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RADAR OPERATORS' MANUAL, RADAR BULLETIN NO. 3, (RADTHREE), April 1945 was created near the end of WW II. It describes the peak of WW II US radar technology.

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CONFIDENTIAL, RADAR BULLETIN NO. 3, (RADTHREE), RADAR OPERATORS' MANUAL, UNITED STATES FLEET, HEADQUARTERS OF THE COMMANDER IN CHIEF

UNITED STATES FLEET
HEADQUARTERS OF THE COMMANDER IN CHIEF
NAVY DEPARTMENT
WASHINGTON 25, D. C.

April 1945.

FF1 /S67-5
Serial: 01090

CONFIDENTIAL

From: Commander in Chief, United States Fleet.
To: DISTRIBUTION LIST ATTACHED.

Subject: Change 1 to Radar Operator's Manual (RADTHREE).

Enclosure: (A) New pages for subject change.
1. Addressees are directed to make the following changes in such copy or copies of RADTHREF as held, and to destroy the pages removed:

(a) Remove flyleaf.
(b) Replace pages i and ii with new pages furnished in Enclosure (A).
(c) Replace pages 3-25 to 3-34, inclusive, with new pages furnished in Enclosure (A).

Signature of W.S. DeLany
W.S. DeLany,
Assistant Chief of Staff.


UNITED STATES FLEET
HEADQUARTERS OF THE COMMANDER IN CHIEF
NAVY DEPARTMENT
WASHINGTON 25, D. C.

5 August 1944

1. This publication, Radar Operators Manual, is issued for the information of commissioned, warrant, and enlisted personnel to provide a standard basis of information relative to radar operation in the United States Fleet. It is effective upon receipt.

2. This publication is CONFIDENTIAL and shall be handled as prescribed in Article 76, U. S. Navy Regulations, 1920. When no longer required for use it shall be destroyed by burning.

3. While the classification of this publication is necessarily CONFIDENTIAL, Commanding Officers are urged to make certain that the book is available to all radar personnel whose duties require access to the information contained therein.

4. Requests for this publication shall be made to Headquarters, Commander in Chief, United States Fleet, (Readiness Division).

C. M. COOKE, JR.,
Chief of Staff.

i

CHANGE NO. 1


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Promulgating Letter i
Table of Contents ii
Foreword iii
Part 1 - GENERAL RADAR PRINCIPLES 1-1
 INTRODUCTION1-4
 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF RADAR 1-9
 MAIN PARTS OF A RADAR SYSTEM 1-13
 GENERAL RADAR CHARACTERISTICS 1-47
 FACTORS AFFECTING RADAR RANGE 1-47
 HOW DOES RADAR DETERMINE ALTITUDE 1-47
 SPECIAL USES OF RADAR 1-54
 FUTURE OF RADAR 1-55
Part 2 - GENERAL IFF PRINCIPLES 2-1
 INTRODUCTION 2-2
 PRESENT UNIVERSAL SYSTEM-MARK III IFF 2-3
 SECURITY 2-12
 ADDITIONAL USES OF IFF 2-13
 EQUIPMENT FAILURES 2-14
 LIMITATIONS OF MARK III IFF 2-14
 SUMMARY 2-17
Part 3 - GENERAL OPERATIONAL TECHNIQUES 3-1
 INTRODUCTION3-3
 SURFACE-SEARCH RADAR3-3
 AIR-SEARCH RADAR3-7
 PIPOLOGY
 INTRODUCTION3-10
 COMPOSITION3-10
 FALSE CONTACTS3-18
 PPI INTERPRETATION3-21
 MISCELLANEOUS CONSIDERATIONS3-24
 DEFENSE AGAINST JAMMING AND DECEPTION
 INTRODUCTION3-25
 TACTICAL RADAR JAMMING3-25
 ELECTRONIC JAMMING3-26
 MECHANICAL JAMMING3-30
 ENEMY DECEPTION3-33
Part 4 - SPECIFIC EQUIPMENT 4-1
 SG RADAR4-SG-1
 SC, SK RADARS4-SC/SK-1
 MARK 3, MARK 4 RADARS4-MK3/MK4-1
 SA RADAR4-SA-1
 SL RADAR4-SL-1
 SO RADAR4-SO-1
 SF RADAR4-SF-1
 SJ RADAR4-SJ-1
 SD RADAR4-SD-1
Part 5 - RELATIVE MOTION-COMBAT INFORMATION CENTER 5-1
 THE CONCEPT OF RELATIVE MOTION 5-2
 USING THE MANEUVERING BOARD 5-5
 ILLUSTRATED EXAMPLES 5-8
 PRACTICE PROBLEMS 5-14
 INTRODUCTION 5-15
 OBJECT OF COMBAT INFORMATION CENTER 5-15
 FUNCTIONS OF COMBAT INFORMATION CENTER 5-15
 TYPICAL COMBAT INFORMATION CENTER 5-17
Part 6 - TELEPHONE TALKING PROCEDURE 6-1
 INTRODUCTION 6-2
 TELEPHONE CIRCUITS 6-2
 TYPES OF SOUND-POWERED PHONES 6-4
 WEARING THE PHONES 6-4
 HOW TO SPEAK OVER SOUND-POWERED PHONES 6-6
 STANDARD PROCEDURE AND STANDARD TERMINOLOGY 6-8
 SECURING THE PHONES 6-10
 SUMMARY 6-12

ii

CHANGE NO. 1


FOREWORD

NOTE: You are being entrusted with vital military secret when you learn about radar. It is imperative that you keep what you learn about the operation, performance and functions of all radar a secret. Stop and consider what radar does for you in guarding your hip and in protecting your life and the lives of your shipmates. This miracle weapon is largely on our side. That is where it will remain if security functions properly. KEEP WHAT YOU LEARN TO YOURSELF!

This manual has been prepared in response to repeated requests for a summarization of radar operating information written in non-technical terms, to be used by ships and other units in setting up training programs of their own for officers and men. In its preparation, care has been taken to avoid terms that are not readily understandable. It has been the purpose of the writers to use simple language and familiar illustrations so that the contents will be within the comprehension of the untrained seaman.

Part I is a simplified course in general radar principles presented in a fashion similar to that used at radar operator's schools. It is given as a fundamental course prior to instruction on the radar equipment, for it has been found that the one who knows the reasons for tome of the phenomena encountered in operation develops into a better and more resourceful operator. It is therefore recommended, that in setting up a training program, all operators be instructed in radar principles.

Part 2 is a presentation of the principles and employment of IFF (Identification, Friend or Foe). It points out some of the shortcomings of the IFF currently in use, some of the problems that result, and some methods for solving these problems. A thorough study of this chapter should be made, and all radar personnel are urged to be constantly alert for changes and new developments in this held.

A general discussion of operational techniques is presented in Part 3 (and particularized for each radar in Part 4). In Part 3, many questions that arise in the minds of operators who have not had the opportunity to attend a thoroughgoing, formal course of instruction at a radar school are answered. For instance, the experience representing many hundreds

  of hours of operation answers such questions as "When should automatic control of antenna rotation be used, and when manual?" When should the PPI scope be used, and when is the "A" scope the preferred unit?" It has been found that many operators who received their training before the development of the PPI scope are not getting maximum benefit from present-day radar because they have never learned the full advantages of the PPI and the proper method of using it.

Another section of Part 3 is devoted to a general discussion of pipology, the art of interpreting the various types of pips that appear on radar scopes. This is not an exact science, but an art in which the operator cannot be expected to attain absolute perfection. It is probably the most difficult, and yet most interesting phase of radar operation. The basic principles and finer points are discussed and illustrated to give the operator the benefit of the experience of others, so that he need not start at the "bottom of the ladder". Even so, proficiency comes only after the operator has made many estimates, good and poor. and has been encouraged and corrected by a patient topside observer who can see the targets under consideration.

The third section of Part 3 is a discussion of both mechanical and electronic jamming, with stress on operational counter-measures. It is vitally important that all radar personnel understand this section thoroughly.

Individual radar sets are carefully illustrated and discussed in Part 4. Correct step-by-step procedure in turning on and off, calibrating, tuning and operating each set is presented in this chapter. The various uses of each set are explained. Anti-jamming techniques are discussed briefly. Ways to recognize improper operation and inferior performance are described, along with suggestions for correcting these faults. Finally, results to be expected from each are given, so that the efficiency of radars aboard ships may be compared, and steps taken to correct performance if it is not up to standard.

The new requirements for advancement in rating as a radarman demand a knowledge of plotting and combat information center (CIC) operation. It is therefore necessary that all radar operators become adept plotters as well. At the radar operator's schools,

 
iii

FOREWORD

air plotting is taught concurrently with air-search radar; and surface plotting, covering use of the maneuvering board and DRT, is taught along with surface-search radar. Approved methods of plotting air and surface targets from radar information are outlined in RADFOUR and RADFIVE.

Part 5 gives a clear and concise explanation of the relative motion problem, with a series of practice problems on the maneuvering board. Classes should he organized to study the text and work the sample problems given. Similar test problems should be developed by the CIC officer for additional practice. Constant practice, and only constant practice, will produce the degree of proficiency necessary for good operation in CIC.

A brief section on CIC has been added to acquaint the operator with the basic object and functions of that organization, inasmuch as he will not only work with it but in it.

To answer the need for a standardized phone-talking procedure, Part 6 has been included. In this part there is a discussion of phone circuits, articulation, procedure, standard Navy phraseology, and care

  of the phones. The radar operator must learn to appreciate the importance of his role in the ships internal communications system, and to make a concerted effort to perfect his technique so that vital time may he saved and misunderstandings minimized.

Because of the urgent need for this manual, it has been rushed to press even though Part 4 is incomplete. For this reason and also because developments in radar equipment and operational techniques are in a state of flux, the manual has been bound in loose-leaf form. From time to time new material will be introduced and old material deleted so that the manual will keep pace with this rapidly changing field. Nevertheless, it will probably he impossible to keep it completely up-to-date at all times. For this reason, even though information presented is believed the best available, it will not he claimed that variation from every procedure here outlined should never be permitted. In some instances, to deal with special cases, it may not only be practical but advisable to follow another course of action. Resourcefulness based on knowledge and sound judgment should always he the goal.

 
iv

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