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The Invention of Captain Edward Pakenham.
Inventions for Saving a Rudder when beaten off.
Substitute for a Rudder when lost.
Method of restoring Masts when wounded by inverting them.
If the wound is within such a distance from the head as is beneath the deck, the mast when inverted will be as good as new; as it may be fished and secured to any degree required.

No. I consists of a square fid made to fit the upper hole of the rudder and bolted through the rudder head.  It has likewise a Coaming fitted round the rudder hole and well secured to the Deck, for the fid to work on, acting as an upper gudgeon, in case the pintles are beaten off.  Palls are bolted through the forepart of the Coaming, to quiet the Rudder, in the room of Chock, in case the tiller should be carried away.
No. II consists of a circular run of Oak or Em, bolted and clenched round the rudder hole from 9 to 12 In. broad and 9 Inches thick at the fore part, decreasing its depth aft, so that its surface may be square with the rudder-head. In the middle of the rim, on the upper surface there is let in, one half of its thickness, and screwed, an Iron Plate, about 4 Inches broad and half an Inch thick.  On the forepart of the Plate, on each side of the middle line, are punched holes, that are bored through the Deck, to receive Iron shoulddered bolts: by placing one of which on each side of the Iron bolt which goes through the rudder head, the rudder  is quieted when the tiller is broken. An Iron bolt at the height of the circulare rim is driven through the rudder head and an Iron hoop on the head of the rudder.
The Deck represented in both these drawings is the middle deck in three decked Ships, and the upper Deck in two decked Ships.
The Sole of Rudders is recommended to be 9 or 12 Inches in depth: by which in case partially grounding, the Rudder may be saved with the loss of Sole only.
This second plan is equally applicable to Ships that stee with a tiller on deck, by having the Coaming fixed upon the Deck immediately underneath the tiller; and it is presumed to possess these other advantages; the upper tiller hold is preserved vacant for use in case the lower tiller be broken; the round bolt through the Rudder will work upon the circular plate, as an upper gudgeon, with less friction; and the shouldered bolts will stop the rudder when in any direction.
Method of Stearing with the Wheel from the upper tiller in cases when the lower tiller is broken. Viz. Three decked Ships are fitted with a block in mid ships, under the upper deck (the same as fixed under the middle deck) that the upper tiller mayb the connected to the Wheel by ropes leading from the Wheel, through the Block under the upper deck, thence through a Block fixed in the side, and thence to the upper Tiller.
All three decked Ships are, by order of the Admiralty, to be fitted with a block for this purpose.

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