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Chapter 4
SHIPS PYROTECHNICS
 
Description

26. The term Ships Pyrotechnics applies to all items of such equipment allotted specifically to surface vessels of the fleet. These include Ships Emergency Identification Signals, Depth Charge Markers, Signal Lights, and the appropriate firing devices for each.

Ships Emergency Identification Signals

27. Four types of ships emergency identification signals are now issued to the fleet. They are Ships Emergency Identification Signal Mk 1, Mk 2, Mk 3, and Mk 4. All are of the mortar grenade type signal for use with Signal Projector Mk 1. The outer cases of all four types are similar in manufacture and appearance. They vary as to the length of body, the amount of propelling charge, and the embossing on the closing cap, which indicates the color and pattern of the signal. The outer cases are of extruded aluminum 2.5 inches outside diameter. The base projections are drilled longitudinally to accept the delay train pellets and house the primers. That portion of each base projection between the primer and the delay pellet is drilled radially, to permit the primer to flash through to the propelling charge, as shown in Fig. 4.

(a) Ships Emergency Identification Signal

Mk 1 is a single-star parachute signal, which is projected to a height of approximately 550 feet and burns for 25 seconds, plus or minus five seconds. It is available in RED, WHITE or GREEN. (An exception will be found in Paragraph 94 under "Submarine Pyrotechnics.")

(b) Ships Emergency Identification Signal

Mk 2 is a shower signal and does not include a parachute. The signal consists of two bursts, each of approximately 40 pellets which burn for five seconds with a delay of three to five seconds between bursts. It is available in RED, WHITE or GREEN. See Fig. 5.

(c) Ships Emergency Identification Signal Mk 3 is a parachute smoke signal. It is projected

  to a height of 550 feet and has a burning time of 25 seconds, plus or minus five seconds. It is available in RED, BLACK, GREEN and YELLOW. See Fig. 6.

(d) Ships Emergency Identification Signal Mk 4 is a chameleon parachute signal, which produces three different color effects. Each color has a burning time of about nine seconds, giving the signal a total burning time of approximately 27 seconds. The signal is projected to a height of about 550 feet. It is available in the following color combinations and sequences: WHITE-RED-GREEN, GREEN-WHITE-RED and RED-GREEN-WHITE.

Operation

28. All ships emergency identification signals are fired from Signal Projector Mk 1, illustrated in Fig. 8. The mortar projects the signal case to a height of approximately 550 feet, at which point the delay train flashes into the ejection charge. This ignites and ejects the signal components from the case. In all Ships Emergency Signals except the Signal Mk 2, the signal descends by parachute.

Packing

29. Ships emergency identification signals are shipped in lots of 12 in wooden cases. The cases are of two sizes, one for star, shower, and chameleon signals and one for smoke signals. Signals are normally delivered to the fleet in the original cases. When the allowance is in units of less than 12 signals, Naval Ammunition Depots repack the signals so that a minimum number of cases will be required to contain the allowance for the individual ship.

Marking

30. Ships emergency identification signals carry marking of two types. The printed nomenclature for visual identification is stenciled on the side of each signal. The printed identification includes: name of the signal, Mark number, pattern of the charge, colors of the bursts in

 

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Figure 5.-Ships Emergency Identification Signal Mk 2 (Shower Signal)
Figure 5.-Ships Emergency Identification Signal Mk 2 (Shower Signal)

 

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Figure 6.-Ships Emergency Identification Signal Mk 3 (Smoke Signal for Signal Projector Mk 1)
Figure 6.-Ships Emergency Identification Signal Mk 3 (Smoke Signal for Signal Projector Mk 1)

 

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Figure 7.-Ships Emergency Identification Signal (Method of Marking Closing Caps)
Figure 7.-Ships Emergency Identification Signal (Method of Marking Closing Caps)

 

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Figure 8.-Signal Projector Mk 1
Figure 8.-Signal Projector Mk 1

 

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sequence, name of manufacturer, initials of the inspector, date of manufacture, contract number under which the signal was ordered, date of the contract, and lot number.

(a) The type of the signal and colors of the bursts in sequence are embossed in symbols on the cap of the cases. Fig. 7 shows the symbols and their meanings.

Stowage

31. General rules for stowing and handling pyrotechnic ammunition as is covered in paragraphs 9 to 12 inclusive, apply to ships emergency identification signals.

Signal Projector Mk 1

32. Signal Projector Mk 1 is a mortar-type projector, mounted on deck and used for firing ships emergency identification signals. It is held in place by three guy cables, one of which is adjustable by means of a turnbuckle. The mortar consists of a 28-inch removable barrel and breech assembly, which fits into a tubular steel barrel holder, and in turn is permanently fixed to an adjustable steel base in the form of a tripod. The barrel is constructed of 0.25-inch steel tubing, which is reinforced by another 0.25-inch steel tube from the breech to a point 14.5 inches up the barrel. See Fig. 8. This assembly, including the breech mechanism, is removable and has no fastening in the barrel holder. The barrel holder is also of 0.25-inch tubular steel and extends from the steel base 15 inches up the barrel, where the guy cables are attached. The base and barrel holder assembly is so designed that it can be adjusted for elevation by means of an adjustment bolt and locking nut at the end of the straight leg of the tripod. The adjustable guy cable must be lengthened or shortened to agree with the above cable adjustment. In its normal position the mortar has an elevation of 80 degrees, which may be reduced to a minimum of 75 degrees. The only moving parts of the mortar are the firing pin, the valve head, and the valve stem. The firing pin is press fitted into the center of the valve head, and its shank acts as a valve stem. The valve is of the poppet type, 1.75 inches in diameter and held open by a compression spring. The valve stem, which is also the shank of the firing pin, extends through the

  breech. The entire mechanism is held together by a collar which fits over the valve stem and is fastened in place by a cotter pin. The valve opens into twelve vent holes of 0.125 inches each, so that air is exhausted from the barrel and breech when the signal to be fired is dropped from the muzzle. The barrel is drilled 23 inches from the breech, and a pin is inserted across the bore. This pin is attached to a lanyard.

Loading and Firing

33. Before attempting to load Signal Projector Mk 1, place the cotter pin at the end of the operating lanyard through the holes in the barrel. See Fig. 9 A. Then place the signal with its percussion cap down into the muzzle (see Fig. 9 B), letting it down gently until it rests on the cotter pin. See Fig. 9 C. Then take the free end of the lanyard and carry it away from the mortar, taking care that the lanyard does not foul on any part of the deck equipment. At the command to fire pull the lanyard with increasing steadiness; do not jerk it. Caution: If the signal fails to fire, count to 30 slowly before reloading, or allow 30 seconds before approaching the mortar. To reload, it will be necessary to remove the barrel from the barrel-holder and invert it. Be sure to catch the undischarged signal as it comes out from the muzzle and lay it aside for disposition as outlined in paragraph 17.

Disassembly and Assembly

34. To disassemble the barrel and breech assembly of Signal Projector Mk 1, remove it from the barrel-holder and take the following steps:

(a) Unscrew the brass breech obturating cup.

(b) Remove the cotter pin from the collar on the valve stem. Then invert the breech, and the valve and spring will drop out. See Fig. 8.

(c) As the valve stem is also part of the firing pin and is press fitted into the valve head, it may be necessary to tap it lightly with a plastic hammer to remove it from the head.

To assemble, reverse the above order, making certain that the valve spring is in its proper

 

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Figure 9.-Steps in Loading Signal Projector Mk 1 Mod 0
Figure 9.-Steps in Loading Signal Projector Mk 1 Mod 0

  place and also that a slight pressure operates the valve, before screwing the breech on the barrel.

Safety Precautions

35. Because Signal Projector Mk 1 is a missile-throwing gun, and contains a charge which is approximately twice as great as a shotgun charge, the following safety measures must be taken:

(a) The projector must be pointed in a direction well out of range of all other craft. The signal spins end-over-end when fired, and ejection of the signal components from the case may be in any direction. The reaction of the ejection charge gives the signal case considerable impetus in the opposite direction, before it falls base-down as a missile. For the above reasons, the projector should usually not be fired at an angle of less than 80-85 degrees. Ships carrying two projectors should always fire from the leeward side.

(b) Signals are subject to misfire and hang fire, just as any other percussion primed ammunition. Care must be taken not to drop a second signal down the projector on top of an unfired signal.

(c) Before firing, the projector should be inspected to insure the working of the valve, which should be open before the projector is fired. If it is closed, an air cushion will prevent the signal from sliding down at sufficient speed. On the other hand, should the valve jam from lead chips or other foreign matter, the pressure will deplete so rapidly that the signal will rise only 50 to 100 feet. The signal is designed so that its lead pressure retaining disc will rupture, rather than shear. The lead pressure disc may shear in occasional signal firings, causing small lead discs to be left in the breech above the valve. Accumulation of such discs at the base of the mortar will result in misfires.

(d) The primer of a fired signal occasionally may be blown from the base and will remain in the breech above the valve mechanism. In such cases, the next signal will not fire. It is then necessary to remove the signal and to clean the valve mechanism before firing again.

 

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Figure 10.-Depth Charge Marker Mk 1 Mod 1 (For Day Use)
Figure 10.-Depth Charge Marker Mk 1 Mod 1 (For Day Use)

 

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(e) In operation, the projector barrel should be lifted out whenever the opportunity occurs and the breech turned up. This will dislodge any accumulations in the breech. Inasmuch as the smokeless powder propellant of the signal leaves residue on the walls of the barrel, the latter should be disassembled after each five rounds and cleaned by drawing through it a piece of waste cloth dipped in acetone or some other solvent. Failure to do this will retard the fall of the signals down the barrel and may result in frequent misfires.

(f) Warning: Cleaning with abrasives, or corrosion, will enlarge the bore of the projector. This, in turn, materially affects the height to which signals are projected, and may also rupture the obturating cup. The bore and working parts of the projector should be protected with a film of light oil during protracted standby periods when it is mounted on deck.

Depth Charge Marker (Day) Mk 1 Mod 1

36. Depth Charge Marker Mk 1 Mod 1 is for day use to indicate the point of depth charge barrages and to provide a reference point for further search and attack in daylight operations against submarines. It spreads a bright green slick over an area approximately 50 by 20 feet, which is visible for approximately an hour from the deck at distances up to 2.5 miles under normal conditions. The marker is 11.9 inches long and 3.5 inches in diameter, weighing approximately 3.5 lbs. It consists of two cylindrical kraft paper containers, each of which holds 1.375 lbs. of fluorescein dye, joined together by a wood block which houses the fuze assembly. This assembly is of the Bouchon igniter type and ignites a 30-gram charge of black powder in a spirally wound celluloid tube, which extends in to the kraft paper dye containers. The firing mechanism is held in a safe condition by a ring pull pin, which holds a safety lever against the wood block. This lever holds the firing pin against the action of a spring and away from the primer. The cross section of the marker will be seen in Fig. 10.

Operation

37. Depth Charge Marker Mk 1 Mod 1 should be launched by hand at a point approximately

  25 yards from the point at which the depth charge has been dropped. This allowance is made so that the "boil" of the depth charge will not dissipate the slick left by the marker. The ring pull pin should not be drawn from the safety lever until immediately before launching the marker, and the lever must be held firmly against the wood block from that time until the marker leaves the hand. Once released, the lever falls free and the spring snaps the firing pin against the primer in the fuze assembly. The primer flash ignites a length of time fuze which delays the flash into the 30-gram black powder charge in the celluloid tube approximately 15 seconds from the time the safety lever is released. The ignition of the 30-gram black powder charge bursts the kraft paper containers and scatters the dye.

Packing

38. Each Depth Charge Marker Mk 1 Mod 1 is encased in an asphalt-impregnated paper mailing tube sealed by a strip of adhesive tape. Ten markers are shipped in a wood case. General instructions for use are printed on the mailing tubes.

Stowage

39. General pyrotechnics stowage and handling rules as outlined in paragraphs 9 to 12, inclusive, apply to Depth Charge Marker Mk 1 Mod 1. If exposed to excess moisture, the fluorescein dye in the marker may cake, so that its dispersal in the water may be considerably reduced.

Safety Precautions

40. In preparing and launching Depth Charge Marker Mk 1 Mod 1, the following should be rigidly enforced:

(a) The safety pin must not be removed until the marker is held in the hand ready for launching.

(b) The safety lever must be held firmly against the side of the wood block while the safety pin is pulled and until the marker is cast overboard.

(c) If the marker is accidentally dropped on deck after the safety pin has been pulled, the area must be cleared of all personnel at once

 

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Figure 11.-Depth Charge Marker Mk 2 (For Night Use)
Figure 11.-Depth Charge Marker Mk 2 (For Night Use)

 

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and must remain cleared until after the marker fires. No attempt should be made to retrieve the fallen marker, as it cannot again be made safe once the safety lever has sprung free.

Depth Charge Marker Mk 1 Mod 2

41. The Depth Charge Marker Mk 1 Mod 2 is similar in design and appearance to the Depth Charge Marker Mk 1 Mod 1. The Depth Charge Marker Mk 1 Mod 2 contains a higher purity dye, which results in a considerably more effective dye slick. Whereas the fluorescein dye of the Marker Mk 1 Mod 1 is approximately 40 per cent pure, Depth Charge Marker Mk 1 Mod 2 contains a dye which is 86 per cent pure. In addition to this difference, Depth Charge Marker Mk 1 Mod 2 is dipped in a bakelite lacquer solution after assembly to insure thorough waterproofness. With the exception of these two changes, Depth Charge Marker Mk 1 Mod 2 is exactly the same as Depth Charge Marker Mk 1 Mod 1; and the information appearing in paragraphs 36, 37, 38, 39, and 40 will likewise apply to this item.

Depth Charge Marker (Night) Mk 2

42. Depth Charge Marker Mk 2 is for night use to indicate the point of depth charge barrages and to provide a reference point for further search and attack against submarines. It burns with a yellow flame approximately ten inches high for 45 to 55 minutes, and is visible at night from the deck at distances up to four miles, depending on atmospheric conditions. This marker is a sealed metal cylinder seven inches high and five inches in diameter, having a centrally located tube which contains a charge of calcium phosphide, and is surrounded by a charge of calcium carbide. Pull ring tear strips on either end of the metal container to uncover two holes, which allow water to enter the cylinder and liberate gases from the two chemicals. The calcium phosphide releases phosphine, a spontaneously ignited gas, which ignites acetylene, released by the action of water on the calcium carbide. See Fig. 11.

Operation

43. Depth Charge Marker Mk 2 is launched by hand at night several seconds after a depth charge has been dropped. The time lag is in

  order that the "boil" from the depth charge will not interfere with the burning of the marker. To launch the marker, rip the two tear strips from both ends and cast it overboard. The signal flame should appear on the surface in approximately 45 to 50 seconds.

Packing

44. Depth Charge Markers (Night) Mk 2 are now packed in pasteboard cases containing ten markers, each wrapped in corrugated paper. They were formerly shipped in cases containing 12 each. Pertinent information will be found stenciled on each marker.

Stowage

45. General pyrotechnic stowage rules outlined in paragraphs 9 to 12, inclusive, apply for Depth Charge Marker Mk 2, with one exception. This item must not be stowed in lockers or magazines equipped with sprinklers. This is because ignition is effected by chemical reaction between the ingredients and water.

Safety Precautions

46. In firing Depth Charge Marker Mk 2, the following safety measures must be taken:

(a) Do not remove the pull ring tear strips until ready to cast the marker overboard.

(b) Periodic inspection of stocks is recommended to insure that one or both tear strips have not been accidentally removed or partially opened.

(c) Markers with damaged tear strips should be disposed of at once.

(d) When removing markers from containers, do not handle or carry them by the tear strip rings.

Signal Light Mk 2

47. Signal Light Mk 2 is similar to a standard shotgun cartridge so loaded that a burning star is ejected in place of the usual shot. It is available in any of three colors, RED, GREEN, or WHITE. Each cartridge has a standard percussion primer and an expelling charge of ten grains of black powder, which projects the burning star to a height of about 200 feet. The star charge is a tightly packed cylinder wrapped with a quickmatch and separated from the

 

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expelling charge by a shock-absorbing wad of hard felt. The cartridge is closed by a wad which is marked so that the color of the star can be determined by feeling it, as shown in Fig. 12.

(a) The RED star may be identified by its corrugated closing wad. It burns for approximately seven seconds and furnishes 300 candlepower.

(b) The GREEN star may be identified by its smooth closing wad. It burns for approximately five seconds and furnishes 600 candlepower.

(c) The WHITE star may be identified by the small conical embossing on its closing wad. It burns for approximately six seconds and furnishes 250 candlepower.

(d) Each of the three colors is identified visually because the color of the paper on each cartridge corresponds to the color of the star contained in it.

Operation

48. Instructions for firing Signal Light Mk 2 will be found in the paragraphs covering the operation of the firing device to be used, and Figs. 18, 19, and 20.

Figure 12.-Markings on Signal Light Mk 2 Mod 0
Figure 12.-Markings on Signal Light Mk 2 Mod 0

 

Figure 13.-Plastic Case Used on Signal Light Mk 2 Mod 0 When in 'Abandon Ship' Kit
Figure 13.-Plastic Case Used on Signal Light Mk 2 Mod 0 When in "Abandon Ship" Kit

 

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Figure 14.-Signal Pistorl Mk 5 (Service Box)
Figure 14.-Signal Pistol Mk 5 (Service Box)
 

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Figure 15.-Signal Pistol Mk 5 (Reserve Box)
Figure 15.-Signal Pistol Mk 5 (Reserve Box)
 

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Figure 16.-Pyrotechnic Kit Used with 'Abandon Ship' Outfit
Figure 16.-Pyrotechnic Kit Used with "Abandon Ship" Outfit
 

Packing

49. When issued in the "Abandon Ship" signal kit, as shown in Fig. 16, signal lights are packed individually in a plastic container, Fig. 13. The lights are also available in combination kits known as Service Box, Signal Pistol Mk 5 and Reserve Box, Signal Pistol Mk 5, as shown in Figs. 14 and 15.

  Unless packed in special kits as described above, signal lights are packed in a metal can in units of ten; and 100 cans, or 1,000 signals, are packed in a wooden case for shipment purposes. Earlier issues were not contained in cans, but were wrapped in paper cartons, 25 of which were contained in a pasteboard box.
 

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Figure 17.-Opening Breech of Signal Pistol Mk 5 Mod 0
Figure 17.-Opening Breech of Signal Pistol Mk 5 Mod 0

Figure 19.-Firing
Figure 19.-Firing

Figure 18.-Loading
Figure 18.-Loading

Figure 20.-Extracting Expended Shell
Figure 20.-Extracting Expended Shell

Figure 21.-Signal Pistol Holster Mk 5 Mod 0.
with Cartridge Belt Mk 1 Mod 0

Figure 21.-Signal Pistol Holster Mk 5 Mod 0. with Cartridge Belt Mk 1 Mod 0
 

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Figure.-22-Signal Pistol Mk 5 (Exploded View)
Figure.-22-Signal Pistol Mk 5 (Exploded View)
A-BARREL
B-EXTRACTION
C-LATCH PLATE
D-LATCH PLATE SCREW (2)
E-HEAD
G-THUMB LATCH RETAINING SCREW
H-HINGE SCREW
I-LATCH PIN SPRING
J-LATCH PIN
K-FIRING PIN TUBE
  L-RECOIL
M-FIRING PIN
N-FIRING PIN SPRING
O-TRIGGER
P-COCKING LEVER PIN
Q-COCKING LEVER SPRING
R-COCKING LEVER
S-TRIGGER SPRING
T-PLASTIC HANDLE
U-TANG NUT
V-BUTT RING
 

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Figure 23.-Signal Pistol Mk 5 (Vessel Set of Spare Parts)
Figure 23.-Signal Pistol Mk 5 (Vessel Set of Spare Parts)
 

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Figure 24.-Signal Pistol Mk 5 (Tender Set of Spare Parts-Left;
Shore-Base Set of Spare Parts-Right)
A-BARREL (12)
B-TRIGGER (12)
C-TRIGGER SPRING (12)
D-FIRING PIN TUBE (12)
E-EXTRACTOR (12)
F-FIRING PIN SPRING (12)
G-RECOIL SPRING (12)
H-THUMB LATCH SPRING (12)
I-LATCH PLATE SCREWS (12)
J-THUMB LATCH RETAINING SCREW (12)
K-FIRING PIN (24)
L-LATCH PIN (12)
A-BARREL (18)
B-TRIGGER (18)
C-TRIGGER SPRING (18)
D-FIRING PIN TUBE (18)
E-EXTRACTOR (18)
F-FIRING PIN SPRING (18)
G-RECOIL SPRING (18)
H-THUMB LATCH SPRING (18)
I-LATCH PLATE SCREWS (18)
J-THUMB LATCH RETAINING SCREW (18)
K-FIRING PIN (48)
L-LATCH PIN (18)
Figure 24.-Signal Pistol Mk 5 (Tender Set of Spare Parts-Left; Shore-Base Set of Spare Parts-Right)
 

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Four units of 25 were then crated in a wooden box for shipment purposes.

Safety Precautions

50. Safety precautions which must be taken in handling Signal Light Mk 2 are the same as those taken with other small-arms ammunition.

Signal Pistol Mk 5

51. Signal Pistol Mk 5, for use with Signal Light Mk 2, is a single-barrel, double-action, breech-loading pistol. See Fig. 17. It consists of a plastic frame on which are mounted the metal parts, and is for use with Cartridge Belt Mk 1 and Holster for Signal Pistol Mk 5, as shown in Fig. 21. Signal Pistol Mk 5 is extremely light in weight and is 11 inches long.

Operation

52. The operation of Signal Pistol Mk 5 with Signal Light Mk 2 is shown pictorially in Figs. 18, 19, and 20.

Care, Cleaning and Lubrication

53. Signal Pistol Mk 5 must be kept in serviceable condition at all times. Clean it thoroughly after each using. All parts should be wiped with a cloth impregnated with light machine oil. After assembly, the exposed portions should be wiped with a dry cloth. The barrel should be swabbed with a cloth dampened with acetone or other solvent to remove powder residue.

Disassembly and Assembly

54. Fig. 22 shows an exploded view of the parts of Signal Pistol Mk 5 in the order in which they are disassembled and assembled.

Spare Parts Set

55. Spare parts for Signal Pistol Mk 5 are available in three assortments, the Vessel Set, which is included in both the Reserve Box and the Service Box combination kits in Figs. 14, 15, and 23; and the Tender Set and Shore Base Set, as shown in Fig. 24.

Safety Precautions

56. When loading or firing pyrotechnic pistols, care must be taken not to point them in the direction of other personnel or vessels. When firing, the pistol should be held with the elbow slightly bent, so that the shock of recoil is partially absorbed. Signal Pistol Mk 5 must never be used for firing ammunition other than that authorized for use with it. Signal lights should never be fired from shotguns or any projectors other than those authorized.

Alternate Pistols

57. Signal Pistol Mk 5 has superseded Signal Pistol Mk 3, which is now obsolescent and for which few spare parts are available. Signal Pistol Mk 2, which preceded Signal Pistol Mk 3, is now obsolete. Signal Pistols Mk 3 and Mk 2 should be returned to the nearest ammunition depot at the earliest opportunity.

 

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Figure 25.-Hand Projectors Mk 3 (Left) and Mk 4 (Right)
Figure 25.-Hand Projectors Mk 3 (Left) and Mk 4 (Right)

 

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Figure 26.-Loading Hand Projector Mk 4 Mod 0
Figure 26.-Loading Hand Projector Mk 4 Mod 0

Figure 28.-Alternate Method of Firing Hand Projector Mk 4 Mod 0
Figure 28.-Alternate Method of Firing Hand Projector Mk 4 Mod 0

Figure 27.-One Method of Firing Hand Projector Mk 4 Mod 0
Figure 27.-One Method of Firing Hand Projector Mk 4 Mod 0

Figure 29.-Ejecting Expended Shell
Figure 29.-Ejecting Expended Shell

Hand Projector Mk 4

58. Hand Projector Mk 4 is for use with Signal Light Mk 2 when no Signal Pistol is available, or when the signal lights are used with the "Abandon Ship" signal kit shown in Fig. 16. It is entirely of metal and consists of a barrel, three inches long, which fits by bayonet plug projection into a breech lock and breech-lock cap, both of which are part of the breech mechanism. See Fig. 25. The projector, when fully assembled, is 5.6 inches long. Within the breech lock is the firing-pin seat, which rests

  on a spring washer and extends through the breech-lock cap to the firing-pin-barrel cap. A safety chain is attached to the barrel, and a safety-chain ring fits in a groove on the extension of the firing-pin seat to hold it tight against the spring washer on which the firing-pin seat rests. Within the firing-pin seat extension is the firing-pin spring, and within that spring is the firing pin. At the extreme base is a safety lever which holds the hand-operating knob away from the firing-pin-barrel cap when in safety position.
 

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Figure 30.-Distress Smoke Hand Signal Mk 1 Mod 0
Figure 30.-Distress Smoke Hand Signal Mk 1 Mod 0

 

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Operation

59. To load Hand Projector Mk 4, twist the assembly until the barrel pulls out from the breech-lock cap and insert the Signal Light Mk 2 (see Fig. 26) before reassembling. Be sure the safety lever is in the safety position. Then swing the safety lever to the firing position and fire as shown in Fig. 27. Another method of firing is to hold the projector firmly in the left hand as shown in Fig. 28, and strike sharply with the heel of the right hand, making certain that the barrel of the projector is trained to a safe area. To remove the empty cartridge after the signal has been fired, twist out the barrel and, with the safety lever on safety, insert the breech mechanism into the muzzle, forcing out the empty shell. See Fig. 29.

Alternate Projector

60. In some "Abandon Ship" signal kits Hand Projector Mk 3 is provided. This firing device is shown in Fig. 25. Its use and operation are practically identical to those of Hand Projector Mk 4, except that Hand Projector Mk 3 has a screw connection between the breech and the barrel, and the safety device is in the form of a spring pin.

Safety Precautions

61. No ammunition other than that authorized should ever be fired from hand projectors. The general rules for safety in operation of small arms must also be used when operating them.

Distress Smoke Hand Signal, Mk 1 Mod 0

62. This signal is designed primarily for distress signaling, and is similar in purpose to the Grenade, Smoke, White (HC) , ANM8, which it will replace in life-raft kits. The Distress Smoke Hand Signal Mk 1 Mod 0 contains a pyrotechnic mixture which, when ignited, produces a volume of orange smoke for a period of 18 seconds, plus or minus three seconds. The signal itself is encased in a metal cylindrical body, 3 7/8 inches in length and 1 5/8 inches in diameter. Its weight is 0.37 pounds. One end of the cylinder is closed by a soldered cap and pull ring, which is of proper size to allow insertion of the index finger when the signal is to be fired. The signal is so constructed that it can be held comfortably and safely in the bare

  hand during the burning period. Being watertight, it is not adversely affected by moisture. See Fig. 30.

Operation

63. Distress Smoke Hand Signal Mk 1 Mod 0 is ignited as follows:

(a) Tear off sealing tape from around end of cylinder and remove the paper cap.

(b) Bring pull ring down over the rim of the can and press down, using the ring as a lever to break the seal.

(c) Point cylinder away from face and give a quick pull on the pull ring, which will come away from the can, thereby igniting the smoke mixture. Immediate emission of smoke will result. The signal should be held at arm's length at an angle of about 30 degrees from the horizontal, to prevent possibility of hot drippings or discharge falling on the hand.

Packing and Stowage

64. The Distress Smoke Hand Signal Mk 1 Mod 0 should be stowed in a cool, dry place, and in no case at a temperature higher than 100 degrees Fahrenheit. It may be stowed with other pyrotechnic ammunition. It is packed 100 per wooden shipping case. Gross weight packed is 50 pounds. Corrugated dividers serve as a means of segregation within the case.

(a) This signal is now available in limited quantity for issue from naval ammunition depots, and it is believed that ample stocks for essential uses will be available prior to 1 February 1945. This item will not be placed on pyrotechnic allowance lists until adequate supplies are available, and until reports from the field indicate quantities desired. All available stocks are being made available immediately to the Commanders in Chief, Atlantic and Pacific Fleets.

Navy Red Light Mk 1 and Navy Blue Light Mk 1 Mod 1 (Hand Type)

65. The two items above are in the nature of hand torches which burn with a brilliant light visible at night up to three miles. The burning time of the Navy Blue Light Mk 1 Mod 1 is between 60 and 90 seconds, while the Navy Red Light Mk 1 burns between 150 and 180 seconds.

 

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Figure 31.-Navy Blue Light Mk 1 Mod 1; Navy Red Light Mk 1 (For Hand Use)
Figure 31.-Navy Blue Light Mk 1 Mod 1; Navy Red Light Mk 1 (For Hand Use)

 

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These lights consist of a paper tube, which contains the pyrotechnic substance and is fitted with a wooden handle at one end. The other end of the paper tube is closed by a cover which has an exterior coating of abrasive identical to that found on the scratching side of a safety-match box and beneath which is a small wad of cotton. The upper end of the paper tube is also covered by a cloth substance impregnated with the igniting compound. This substance is similar to that which makes up the head of a safety match. See Fig. 31.

Operation

66. Navy Red Light Mk 1 and Navy Blue Light Mk 1 Mod 1 are ignited by tearing the tab seal which allows removal of the cover, and scraping the inverted cover across the top of the paper tube. In this operation it is advisable to hold the light at an angle of approximately 45 degrees, to avoid contact with the hot falling particles of the pyrotechnic candle. The light should be held at that angle throughout the burning.

Packing

67. Navy Red Light Mk 1 and Navy Blue Light Mk 1 Mod 1 are shipped in metal containers containing six or 12 lights each. Navy Blue Light Mk 1 Mod 1 is also shipped as part of the

  Reserve Box, Signal Pistol Mk 5 as shown in Fig. 15. As these lights are particularly subject to deterioration when exposed to moisture, they should not be removed from their containers until ready for use.

Stowage

68. General stowage rules as given in paragraphs 9 to 12, inclusive, apply to Navy lights. As these lights are particularly hygroscopic, they should have no direct contact with water or moisture. Lights which have been left in open containers for more than six months should be turned back to the nearest ammunition depot or magazine at the earliest opportunity. Lights which have become chemically encrusted or which give off an acetic (vinegar) odor should be immediately disposed of by placing them in a weighted sack and dumping overboard.

Safety Precautions

69. In igniting, handling, and using Navy Red or Navy Blue lights, the following safety rules should be enforced:

(a) The place at which the lights will be burned must be carefully selected, because burning particles often drop from the lighted candles and may start fires.

(b) The light should be held up at an angle of about 45 degrees and pointed to leeward during the burning.


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