion to the difference in such length or breadth, and shall be marked or stamped with such number as shall be agreeable to the weight; and the warp or chain of every piece or bolt of the first six numbers of such British sail-cloth shall be wholly wrought and made of double yarn, and shall contain, in every piece or bolt of 24 inches in breadth, at least 560 double threads of yarn, and in every piece of such sail-cloth, that shall be 30 inches in breadth, at least 700 double threads of yarn; and in every bolt of such sail-cloth, that shall be of any other breadths than as aforesaid, a certain number or quantity of double threads of yarn, in proportion to the number of double threads of yarn expressed to be contained in the breadth, as aforesaid; and the warp and shoot yarn, which shall be wrought in every piece or bolt of the first four numbers of such sail-cloth, be made of long flax, without any mixture of short or bar flax; or of long flax, or Italian hemp, or Braak hemp; and all the flax and hemp used in making the warp and shoot yarn of such sail-cloth, of the aforesaid four first numbers, shall be of a strong staple, fresh, sound, and

 

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good in its kind, and well dressed; and the yarn well cleansed, even spun and well twisted; and all the shoot yarn of each piece of sail-cloth of the four first numbers shall be full as strong as the warp yarn, and close struck with four shoots of treble threads at the distance of every two feet or thereabouts; and both the warp and shoot yarn shall be as strong as the warp and shoot yarn that are usually wrought in the sail-cloth of those four first numbers that are made for and used in his majesty's navy: and no flax yarn used in any British sail-cloth shall be whitened with lime, on forfeiture of six-pence per yard for every yard that shall be so whitened, made, sold, or worked up into new sails, in Great-Britain, any ways essentially different, lighter, or inferior in strength and goodness to any of the aforesaid directions or restrictions.

Every sail-maker or other person, who shall make or work up sail-cloth into sails or tarpawlins, shall cause this act, or an abstract thereof, to be put up or affixed, there to continue, in some public part of the loft, shop, or workhouse, where his said trade is carried on, or his workmen employed, under the penalty of forty shillings.

Abstract of "An act for the more effectual securing the duties now payable on foreign-made sail-cloth imported into this kingdom; for charging all foreign-made sails with a duty; and for explaining a doubt concerning ships being obliged at their first setting out to sea to be furnished with one compleat set of sails made of British sail-cloth."

" Every master of any ship or vessel belonging to any of his majesty's subjects, navigated with any foreign-made sail or sails, or who shall have any foreign-made sail or sails on-board his ship or vessel, shall, at the time of making his entry or report of such ship or vessel at the Custom-House, make a report upon oath of all foreign-made sails used in or being on-board such ship or vessel; and he shall, before such ship or vessel is cleared by the officers of the customs inwards, where such ship makes any discharge of her lading, pay the same duties as are payable for all foreign-made sails imported by way of merchandize.

Every such sail shall be stamped at the port where such ship makes her entry in manner herein-after mentioned; and in case the master of such ship shall not make the said entry, and pay such duty before the ship shall be cleared by the officers of the customs, such sails shall be forfeited, and the master shall for every offence forfeit the sum of fifty pounds, one moiety thereof to the use of his majesty, and the other moiety to the person who shall sue for the same.

Provided always, if the master of such ship shall, after his report made, and before the ship is cleared by the officers of the customs, declare his intention of not paying the said duty, and shall deliver to the officer of the customs of the port, where he makes such report, the sails for which he has declared his intention of not paying the said duty; in such case the sails are hereby declared to be forfeited to his majesty; and such master shall not be subject or liable to pay the said duty or penalty of fifty pounds.

Provided always, that nothing herein contained shall be deemed, construed, adjudged, or taken, to charge or make liable any captain or master of any ship coming from the East-Indies, with any of the duties or forfeitures aforesaid, for or upon account of such ship being navigated with, or having onboard, any foreign-made sail or sails, which shall be by such captain or master brought from the East-Indies.

All foreign-made sail-cloth or canvas, usually entered as hollands, duck, or vitry canvas, fit to be made use of for the making of sails, which shall be imported into Great-Britain, by way of merchandize, and upon the importation whereof any duties are made payable, shall be stamped at the time

 

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of the landing thereof, at or in the port or place where the same shall be imported, as hereafter mentioned.

And whereas the stamps used in pursuance of the former act are of too small dimensions, and make a very obscure mark and impression, liable to be soon defaced and become undistinguishable, it is enacted, that the commissioners of the customs shall provide stamps of 8 inches diameter each, for the stamping of all foreign-made sails and foreign-made sail-cloth, and shall cause the said stamps to be distributed amongst proper officers of the customs, of every port in Great-Britain; and the officers of every port are hereby required to stamp all foreign-made sails, and foreign-made sail-cloth, which shall be imported into the several ports where they reside; and which stamps shall, in order to make the impression durable, be dipped in a liquor made of red-lead, mixed with linseed oil well boiled; and the stamp or impression therewith made shall express and denote the place and port in which such sails and foreign-made sail-cloth are entered; and the commissioners, in providing the stamps, shall take care that they be so contrived, that the impression may be plain and durable, and so as the same may be the least liable to be counterfeited: and if any person shall counterfeit or forge any stamp provided in pursuance of this act, upon any foreign-made sail-cloth, or foreign-made sails, or shall sell such sail-cloth with counterfeited or forged stamps, knowing the same to be forged, then such person so offending shall forfeit the sum of fifty pounds.

No sail-maker or other person, within Great-Britain or in his majesty's plantations in America, shall make up into sails or tarpawlins any foreign-made sail-cloth not stamped according to this act; and in case any person shall make up into sails or tarpawlins, any foreign sail-cloth other than as aforesaid, such sails and tarpawlins shall be forfeited; and every person so offending, and being thereof lawfully convicted, upon the oath of one or more credible witnesses, before one or more justices of the peace, for the place where the offence shall be committed, shall forfeit the sum of fifty pounds, for every such sail or tarpawlin; which penalty of fifty pounds shall be levied and recovered by distress and sale of the offender's goods and chattels, by warrant under the hands and seals of two or more justices of the peace for the place where the offence shall be committed, and shall go and be applied to the use of the informers; and for want of such distress, such justices may commit such person to gaol for the space of six months, or until he pays the penalty of fifty pounds.

Every person who shall make up into sails any foreign-made sail-cloth, shall place the stamps affixed or impressed on such foreign sail-cloth in the most conspicuous part of such sails, (that is to say,) on the after-side of such sails, and in such manner, that the number of stamps in every sail may appear proportionably to the number of bolts or pieces contained in the said sail; and in case any person shall make up any foreign-made sail-cloth or canvas, into sails, in any other manner than as aforesaid, such sails shall be forfeited, and such person shall for every offence forfeit the sum of ten pounds.

No person whatsoever shall alter, repair, or mend, any sails, made of foreign-made sail-cloth, not stamped according to this act; and in case any person shall alter, repair, or mend, any sails not stamped as aforesaid, such person shall, for every sail so mended, forfeit the sum of twenty pounds.

Every sail-maker in Great-Britain, and in his majesty's plantations in America, affix or impress, or cause to be affixed or impressed, on every new sail by him so made, a stamp, 8 inches in diameter, containing the name and place of abode of such sail-maker in plain distinct letters and words at length; and which said stamp, in order to make the impression durable, shall be dipped in a liquid made with lamp-black, mixed with linseed-oil well boiled; and in case any person shall make any new sail, and shall deliver the same to any captain or master of any ship or vessel, not being stampt

 

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with his name and place of abode, such sail shall be forfeited; and every person shall, for every sail by him so delivered, not stamped, forfeit the sum of ten pounds.

And whereas doubts have arisen about the meaning of a clause in the preceding act, of the ninth year of his present majesty's reign, by which ships are obliged at their first setting out, or being first navigated at sea, to be furnished with one full and compleat set of sails made of sail-cloth manufactured in Great-Britain: to obviate such doubts for the future, it is enacted, that every ship or vessel built in Great-Britain, or in his majesty's plantations in America, shall upon her first setting out, or being first navigated, be furnished with one compleat set of new sails, (bona fide belonging to such ship or vessel) made of sail-cloth manufactured in Great-Britain; and in case such ship or vessel shall not, on her first setting our, be furnished with a new set of sails made of sail-cloth of the manufacture of Great-Britain as aforesaid, that, for every such default, the master of such ship or vessel shall forfeit the sum of fifty pounds.

It has been subsequently enacted by the 33 Geo. III. c. 49. that no part of the penalties, contained in the 9 Geo. II. c. 37. which do not attach to double sail cloth, shall extend to British canvas made with single thread warps, corded or not corded, and fit for or made into sails. And that such single canvas shall be deemed British sail cloth, and be equally entitled, with double canvas, to the bounties. Provided that the said single thread sail cloth be made of equally good materials, and be conformable, in weight and all other things, to the restrictions on double thread sail cloth.

DUTIES PAYABLE UPON THE IMPORTATION OF SAIL CLOTH.

£. s. d.
Sail cloth or duck, Dutch or French, not exceeding 36 inches in breadth for 120 ells, 2 3 1
Sail cloth or duck, Dutch or French, exceeding 36 inches for 120 ells, 3 16 1
Sail cloth of Russia, in British ships, not exceeding 36 inches for 120 ells, 2 1 9
Sail cloth of Russia, in foreign ships, not exceeding 36 inches for 120 ells, 2 3 1
Sail cloth of Russia, in British ships, exceeding 36 inches for 120 ells,
3 14 9
Sail cloth of Russia, in foreign ships, exceeding 36 inches for 120 ells, 3 16 1
Sail cloth of Russia, not exceeding 36 inches, and not otherwise enumerated, for 120 ells, 3 14 9
Sail of Russia, exceeding 36 inches, and not otherwise enumerated, for 120 ells, 3 14 9
Sail cloth or canvas, of Ireland, on which the bounty of 4d. per yard has been there granted, and of the value of 1s. 2d. per yard, or upwards, the yard, 0 0 4
Sail cloth or canvas, of Ireland, on which the bounty of 2d. per yard has been there granted, of the value of 10d. and under 1s. 2d. the yard, per yard 0 0 2
Sails ready made for every 100 pounds thereof, 45 0 0

It is the practice of Government to mark each bolt or piece of canvas, before it is made up into sails, with a blue streak down the middle; made with a composition of linseed oil, white lead, and ground indigo, well boiled together.

By the 9 and 10 Wm. III. c. 41. Any person in whose possession any canvas with the blue streak up the middle, being the king's mark, is found, without a certificate of its having been purchased of the commissioners of the navy, forfeits the property, and is liable to the penalty of £200 with costs of suit. By the 9 Geo. I. c. 8. The judge, before whom such offender is convicted, is empowered to mitigate the penalty, commit until the same be paid, or order corporal punishment, by being publickly whipped; or kept to hard labour for a time, not exceeding six months.

The commissioners of his majesty's navy by the 1st. of Geo. I. c. 15. are empowered, for embezzlement of the king's stores under the value of 20s. to fine the offender, not exceeding double the value taken; or to imprison, not exceeding three months.

 

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SAIL-TABLES
TABLE I.
Shewing the Length of any Gore by its Depth, from 1 Inch to 6 Feet in Depth, on the Selvage of Canvass
24 Inches Wide.
EXAMPLE
In the column of Depth, find the Depth required, and the opposite Column will shew the proper Length. Suppose the Depth be 3 Feet 5 Inches, opposite to it will be found 4 Feet, which is the Length required.

TABLE II.
The Number of Reefs, Points, Ropebands, and Gaskets, in fitting each of the under mentioned Sails.
If more Points, Ropebands or Gaskets, are used than in the Table, they are made on-board.
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TABLE III.
A Table of the Sizes of all Bolt-Ropes.
Clue-Ropes for the Main and Fore Courses to be 2 Inches bigger from 50 upwards, and 1 1/2 bigger downward.
Clue-Ropes for the Mizen Course 1/2an Inch bigger and 3 Fathoms long. Cringles 1/2 an Inch less than the Rope.
Clue-Ropes to Flying-Jibs and Drivers to be 1/2 an Inch bigger and 2 Fathoms long.
* All Stay-Sails have Clue-Ropes 1/2 Inch bigger and 2 Fathoms long.
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Table IV. Dimensions of the different Sails belonging to a Ship of each Class in the Royal Navy and Merchant-Service
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TAB. IV. Continued. Dimensions of the different Sails belonging to a Ship of each Class in the Royal Navy and Merchant-Service
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IN the merchant-service, the masting of ships often depends upon the fancy of the builder or owner; of course, the dimensions of the sails must correspondently vary. It would not, therefore, have been attended with great utility, if we had given the dimensions of sails to merchant-ships of particular tonnages; because some sails house more than others, and their heads are of very different lengths. They will be best obtained by following the directions for the making of each sail, as given before in this treatise.


It has been suggested, by a very experienced sail-maker, that much advantage would frequently result to the naval service, if many of the sails of ships were made of equal size; so that, in cases of necessity, they might be interchangeably used. Thus, the mizen-top-sail being, at present, nearly the size of the main-top-gallant sail, there seems no reason why the yards, masts, and, of course, the sails, should not be made to suit each other.

The main and fore top-sails only differ, in general, 1 cloth, or about 2 feet, at head and foot, and in depth from 1 to 3 feet: the masts, yards, and sails, might here be made alike; as, indeed, is generally the practice in brigs, and was first introduced in the North-country trade.

The main and fore top-gallant-sails differ very little in depth, and only 1 cloth, or about 2 feet, at head and foot: these might easily be made alike.

The mizen top-gallant-sail and main and fore royal might be brought to the same Dimensions.

The mainsail and foresail might be made alike as to their head; but, as the mainsail has a gore at the leech and a larger gore at the foot, in order to clear it of the gallows, boats, &c. which the foresails has not, it may be more difficult to arrange them; but, if much convenience is found in the sails named above, this might be obviated in time.

The number of sails in a vessel take up considerable room; they are put all together, in a sail-room or cabbin, and create confusion in getting out; and, in the event of losing sails by stress of weather, and in long voyages, the above alterations might be very useful.

The spare yards and masts on-board a ship might hence be reduced in number; and, if attention were paid, in the lower-masts, to captain Pakenham's plan, there seldom seems a case where a vessel, meeting damage at sea in her masts, yards, sails, or rigging, might not be repaired without going into harbour.

Topmast studding-sails, as well as lower studding-sails, are occasionally substituted for awnings; they might, by a very little attention in planning the rigging of a ship, be made so as to answer both uses.

Probably These hints would be attended with more advantage in the merchant-service than in the royal navy, because a merchant-ship is not often so plentifully stored with spare sails as ships of the British navy.



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