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Practice of Stowing a Ships Ballast etc.
and of Stopping Gun-Shot Leaks.
A Twenty Gun Ships Iron Ballast and Ground Tier
A Ships tendency to pitch or roll may be greatly diminished by a judicious distribution of her stowage the heaviest part of it should therefore be as near as possible to the centre of gravity.
The Iron ballast is first stowed upon the foot watings in the main hold next to fir cants nailed at 5 or more inches from the limber boards  It is winged up 3 or more pigs above the floor heads in midships.  Two tiers of pigs are in the wake of the main hatchways and web wings.
Of Iron ballast there are two sorts; one of 7, the other of 21 pigs to the ton. Sloops etc. use the latter only.  The large pigs are 3 feet long and 6 by 5 inches square, the small are one foot 6 inches long and 5 by 4 Inches square:  Eighth or more pigs are reserved for ballasting boats etc. and are placed conveniently for use, down the main hatch way after the hold is stowed.
Ships having a clear run aft seldom have Iron ballast abaft the pump well. Large Ships that have floor and futtock riders, have the Iron ballast stowed lengthwise or athwartships, according to the length of the chambers.
The quantity of shingle ballast is discretionary. It is spread and levelled over the Iron.  The ground tier of water is then stowed; the Casks have their bungs upwards: are wedged free from each other, and are sunk 1/4 of their diameter into the shingle. They are stowed either chine and chine, or bouge and chine: beginning at the foremast or coal room bulkhead: the breakage, if any is made a the well bulkhead: the midships tiers, fore and aft, are first laid down; and the side are filled with wingers of small Casks, as half Hogs heads, etc. which must not be raised above the level of the tier, or they will cause a breakage in the tier above, which is stowed in the the cuntline of the ground tier.  The stowage is thus continued for as many tier as will lie sufficiently clear of the beams; a proper quantity of shingle being laid between every tier.
Abreast the well over the ground tier are stowed wet provisions; above the ground tier in the after hold are stowed dry provisions; and between the Casks are wood and shingle ballast. The fish room will commonly take one longer of pipes; in it are stowed some of the spirits and Wine: sometimes Coals: In the spirit room are the Wind and Spirits for the Ships use.

In Merchant Ships the various Casks packages etc. must be wedged off from the bottom sides, pump well, etc.

Mr. Hills invention for Stopping Leaks, occasioned by Gun-shot holes.
This invention consists of a circular piece of Elm from 2 to 4 Inches thick and of a circumference sufficient to cover the shot hole.  The outside convex and the inside somewhat concaved; to be lined with several folds of Flannel or Kersey dipped in warm Tallow.  Through the Centre of this piece of Elm and Flannel is a hole for a Rope to be passed through, from 2 to 4 In. in Circumference and about Six Feet long with a double-wall-knot on the outside end, tapered and served to an eye at the other end.  The whole is thus used.  From the inside of the Vessel is thrust through the Shot Hole, Spun-yard or small Line of sufficient length to float on the Water: the inner end being retained on board, the outer or floating one is taken up and fastened to the eye in the tapered Rope: the Spunyard is then hauled upon until the stopper covers the Shot hole and it a greater strain is wanted to press the flannel round the edges of the hold, a Tackle must be used.
NB. Should the Shot hold not be sufficiently clear to admit the Spunyarn through it, an auger must be used.

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