MPA Logo, San Francisco Maritime National Park Association, USS Pampanito, Historic Ships at Hyde Street Pier, Education Programs Maritime Park Association Home Page Maritime Park Association Home Page Events Maritime Park Association Home Page Maritime Park Association Home Page Maritime Park Association Home Page Volunteer Membership Donate Maritime Park Association Home Page USS Pampanito Submarine Historic Ships at Hyde Street Pier Education Programs About Maritime Park Association Home Page Directions to Maritime Jobs at Maritime Facility Rental at Maritime Trustees of the Association Calendar Press Room Store Maritime Map
 

45
 
LIFESAVING AND FIREFIGHTING

LIFESAVING AND FIREFIGHTING
 

LINE-THROWING APPLIANCES

The line-carrying gun and its equipment must be kept in constant readiness for use. No part of this equipment is used for any other purpose. You will find on all ocean-going vessels a line-throwing apparatus commonly known as the Lyle gun.

These guns, usually of the muzzle-loading type, are mounted in a carriage in order that they may be elevated to a high angle. The gun itself is made of steel or bronze and weighs about 200 pounds.

The muzzle-loading type has a primer hole and projection fitted in the upper wall of the barrel.

The breech-loading type is similar in size and weight to the muzzle-loading type, except that it is equipped with breech-closing and locking devices.

The mount on a Lyle gun is of the slide and carriage type and provided with a mechanism to check the recoil. Service projectiles weighing about 18 pounds each are supplied with each gun. The upper end carries an eyebolt which projects beyond the muzzle. To this eyebolt the line is secured. Service lines of 1700 feet or more in length are also supplied with each gun.

A faking box or reel which is a part of Lyle gun equipment is to facilitate the traveling of the line.

Primers used with the breech-loading gun are of the percussion type. Those used in the muzzle-loading gun are of the friction type. The following precautions and procedure are recommended for the use of the Lyle gun and equipment:

  1. Service powder charge should be about five ounces.

2. In making the line fast to the shaft, pass it through the eye and take three or more half hitches around its own part, leaving a loop of about ten inches, with the hitches about six inches apart. This will ease the strain on the line when fired.

3. A large bight leading over the side is recommended wherever possible. This too will lessen the jerk on the line when fired.

4. At least a fathom of the line from the shank should be thoroughly wet before using. This prevents burning.

5. The faking box or reel should always be faced in the direction of the line of fire, abreast of the gun and as close to the ship's side as possible.

6. Care should be taken to prevent fouling of the line with other ship's gear.

7. When the gun and equipment are ready for use select a place where the gun may recoil without striking anything, and where it may be securely lashed down. Rings or eyebolts are fitted to the carriage for securing it before firing.

Consider distance, direction, and force of the wind before firing and place the line to the windward side of the gun.

In loading the projectile it should be well seated against the powder charge. Place wadding between charge and projectile. Newspaper may be used for this purpose.

8. After using, the line should be thoroughly dry before rewinding or faking. It should also be checked for flaws.

 

46
 
THE LINE THROWING GUN
THE LINE THROWING GUN
 

THE BREECHES BUOY

A breeches buoy is a lifesaving device that works from one ship to another or from a ship to shore. It consists of a small line which is shot aboard a disabled vessel by a line-throwing gun. If ever you find yourself aboard a disabled vessel haul this light line aboard until you get a tail block with an endless line rove through it. Make this tail block fast to a mast. Then let go the small line attached to projector. See that the rope in the block runs free. Then you must signal your rescuer and a hawser will be

  bent to the endless line (whip). This hawser will be hauled to your ship by the lifesaving crew. Make it fast two feet above the tail block and then clear it from the endless line.

Remember to make both the whip and the hawser fast to the mast with a round turn and half hitches.

The lifesavers will then haul the hawser taut and by means of the whip will haul the breeches buoy to your ship. You will be hauled to safety with this device.

Constantly check your block throughout the entire rescue and make sure it always runs free.

 

47
 

BREECHES BUOY
BREECHES BUOY

SIGNALS

Fire and Emergency-Rapid ringing of the Ship's Bell and continuous ringing of General Alarm Bells for a period of at least 10 seconds.

Abandon Ship-7 or more Short Blasts and 1 Long Blast on the Whistle and the same signal on the General Alarm Bells.

Man Overboard-Hail, and pass the word "Man Overboard !" to the bridge.

Dismissal-From Fire and Emergency stations, 3 Short Blasts on the Whistle and 3 Short Rings on the General Alarm Bells.

WHERE WHISTLE SIGNALS ARE USED FOR HANDLING BOATS.

Lower Boats-1 Short Blast on Whistle.

Stop Lowering Boats-2 Short Blasts on Whistle.

Dismissal from Boat Stations-3 Short Blasts on Whistle.

INSTRUCTIONS

1. Entire crew must familiarize themselves with the location and duties of their Emergency Stations immediately upon reporting on board.

2. Each crew member shall be provided with an individual supplementary Station Bill Card

  which must show in detail the special duties to perform. Post this over your bunk.

3. Entire crew shall be instructed in the performance of their special duties and crew on watch will remain on watch on signal for Emergency Drill.

4. Every person participating in the Abandon-Ship Drill will be required to wear a life preserver and entire boat crew shall assist in removing covers and swinging out boats.

5. Emergency Squad will assemble with equipment at scene of action immediately upon the Emergency Signal.

6. Stewards' department will assemble and direct passengers, properly dressed and wearing life preservers, to embarkation stations.

7. Person discovering fire shall immediately notify the bridge and fight the fire with available equipment.

8. Immediately upon the Fire and Emergency signal, fire pumps to be started, all watertight doors, ports and air shafts to be closed, and all fans and blowers stopped. Fire hose to be led out in the affected area as directed.

9. Upon hearing the signal, "Man Overboard!" throw life-ring buoys overboard. stop engine's and send lookout aloft. Emergency Boat Crew consisting of all seamen shall immediately clear lee boat for launching.

10. During periods of low visibility, all watertight doors and ports below the bulkhead deck shall be closed, subject to the Master's orders.

FIRE

In times of war when merchant ships are subject to constant attack by the enemy, fire fighting is of particular importance. All seagoing vessels are equipped with apparatus with which to fight fire. As a seaman 5 t is your duty to your ship and to yourself to know not only where this equipment is kept but how to use it effectively to control and extinguish fires. Fire is the union of any substance with oxygen. To destroy fire it must be cooled, or the oxygen supply must be cut off, or the combustible materials must be removed. The removal of the latter is the most desirable but it is also the most difficult. Therefore fire apparatus found aboard merchant ships concerns itself with the removal of oxygen and the cooling effect.

Anything will burn but if caught in time and skillfully handled many fires on shipboard that otherwise might be disastrous, can be extinguished.

When you go aboard a vessel for the first

 

48
 

Specimen of a Standard Station Bill prepared for a Tank Ship Carrying Persons in Addition to Crew.

(Name of Ship)(Name of Company)

STATION BILL

SIGNALS

FIRE AND EMERGENCY - Rapid ringing of the Ship's Bell and continuous ringing of General Alarm Bells for a period of at least 10 seconds:
ABANDON SHIP - 7 Short Blasts and 1 Long Blast on the Whistle and the same signal on the General Alarm Bells.
MAN OVERBOARD - Hail, and pass the word "MAN OVERBOARD" to the bridge.
DISMISSAL - From FIRE AND EMERGENCY stations, 3 Short Blasts on the Whistle and 3 Short Rings on the General Alarm Bells.

WHERE WHISTLE SIGNALS ARE USED FOR HANDLING BOATS.

Lower Boats -1 Short Blast on Whistle
Stop Lowering Boats -2 Short Blasts on Whistle
Dismissal from Boat Stations -3 Short Blasts on Whistle

INSTRUCTIONS

1. Entire crew shall familiarize themselves with the location and duties of their Emergency Stations immediately upon reporting on board.
2. Each crew member shall be provided with an individual supplementary Station Bill Card which must show in detail the special duties to perform.
3. Entire crew shall be instructed in the performance of their special duties and crew on watch will remain on watch on signal for Emergency Drill.
4. Every person participating in the Abandon-Ship Drill will be required to wear a life preserver and entire boat crew shall assist in removing covers and swinging out boats.
5. Emergency Squad will assemble with equipment at scene of action immediately upon the Emergency Signal.
6. Stewards' department will assemble and direct passengers, properly dressed and wearing life preservers, to embarkation stations.
7. Person discovering FIRE shall immediately notify the bridge and fight the fire with available equipment.
8. Immediately upon the FIRE AND EMERGENCY signal, fire pumps to be started, all watertight doors, ports and air shafts to be closed, and all fans and blowers stopped. Fire hose to be led out in the affected area as directed.
9. Upon hearing the signal, "MAN OVERBOARD," throw life ring buoys overboard, stop engines and send lookout aloft. Emergency Boat crew consisting of all seamen shall immediately clear lee boat for launching.
10. During periods of low visibility, all watertight doors and ports below the bulkhead deck shall be closed, subject to the Master's orders.

DECK DEPARTMENT

NO. RATING FIRE AND EMERGENCY STATIONS NO. ABANDON SHIP BOAT STATIONS
A. Master On the bridge. In command, all operations. A. Lifeboat No. 1 In command. On bridge in charge all operations.
1. Chief Mate At scene of emergency. In charge. 1. Lifeboat No. 2 In command. In charge launching lifeboats amidship.
2. 2d Mate On the bridge. Relieve the watch. 2. Lifeboat No. 3 In command. On the bridge. Relieve the watch.
3. 3d Mate Prepare all lifeboats for launching. In charge. 3. Lifeboat No. 4 In command. In charge launching lifeboats aft.
4. Radio Operator Radio room. At instruments. 4. Lifeboat No. 1 Attend Master's orders and instructions.
5. Boatswain Emergency Squad. Provide life lines. 5. Lifeboat No. 1 2d in command. Attend forward gripes and falls.
6. Able Seaman Emergency Squad. Relieve the wheel. 6. Lifeboat No. 2 2d in command. Attend forward gripes and falls.
7. Able Seaman Emergency Squad. Provide extra length of hose, and spanner. 7. Lifeboat No. 3 2d in command. Attend forward gripes and falls.
8. Able Seaman Emergency Squad. Provide fire extinguisher. 8. Lifeboat No. 4 2d in command. Attend forward gripes and falls.
9. Able Seaman Emergency Squad. Provide fire ax. 9. Lifeboat No. 1 Release boat chooks and secure drain cap.
10. Able Seaman Emergency Squad. Provide fresh air mask. 10. Lifeboat No. 2 Release boat chocks and secure drain cap.
11. Able Seaman Assist 3d Mate prepare lifeboats for launching. 11. Lifeboat No. 3 Release boat chocks and secure drain cap.
12. Able Seaman Assist 3d Mate prepare lifeboats for launching. 12. Lifeboat No. 1 Lead out and attend boat painter.
13. Able Seaman Emergency Squad. Assist with fresh air mask. 13. Lifeboat No. 2 Lead out and attend boat painter.
14. Able Seaman Assist 3d Mate prepare lifeboats for launching. 14. Lifeboat No. 3 Lead out and attend boat painter.
15. Ordinary Seaman Bridge. Act as messenger. 15. Lifeboat No. 4 Release boat chocks and secure drain cap.
16. Ordinary Seaman Emergency Squad. Act as messenger. 16. Lifeboat No. 1 Lead out and attend boat painter.
17. Ordinary Seaman Assist 3d Mate prepare lifeboats for launching. 17. Lifeboat No. 2 Lead out and attend boat painter.
 

49
 

ENGINE DEPARTMENT

NO. RATING FIRE AND EMERGENCY STATIONS NO. ABANDON SHIP BOAT STATIONS
18. Chief Engineer In charge of Engine Department. 18. Lifeboat No. 1 Assist in general operations.
19. 1st Assistant Engine Room. In charge. 19. Lifeboat No. 2 Assist in general operations.
20. 2d Assistant In charge of Fire Room and steam smothering apparatus. 20. Lifeboat No. 3 Assist in general operations.
21. 3d Assistant Attend main steam smothering line. 21. Lifeboat No. 4 Assist in general operations.
22. Jr. Engineer Attend CO2 or foam smothering system. 22. Lifeboat No. 1 Turn out forward davit and assist at forward fans.
23. Jr. Engineer Attend CO2 or foam smothering system. 23. Lifeboat No. 2 Turn out forward davit and assist at forward fall.
24. Jr. Engineer Engine room. At fire pumps. 24. Lifeboat No. 3 Turn out forward davit and assist at forward falls.
25. Pumpman Assist 2d Assistant Engineer in fire roan. 25. Lifeboat No. 1 Release after gripes and attend after falls.
26. 2d Pumpman Emergency Squad. Assist with fresh air mask. 26. Lifeboat No. 4 Lead out and attend boat painter.
27. Electrician Engine Room. At main panel. 27. Lifeboat No. 4 Assist in general operations.
28. Machinist Engine Room. Assist at fire pumps. 28. Lifeboat No. 4 Turn out forward davit and assist at forward falls.
29. Oiler Engine Room. Assist at fire pumps. 29. Lifeboat No. 2 Release after gripes and attend after falls.
30. Oiler Engine Room. Trim ventilators as directed. 30. Lifeboat No. 3 Release after gripes and attend after falls.
31. Oiler Engine Room. Trim ventilators as directed. 31. Lifeboat No. 4 Release after gripes and attend after falls.
32. Oiler Assist at steam smothering manifold. 32. Lifeboat No. 1 Turn out after davit and assist at after falls.
33. Oiler Assist at CO2 or foam smothering system. 33. Lifeboat No. 2 Turn out after davit and assist at after falls.
34. Oiler Engine Room. At portable fire extinguisher. 34. Lifeboat No. 3 Turn out after davit and assist at after falls.
35. Watertender Fire Room. Assist 2d Assistant Engineer. 35. Lifeboat No. 4 Turn out after davit and assist at after falls.
36. Watertender Emergency Squad. Provide wrenches and pliers. 36. Lifeboat No. 1 Assist release gripes and turn out davits.
37. Watertender Engine Roam. Assist at fire pumps. 37. Lifeboat No. 2 Assist release gripes and turn out davits.
38. Fireman Fire Roan. Assist 2d Assistant Engineer. 38. Lifeboat No. 1 Turn out forward davit.
39. Fireman Fire Room. Assist 2d Assistant Engineer. 39. Lifeboat No. 2 Turn out forward davit.
40. Fireman Fire Room. Assist 2d Assistant Engineer. 40. Lifeboat No. 3 Turn out forward davit.
41. Fireman Fire Room. Assist 2d Assistant Engineer. 41. Lifeboat No. 3 Assist release gripes and turn out davits.
42. Fireman Fire Room. Assist 2d Assistant Engineer. 42. Lifeboat No. 4 Assist release gripes and turn out davits.
43. Fireman Fire Room. Assist 2d Assistant Engineer. 43. Lifeboat No. 3 Turn out davits and assist at falls.
44. Storekeeper Emergency Squad. Provide inhalator. 44. Lifeboat No. 2 Turn out davits and assist at falls.
45. Wiper Engine Room. Act as messenger. 45. Lifeboat No. 1 Turn out after davit.
46. Wiper Assist 3d Officer prepare lifeboats for launching. 46. Lifeboat No. 1 Stand by life ring buoy, ready for use.
47. Wiper Emergency Squad. Assist with fresh air mask. 47. Lifeboat No. 2 Stand by life ring buoy, ready for use.
48. Wiper Emergency Squad. Assist with inhalator. 48. Lifeboat No. 1 Turn out davits and assist at falls.

STEWARDS' DEPARTMENT

NO. RATING FIRE AND EMERGENCY STATIONS NO. ABANDON SHIP BOAT STATIONS
49. Chief Steward Arouse, warn and direct passengers. In charge. 49. Lifeboat No. 1 Arouse, warn and direct passengers. In charge.
50. Chief Cook Secure galley. 50. Lifeboat No. 3 Lead out and attend boat painter.
51. 2d Cook Assist Chief Cook secure galley. 51. Lifeboat No. 4 Lead out and attend boat painter.
52. Messman Close all ports and doors amidships. 52. Lifeboat No. 4 Turn out forward davit.
53. Messman Close all ports and doors starboard side aft. 53. Lifeboat No. 2 Turn out after davit.
54. Messman Close all ports and doors port side aft. 54. Lifeboat No. 3 Turn out after davit.
55. Messman Arouse, warn and direct passengers. 55. Lifeboat No. 2 Arouse, warn and direct passengers.
56. Utilityman Secure mess rooms aft. 56. Lifeboat No. 4 Turn out after davit.
57. Utilityman Assist 3d Late prepare lifeboats for launching. 57. Lifeboat No. 3 Stand by life ring buoy, ready for use.
58. Galleyman Assist 3d Mate prepare lifeboats for launching. 58. Lifeboat No. 4 Stand by life ring buoy, ready for use.

NOTE: For additional information see notice entitled STATION BILLS, DRILLS AND REPORTS OF MASTERS, Form 809

Master

This specimen Station Bill has been prepared for Tank Ships that carry a crew of 35 to 58 persons and are equipped with 4 lifeboats. In view of the various types of fire fighting and lifesaving equipment on board Tank Ships, this specimen is to be used only as a guide in making up suitable Station Bills in compliance with. RULE V-1-5, TANK VESSELS. Copies of this specimen may be obtained from the United States Local Inspectors, Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation.

/367

 

50
 

Specimen of a Standard Station Bill Prepared for an Ocean Freight Vessel
Carrying Persons in Addition to Crew.

STATION BILL

(Name of Vessel) (Name of Company)

SIGNALS

FIRE AND EMERGENCY - Rapid ringing of the Ship's Bell and continuous ringing of General Alarm Bells for a period of at least 10 seconds.
ABANDON SHIP - 7 Short Blasts and I Long Blast on the Whistle and the same signal on the General Alarm Bells.
MAN OVERBOARD - Hail, and pass the word MAN OVERBOARD to the bridge.
DISMISSAL - From FIRE AND EMERGENCY stations, 3 Short Blasts on the Whistle and 3 Short Rings on the General Alarm Bells.

WHERE WHISTLE SIGNALS ARE USED FOR HANDLING BOATS

Lower Boats 1 Short Blast on Whistle
Stop Lowering Boats 2 Short Blasts on Whistle
Dismissal from Boat Stations 3 Short Blasts on Whistle

INSTRUCTIONS

1. Entire crew shall familiarize themselves with the location and duties of their Emergency Stations immediately upon reporting on board.
2. Each crew member shall be provided with an Individual supplementary Station Rill Card which must show in detail the special duties to perform.
3. Entire crew shall be instructed in the performance of their special duties and crew on watch will remain on watch on signal for Emergency Drill.
4. Every person participating in the Abandon-Ship Drill will be required to wear a life preserver and entire boat crew shall assist in removing covers and swing-out boats.
5. Emergency squad will assemble with equipment immediately upon the Emergency Signal.
6. Stewards' department will assemble and direct passengers, properly dressed and wearing life preservers, to embarkation stations.
7. Person discovering FIRE shall immediately notify the bridge and fight the fire with available equipment.
8. Immediately upon the FIRE AND EMERGENCY signal, fire pumps to be started, all watertight doors, ports and air shafts to be closed, and all fans and blowers stopped. Fire hose to be led out In the affected area as directed.
9. Upon hearing the signal, MAN OVERBOARD, throw life ring buoys overboard, stop engines and send lookout aloft. Emergency Boat crew consisting of all seamen shall immediately clear lee boat for launching.
10. During periods of low visibility, all watertight doors and ports below the bulkhead deck shall be closed, subject to the Master's orders.

DECK DEPARTMENT

No. RATING FIRE AND EMERGENCY STATIONS No. BOAT No. ABANDON SHIP - BOAT STATIONS
A Master On the bridge, in command all operations. A 1 In command. On bridge In charge all operations.
1 Chief Officer At scene of Emergency. In charge. 1 2 In command. Boat Deck. In charge.
2 2nd Officer Main Deck Forward, in charge. 2 3 In command. In charge Starboard boats.
3 3rd Officer Main Deck Aft, in charge 3 3 In command. In charge Port boats.
4 4th Officer On the bridge. Relieve the watch. 4 1 Distress Signals. In charge.
5 Radio Operator Radio room. At instruments. 5 4 Assist with distress signals.
8 Carpenter Emergency Squad. Provide wrecking bar. 6 2 Release inboard gripes and attend after fall.
7 Boatswain Emergency Squad. Provide life line. 7 1 Release inboard gripes and attend forward fall.
8 Quartermaster On the bridge. Relieve the wheel. 8 1 Secure plug and attend after fall.
9 Quartermaster Emergency Squad. Provide Fire Extinguisher. 9 2 Secure plug and attend forward fall.
10 Quartermaster Main Deck aft. Steam smothering manifold. 10 3 Secure plug and attend forward fall.
11 Able Seaman Emergency Squad. Provide extra length of hose and spanner. 11 1 Release outboard gripes and attend forward guy.
12 Able Seaman mergency Squad. Provide steam smothering manifold wrench. 12 2 Release outboard gripes and attend forward guy.
13 Able Seaman Main Deck forward fire hydrants. Stand by to lead out hose. 13 3 Release outboard gripes and turnout forward davit.
14 Able Seaman Main Deck forward fire hydrants. Stand by to lead out hose. 14 3 Release outboard gripes and attend after fall.
15 Able Seaman Main Deck aft fire hydrants. Stand by to lead out hose. 15 4 Secure plug and attend forward fall.
16 Able Seaman Main Deck aft fire hydrants. Stand by to lead out hose. 18 4 Release outboard gripes and attend after fall.
17 Ord. Seaman On the bridge. Act as messenger. 17 1 Lead out and attend painter.
18 Ord. Seaman Boat Deck fire hydrants. Stand by to lead out hose. 18 2 Lead out and attend painter.
19 Ord. Seaman Boat Deck fire hydrants. Stand by to lead out hose. 19 3 Lead out and attend painter.

ENGINE DEPARTMENT

No. RATING FIRE AND EMERGENCY STATIONS No. BOAT No. ABANDON SHIP - BOAT STATIONS
20 Chief Engineer Engine Room. In charge. 20 1 Second In command.
21 1st Assistant Engine Room. At fire pumps. 21 2 Second In command.
22 2nd Assistant Fire Room. In charge. 22 3 Second In command.
23 3rd Assistant Engine Room. Assist at fire pumps. 23 4 Second In command.
24 4th Assistant Engine Room. In charge CO2 Fire Extinguishers. 24 1 Attend after guy.
25 Deck Engineer Main Deck forward. Steam smothering manifold. 25 2 Attend after guy.
26 Store Keeper Emergency Squad. Provide gas mask. 26 4 Lead out and attend painter.
27 Oiler Starboard shaft alley WT door. Close and stand by. 27 1 Attend forward guy.
28 Oiler Port shaft alley WT door. Close and stand by. 28 1 Attend after guy.
29 Oiler Engine Room. Assist at fire pumps. 29 2 Attend after guy.
30 Oiler Engine Room. CO2 Fire Extinguishers. 30 2 Attend forward guy.
31 Oiler Main Deck amidships. Outside fire hydrants. Starboard side. 31 3 Lead out and attend painter.
32 Oiler Main Deck amidships. Outside fire hydrants. Port side. 32 4 Turn out forward davit.
33 Watertender Fire Room. Stand by with Foamite Fire Extinguisher. 33 1 Lead out and attend painter.
34 Watertender Fire Room. ventilators. Trim as directed. 34 2 Lead out and attend painter.
35 Watertender Fire Room. ventilators. Trim as directed. 35 3 Turn out after davit.
36 Fireman Main Deck forward fire hydrants. Stand by to lead out hose. 36 4 Turn out after davit.
37 Fireman Main Deck after fire hydrants. Stand by to lead out hose. 37 1 Release boat chocks.
38 Fireman Fire Room. Stand by with Spray Nozzle Fire hose. 38 2 Release boat chocks.
39 Wiper Main Deck amidships. Outside fire hydrants. Starboard side. 39 3 Release boat chocks.
40 Wiper Main Deck amidships. Outside fire hydrants. Port side. 40 4 Release boat chocks.

STEWARDS' DEPARTMENT

No. RATING FIRE AND EMERGENCY STATIONS No. BOAT No. ABANDON SHIP - BOAT STATIONS
41 Steward Boat Deck. Assemble and assist passengers. 41 1 Assemble and assist passengers.
42 Chief Cook Galley. Secure and stand by. 42 2 Secure embarkation ladder and assist passengers.
43 2nd. Cook Main Deck amidships. Close all ports and doors, starboard side. 43 3 Lead out and attend painter.
44 Utility Man Main Deck amidships. Close all ports and doors, port side. 44 4 Lead out and attend painter.
45 Messman Saloon Deck amidships. Close all ports and doors, port side. 45 3 Turn out forward davit.
46 Messman Saloon Deck amidships. Close all ports and doors, starboard side. 46 4 Turn out forward davit.
47 Messman Boat Deck fire hydrants. Stand by to lead out hose. 47 3 Turn out after davit.
48 Messboy Crew messroom. Close ports and door and stand by. 48 4 Turn out after davit.

NOTE: For additional information see NOTICE entitled STATION BILLS, DRILLS AND REPORTS OF MASTERS, FORM 809A.

MASTER

This specimen Station Bill Is for the guidance of ship masters and officers in preparing Station Bills In compliance with Section 18, Rule V, General Rules and Regulations, as outlined in the article On Station Bills and Emergency Drills, published In the Monthly Bulletin, June 1939. Copies of this article may be obtained from the United States Local Inspectors, Bureau of Marine inspection and Navigation.

#176

 

51
 
time you will notice fire axes, fire hoses, and portable fire extinguishers in readiness for use. Such apparatus should be used for no other purpose except fire fighting.

Fire hose is stored in racks close to hydrant connections. It should be faked with the nozzle in place and on top. The end opposite to the nozzle is connected to a hydrant ready for use. Be sure that after fire drills (which are frequent these days) you fake (coil) the fire hose properly. These days ships are equipped with hose rigged for instant use. You will find attached to each hydrant by a length of chain a wrench-like instrument known as a spanner. It is used to adjust connections.

Be sure all water has been drained out before you make up a hose. This is extremely important in freezing temperatures.

You will find attached to each hydrant by a length of chain a wrench-like instrument known as a spanner. It is used to adjust connections.

SODA ACID AND FOAMITE TYPE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
SODA ACID AND FOAMITE TYPE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

The portable fire extinguishers are of four distinct types: soda-acid, foam, carbon-tetrachloride, and carbon-dioxide.

Soda-acid type is used on wood, paper and fabric fires. It is not effective on oil fires and dangerous on electrical fires. It is used directly on the source of the fire.

The foam type extinguishes oil fires partly by the cooling from the water it contains, but more by cutting the oil surface from the air and flames. It must be directed at the source of the fire and must never be used for electrical fires. To operate the extinguisher turn bottom-side-up and the stream from the hose is directed to the base of the flames.

  The carbon-tetrachloride type is the familiar pump type. It is especially designed for fires in electrical equipment and for fires in confined spaces. Unlike the soda-acid and foam type it must be directed on the flames since its effect depends on the gas given off through the

LEFT: CARBON DIOXIDE (LUX) FIRE EXTINGUISHER
RIGHT: PYRENE (CARBON TETRACHLORIDE) FIRE EXTINGUISHER
LEFT: CARBON DIOXIDE (LUX) FIRE EXTINGUISHER
RIGHT: PYRENE (CARBON TETRACHLORIDE) FIRE EXTINGUISHER

vaporization of the liquid by heat. This gas is harmful to humans. To operate the handle of the extinguisher turn to unlock position and then pull out and use as a pump.

The carbon-dioxide type is effective on all types of fires in confined spaces. Like the carbon-tetrachloride type, however, the smothering gas upon which it depends for its effectiveness is quickly dissipated in the open air. It consists of a cylinder in which carbon-dioxide gas is stored under pressure in liquid foam together with a handle near the top and a control valve at the top to which is attached a short length of hose with a nozzle in the form of a horn. To operate, the extinguisher is held by the handle, the valve at the top is opened, and the gas is directed at the fire through the nozzle.

Where large areas of oil are burning in the open air, foam should be used if available in preference to CO2 for the reason that CO2 vapor is likely to be blown from the surface of the oil by the slightest breeze. This would probably allow the oil to re-ignite.

Directing streams of water into a tank of burning oil is ineffective for the reason that

 

52
 
water does not remain on the surface of the oil long enough to extinguish the fire but sinks to the bottom of the tank immediately. If the use of water is continued, the tank will overflow and the burning oil, being on top, must then run out onto the deck through all available outlets. Water streams may be extremely useful, however, in cooling the decks and tops of other tanks which have not been ignited. A forceful stream quickly directed at small isolated puddles of burning oil may disperse and extinguish them (see Tanker Fire Section).

The prompt and intelligent use of portable fire extinguishers will, in most cases, avert a serious oil fire. The two principal types of portable extinguishers suitable for oil fires are those containing foam or carbon-dioxide.

EXTINGUISHING OIL FIRES

The crew of a tank ship must be ready to fight fire at a moment's notice. Tank ships are provided with special equipment for fighting oil fires. It consists of:

1. A system of pipes and valves to carry steam, foam, carbon-dioxide, or inert gas to the cargo compartments, which may be operated from a protected control station, or,

2. A sufficient number of portable and semi-portable foam or carbon-dioxide extinguishers, located in various parts of the ship or barge.

All tank ships are provided with fire pumps, hydrants, hose, and nozzles.

WRECK SIGNALS

Upon the discovery of a wreck by night, the lifesaving force will burn a red pyrotechnic light or a red rocket, to signify, "You are seen; assistance will be given as soon as possible."

A red flag waved on shore by day, or a red light, red rocket or red roman candle displayed by night, will signify, "Haul away."

A white flag waved on shore by day, or a white light slowly swung back and forth, or a white rocket, or white Roman candle fired by night, will signify, "Slack away."

Two flags, a white and red, waved at the same time on shore by day, or two lights, a white and a red, slowly swung at the same time, or a blue pyrotechnic light burned by night, will signify, "Do not attempt to land in your own boats; it is impossible."

A man on shore beckoning by day, or two torches burning near together by night, will signify, "This is the best place to land."

Any of these signals may be answered from

  the vessel as follows: In the daytime, waving a flag, a handkerchief, a hat, or even the hand; at night, by firing a rocket, a blue light or a gun, or by showing a light over the ship's gunwale for a short time, and then concealing it.

WATERTIGHT DOORS

Most seamen are familiar with the ordinary watertight door which is a hinged steel door closing on a rubber gasket and secured by dogs.

The new type watertight door as installed on the newest ships built on Navy plans is more complicated and every sailor should know how to operate it in an emergency. It is actually a section of the watertight bulkhead cut out and fitted on enclosed slide rail guides and is operated by hydroelectric jacks automatically controlled from the bridge. They may also be controlled by local valves which are operated by a lever on either side of the bulkhead. The vertical position of the lever is neutral, movement toward the door will open and away from the door will close it.

Should the hydroelectric system fail the doors may be opened manually by means of a ratchet gear located by the door.

Another ratchet gear for controlling the doors manually is located on the next deck above the doors.

Should it be necessary for several persons to pass through this type door it would be a good policy for one to hold the lever open until all have passed. These doors are very powerful and should an arm or leg get caught it would mean amputation. In passing through do not release one lever until, with your free hand you have moved the other lever to open position. When the automatic control is on "closed," the door obeys when the hand lever returns to neutral, which it does automatically upon being released.

FRESH-AIR HOSE MASK

The fresh-air mask is the best gas mask for use aboard tank ships.

The apparatus consists of a large trunk, approximately 2" x 3" x 6" which contains a rubber hose, mask, and a rotary air pump.

The mask is similar in construction and is adjusted to the wearer's face in the same manner as the all-purpose mask.

The hose is held to the body by a harness similar in construction to an officer's field belt and is led directly to the trunk and air pump.

Care must be taken, when the apparatus is in

 

53
 
use, that the hose does not foul and that the pump is operated at a sufficient speed to supply the right amount of air.

Owing to the fact that the hose connections are of rubber, the apparatus should not be used for fire or where corrosive materials, such as acid, have been spilled.

In use, the trunk is placed to the windward of the compartment to be entered in such a manner as to insure that the pump is taking only fresh air and yet not too far away from the compartment so that the operator can see that the pump is working properly.

A life line should be attached to any person entering a gaseous compartment and a reliable person, preferably an officer, should stand by to lend assistance.

THE ALL-PURPOSE GAS MASK

The all-purpose gas mask consists of canister (green or red), corrugated rubber hose, face-piece, eyepiece, flutter valve, form for eyepiece, anti-dim stick, strap, buckles, and canvas container.

The all-purpose gas mask (red canister) is used when entering compartments that contain organic vapors, acid fumes, carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide.

The green canister type is used only in compartments that contain ammonia gas.

The all-purpose gas mask should be used only when the flame safety lamp will burn. It is not to be used when the oxygen content of the air is less than sixteen per cent.

Each canister is good for two hours intermittent or continuous use. When unsealed, a canister is good for one year from the date of manufacture. When sealed, it may be kept ready for use for a period of two years. A canister is merely a can containing elements to purify the air. These elements are placed in layers with wire screens between them. At the base of the canister there is an air inlet valve.

OXYGEN BREATHING APPARATUS

A complete apparatus includes a regenerator charged with soda-lime and an oxygen bottle charged with oxygen.

Oxygen from cylinder passes through closing valve into reducing valve thence from reducing valve at lowered pressure through oxygen supply tube to a metal tube enclosed in cooler to seat of admission valve. Operation of this admission valve is controlled by wearer's lungs and when opened by an inhalation admits oxygen

  to the breathing bag and then to the cooler. From here it goes through the inhalation tube and inhalation valve in the mouthpiece to the lungs. On exhalation, the air passes through the exhalation valve and exhalation tube into top of regenerator. The air then passes downward through the soda-lime in the regenerator which absorbs the carbon dioxide. The purified air passes into the cooler where it is enriched with oxygen supplied from the breathing bag through a hole connecting with the cooler.

OXYGEN BREATHING APPARATUS
OXYGEN BREATHING APPARATUS

Safety Valve-In order to test safety valve for proper functioning, close admission valve by drawing top of breathing bag outward, then compress copper bellows until reducing valve seat opens, thus allowing oxygen to flow into reducing valve chamber at a higher pressure until the blow-off point of safety valve is reached. This will be indicated by the safety valve whistling and allowing the excessive pressure to be reduced.

Analyses of Air in Breathing Bag-When the wearer inhales from apparatus and exhales to the outside atmosphere at least three times, the air in the breathing bag to approximately 75 per cent oxygen and 25 per cent nitrogen.

Relief Valve and Saliva Trap-The relief valve should be used at least once in every twenty minutes, to enrich the mixture of air in the breathing bag with oxygen. An advantage of a combined saliva trap and relief valve in the mouthpiece is that when saliva is released to outside, the air in the breathing bag is automatically enriched with oxygen.

Reducing Valve-The pressure in the reducing

 

54
 
valve is approximately three pounds per square inch.

Safety Valves-The safety valve in releasing gives a whistle warning to the wearer when the pressure exceeds seven pounds.

Main Valve-This valve controls the supply of oxygen to the reducing valve. One full turn opens the valve seat.

By-Pass Valve-This valve is for the purpose of furnishing oxygen to the wearer in event of failure of the reducing valve or admission valve to furnish sufficient oxygen. It is entirely independent of the main closing valve.

Safety Cap-The safety cap is designed for the purpose of releasing pressure in bottle if exposed to fire during storage or transportation. It is filled with a soft metal (such as Roses metal).

Regenerator-Regenerator consists of a hollow copper box with connections to cooler and exhalation tube. The box contains soda-lime which absorbs the carbon dioxide gas. Renew the soda-lime when the oxygen bottle is renewed.

Pressure Gauge-When the main opening valve controlling the supply of oxygen to the breathing bag is used the amount of pressure in the bottle will register on the pressure gauge. When the needle of the gauge reaches the red sector that is the warning sign meaning there is only enough oxygen left in the bottle to get on deck. (This gauge will not register when the by-pass valve is used.)

Lubricants (Danger)-Do not use lubricants of any kind in connection with this apparatus.

THE FLAME SAFETY LAMP

The flame safety lamp is an excellent indicator for inspecting quarters where the oxygen may be depleted. It is also used in tanks where bunker fuel oil or fresh water has been stored. A tank should never be entered without first lowering the lamp to the bottom. The lamp will register oxygen deficiency by the dimming or flickering of the flame. This can be observed in the mirror. When the oxygen gets too low to sustain human life the flame will go out. Under these conditions the lamp should be withdrawn. The tank should be thoroughly ventilated and retested before anybody enters and before any repairing or cleaning is done.

When atmospheric conditions are normal the flame of a safety lamp has a normal appearance; but when the atmosphere undergoes certain changes the appearance of the flame changes.

  It is such differences in the appearance of the flame that make the safety lamp of value for testing oxygen deficiency.

THE CARE AND OPERATION OF FLAME SAFETY LAMP

DO NOT USE THE LAMP IN ANY PLACE CONTAINING ACETYLENE OR HYDROGEN GAS.

PREPARING LAMP FOR TESTING

Before using the lamp to make a test, you should carefully examine it to insure that all parts are in good condition; that they fit properly; and that no parts are missing. It is very important that the gauzes are free from dust, oil, soot, or any other obstruction which will interfere with the air circulation of the lamp. Attention should also be given to the wick. It should be trimmed of excess crust to prevent clogging so that the fuel will feed freely and produce a flame which is stable and uniform.

MAKING TESTS WITH LAMP

In making the tests with the lamp, you should observe the following instructions:

1. Light the lamp about five minutes before using for a test, so that the flame will reach its normal operating temperature. Adjust the flame so that its height will be about one-half inch when burning in the normal atmosphere.

2. It is very important that the lamp should be lowered into or withdrawn from the area to be tested slowly. Rapid lowering of the lamp into explosive mixtures may result in igniting the gas in the area. Likewise, the rapid withdrawal of the lamp from the area when explosive mixtures are present may cause the flame to be drawn through the gauzes and thus ignite the gas.

3. If the flame increases in height and size, combustible gas is present in the atmosphere around the lamp.

4. When the flame increases in height and size, do not lower the lamp further into the area being tested as the gas is likely to be in layers and the lamp may be approaching a layer of gas which is explosive. Withdraw the lamp very slowly from the area. Thoroughly ventilate the area and then retest it for indications of gas.

5. When the flame decreases in height and flickers, it indicates that there is a deficiency of oxygen in the atmosphere. Under this condition the flame will be extinguished completely

 

55
 
MERCHANT SHIP ORGANIZATION CHART
MERCHANT SHIP ORGANIZATION CHART
 
when the oxygen content of the atmosphere is reduced to 16.5 per cent. When the deficiency of oxygen is indicated in any area it should be thoroughly ventilated and retested before anyone enters it.

6. In making the test, the lamp should be lowered completely to the bottom of the area to be tested except in instances where an indication of the presence of gas is secured before the bottom is reached.

7. An area which indicates the presence of gas should be retested from time to time during the day to insure that gas is not slowly reentering it.

A DAY AT SEA

When you go to sea for the first voyage you will in many respects find yourself in a new and different world. This is particularly true of time at sea.

A day at sea is divided into watches of four

  hours each. You work for four hours and then comes eight hours of free time of watch below. Watch below implies that your time is your own. After eight hours of your watch below you "turn to" (work) for another four hours. Thus out of a day you work a total of 8 hours. The three watches are the 12:00 to 4:00, 4:00 to 8:00 and 8:00 to 12:00.

Bells are struck every half hour in each watch. Four, eight, and twelve o'clock A.M. and P.M. is eight bells. Thus eight bells is struck six times a day. At eight o'clock at night, for example, eight bells is struck and a watch is relieved. At eight-thirty one bell is struck, on the bridge. At nine o'clock two bells is struck. At nine-thirty three bells is struck, and so on until eight bells, which is twelve o'clock. At twelve o'clock, eight bells is struck and the sequence continues. When striking bells do so with a sharp, deliberate jerk on the lanyard leading from the bell to a position accessible to the man at the wheel. Bells of two

 

56
 
or more in number are struck in pairs. For example if you were striking six bells it would sound like this: dong dong (space), dong dong (space), dong dong. If you were striking three bells the first two are struck as a pair and of course the third is struck singularly. Lookouts who repeat bells answer with the same number in a similar fashion.

Watches are always changed at eight bells and the watch below, which is the relieving watch, is called twenty minutes before eight bells. On most merchant ships one bell is struck at twenty minutes before eight bells. This indicates to the standby that it is time to call the

  next watch. It is also customary to strike seven bells in the four to eight A.M. watch at seven-twenty and seven bells in the eight to twelve watch at eleven-twenty. This permits ample time for the relieving watch to get meals. It is the routine in the engine room to relieve the watch ten minutes before eight bells. At this time two bells is struck, in the engine room. This however is not bridge practice.

It is always a good policy to relieve the watch a few minutes beforehand. This is not only nautical courtesy. It serves a practical purpose, especially at night, when it permits you to better accustom your eyes to the darkness.

ship drawing
 

57
 
Sillouhette of a ship

TANK VESSELS
 

A tanker is a ship divided into compartments to carry liquid cargoes such as molasses and petroleum and products ranging from crude to casing head gas. American tankers run to all parts of the world after loading at a California, Gulf or Caribbean port. Time in port on tank ships is somewhat limited according to facilities available when moored, size of pipe lines, etc. In some ports a ship can load in six hours. In others it may take three or four days.

After the last hose is ashore the tanker is dogged down and the gangway is pulled aboard or set ashore. Then, if you are on watch you help stow all the deck gear, collect all the screens, kick out scupper plugs and strip the booms. About this time the word "stand by fore and aft" is passed which means that you go to your station for getting under way. All lines are taken aboard and usually a towboat takes you away from the dock. After the lines are stowed and the watch on deck, rigs and stands by with the pilot ladder, with both rope and heaving line until your ship is ready to drop the pilot. As soon as you reach the sea buoy the anchors are secured and hawse holes are cemented. You might be called upon to assist the carpenter in the cementing of the spill pipes. On a laden tanker the forecastle head is almost continuously awash. Cementing prevents the entrance of water to the chain lockers.

KINDS OF OILS

Liquids having the characteristic of being "greasy" are commonly called oils. In general, oils may be divided into the following 5 classes:

  a. Petroleum base.-This group includes those oils made by distillation (heating) crude petroleum which produces such products as gasoline, kerosene, light fuel oils, heavy oils, lubricating oils, and asphalt.

b. Coal base.-This group includes those oils made by distillation (heating) of coal and shale which produces such products as benzol, toluol, creosote, and coal tar.

c. Vegetable oils.-This group includes such products as linseed, tung, cottonseed, olive, palm, and castor oils.

d. Marine animal and fish oils.-This group includes cod, shark, fish, seal, whale, and porpoise oils.

e. Animal oils.-This group includes such products as neat's-foot and lard oil.

While all of these oils are commonly transported in barrels and many of them are transported in bulk, those produced from crude petroleum are by far the most important because of the tremendous quantities which are transported.

CHARACTERISTICS OF OILS WHICH RELATE TO SAFETY

For purposes of safe handling, oils of all kinds may be divided into two classes.

a. Inflammable, or those which will give off inflammable vapors. Such oils will "flash." At a temperature not much above its "flash point" such an oil will burn steadily, and this temperature is called its "fire point."

b. Combustible, or those which will give off combustible vapors. Combustible oils are

 

58
 
relatively safe to handle and include such petroleum products as kerosene, light and heavy fuels, and lubricating oils. Practically all of the animal, vegetable, and fish oils are combustible oils and therefore are relatively safe. However, it should be remembered that certain of these oils when mixed with other substances will sometimes ignite of themselves. Thus old rags smeared with linseed oil (or even paint) or sawdust or rags wet with fish oil and kept warm will often ignite from chemical action. Many fires on shipboard have been started in this way and the cause of such fires is referred to as spontaneous heating followed by ignition. This means the capacity of some substances to heat will cause them to ignite from chemical action without being brought in contact with flame.

Oily rags should never be kept in a paint locker or other closed space.

OPERATIONS PRIOR TO TRANSFER OF OIL CARGO IN BULK

Upon joining a tank vessel, those whose duties will require them to handle cargo should familiarize themselves as soon as possible with the arrangement of cargo pumps and the layout of suction and discharge piping and valves. Nearly all tank vessels have individual peculiarities relating to the loading and discharging of cargo.

Before starting the transfer of oil cargo in bulk the proper signals must be displayed: They are, a red flag by day and a red electric lantern by night if the vessel is at a dock. At the gangway or point of approach to the vessel a warning sign should be displayed reading as follows:

Warning
No open lights
No Smoking
No Visitors

MAINTENANCE AND CARE OF EQUIPMENT

Cargo-handling equipment should be kept in good condition in order to avoid emergency repairs during the period when cargo is being handled. Whenever a tank vessel is gas-free, full advantage should be taken of the opportunity

  to work on cargo pumps, pipe lines, and valves.

GENERAL SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

A. Matches.-Safety matches only should be allowed on tank vessels.

B. Smoking.-Smoking should not be allowed on the weather decks of any tank vessel when loading or discharging cargo, when gas-freeing tanks, or when lying at the docks of an oil terminal. Smoking is permissible only in specified sections.

C. Cargo tank hatches and ullage holes.-Tank hatches and ullage (sounding) holes should not remain open without being fitted with flame screens, unless the tank is gas-free.

D. Nonsparking tools.-Tank vessels should be furnished with lead, copper, or other non-sparking hammers or tools for opening and closing cargo tank hatches.

E. Fresh-air masks.-On manned tank vessels, fresh-air breathing apparatus (including belt and life line) is carried.

F. Fresh-air breathing apparatus.-This system is the best for use on tank ships (the all-purpose gas mask should not be used in entering compartments on tank ships). The apparatus consists of a large trunk approximately three by two feet and about two feet in depth, which contains the hose, the masks, and a rotary air pump. The mask is adjusted to the wearer in the same manner as the gas mask. The hose is held to the body by a harness, then led directly to the pump and attached thereto. This pump may have as many leads from it as desirable. The speed of operation of the pump determines the amount of air thrown out by it and the number of masks which may be attached to it.

In using this apparatus, care must be taken that the hose leads do not foul and that the pump is being operated at sufficient speed to supply all outlets.

Owing to the fact that the hose connections for this apparatus are of rubber, it should not be utilized for fire or where acid has been spilled on the decks.

G. Ventilation.-Ventilation should not be confused with venting. Engine rooms, living quarters, and other spaces where members of crew normally may be employed, are ventilated; cargo tanks, bunker tanks, cofferdams, and water tanks are vented to protect them against excessive internal pressure or vacuum. All enclosed living and working parts should be well ventilated.

 

59
 
The importance of ventilation in working and living spaces where inflammable vapors are likely to accumulate cannot be overemphasized. Even in pump rooms where precautions are taken to eliminate all sources of ignition, ventilation is of primary importance. In working spaces where grinding of tools, electrical sparks, and smoking are normally present, ventilation must often be depended upon to prevent accumulations of inflammable vapors.

Cargo tanks which are not known to be gas-free should not be entered by anyone not provided with, and experienced in the use of, a fresh-air (hose) mask. It should always be remembered that the usual "canister" mask is of no use in entering oil tanks. Only two types of mask can be used-the hose mask where fresh air is pumped to the user through a hose from the deck, and the oxygen breathing apparatus where a supply of oxygen for breathing is carried by the user. The wearer of either type of breathing apparatus should be provided with a safety belt and life line. The life line should be tended by two men from the deck above.

Whenever possible, repairs in cargo tanks should not be made until the cargo tank has been gas-freed. Under no circumstances should any repairs which require the use of open flames be attempted in cargo tanks until such cargo tanks are gas-free.

Cargo transfer operations should be stopped during a severe electrical storm, or if a fire takes place on the tank vessel, or on or in the vicinity of the dock, or if a towboat should come alongside in the way of the cargo tanks while the tank vessel is loading inflammable oils.

CLEANING AND GAS-FREEING OF CARGO TANKS

When it is necessary to repair a tank vessel or, under certain conditions, when a different grade of oil is to be carried, it becomes necessary to clean and gas-free the cargo tanks, cofferdams, bunkers, pump rooms, etc. Tanks may be cleaned in various ways, but, regardless of the method used, only two principles are involved; first, the removal of as much of the oil as possible from the tanks, and, second, the ventilation of the tanks to drive out the remaining gases.

Since cargo tank hatches must be raised and large volumes of gas must be dissipated during cleaning and gas-freeing operations, precautions should be taken to extinguish unnecessary fires on the tank vessel and to avoid unnecessary

  repair work on or adjacent to the main deck.

There are two principal methods of cleaning cargo tanks, namely, by machine or by hand. With the machine method, rotating nozzles are lowered through a special deck opening to various elevations in the tank. The nozzles rotate slowly in both planes and direct two streams of very hot water at high pressure on all parts of the interior tank surfaces. While this washing operation is in progress, the cargo pumps are operated slowly and the refuse oil and hot water resulting from the washing operation are drawn from the tank. After the washing operation, which may last from one-half to two hours, the tank lid is raised. Blow tanks out with a light wind for a day or two.

In cleaning tanks by hand, the process consists usually of steaming the tank for several hours and then raising the tank hatches and washing the tanks with a fire hose, removing the water and refuse oil during the washing operation. "Wind sails" are then rigged to ventilate the tanks. Wind sails are canvas air ducts with large flaps on either side of an opening at the top. The flaps catch and direct the air through the opening at the top and downward through the duct and into the cargo tank.

Steaming operation depends principally on the kind of oil which the tank has carried. Tanks which have carried heavy thick oils require the longest steaming. It is usual on tank vessels over two hundred feet long to steam only one-half of the tanks at one time in order to avoid the excessive stresses due to the expansion of the ship's structure from the heat.

Sometimes tanks which are apparently gas-free, again become gassy. This is usually because the scale and rust on the tank surfaces hold small quantities of oil which, after the tank has been cleaned and ventilated, is gradually absorbed by the air in the tank. This condition is especially likely to take place in hot weather and where the tank has been closed up after cleaning. After a cargo tank has been thoroughly washed and pumped dry, the very best measure to secure a safe condition is to provide ample and sustained ventilation. Natural ventilation is usually safer and more effective than the use of blower and exhauster fans.

"The testing of air in cargo tanks to determine whether it is gas-free as defined in the regulations for Tank Vessels, should be assigned only to responsible persons who are trained and experienced in cleaning and gas-freeing of

 

60
 
tanks and in the sampling and testing of the air in them to determine its toxic and explosive nature.

Two methods of test are in general use, namely:

1. Samples of the air of the tank are secured and taken to a laboratory where they are analyzed to determine the percentages of hydrocarbon vapors.

2. Samples of the air in a tank are drawn through a portable device known as a "gas indicator" which when properly calibrated will give a direct reading of the percentage of hydrocarbon vapor present in the air.

When your ship enters a port, the anchors are cleared. Then booms are rigged, scupper plugs secured, screens made ready and pilot ladder and gangway rigged. The red B (Baker) flag is hoisted, ullage holes are opened and screens fitted.

Remember, keep away from fumes when loading.

VALVE SYSTEM

Tankers have numerous valves to control the direction of flow of liquid cargos. To make identification easy, each valve is painted in a distinctive color and fitted with a name plate. Steam valves, for example, are painted red, while master valves are painted yellow.

Various companies have their own color schemes but a sample of common types follows:

Live Steam Red Solid
Exhaust Blue Solid
Fuel (Bunkers) Black Solid
Master Valve Yellow Solid
Tank Valves Yellow (Starboard)
Green (Centers)

Center tanks may have a white nut in center of wheel.

Crossovers-Yellow Rim, Red (half) Green (half) centers.

Stripping-Very small wheel colored same as above, yellow rim, red and green centers.

There is usually a small brass name plate with the name and number of each valve. For example: No. 3 Port Main tank; No. 5 Starboard Wing tank. All valves turn to the right or clockwise looking down at them, to close a valve requires from 6 to 32 turns. When closing, use a valve wrench to tighten. A valve may be closed handtight and still be partially open, perhaps 2 or 3 turns. A spill over might result from this. Be alert when working valves and do not open or close any valve without being

  told. Always have a valve wrench handy. It is the duty of every man on deck to know how to stop the main cargo pumps in event of a broken line or hose. Ask the pumpman to show you anything that is not clear to you. He will gladly help you.

WETTING DOWN SHIP (Wartime Measures)

At least four fire streams should be instantly available with hose and nozzles completely made up, connected and run out with hydrant valves open. One hose line should lead up over the forward side of the midship house to one side of the boat deck and the other hose line should lead up over after side of the midship house to the other side of the boat deck.

At the after house at least two hose lines should be run if possible from aft over the fidley and forward. In running these hose lines, put full pressure on the hose, lash or clamp the nozzles to a stanchion or rail so that they will spray on deck, and secure the hose and nozzle where necessary with slip knot lashings. A quick release nozzle clamp at the rail could also be used. As a result of this arrangement one hose from the midship house should be directed into the forward well deck and the other into the after well deck, and two hose from aft should be directed into the after well deck. Ample hose should be allowed (at least a length) over and above that required to actually reach the nozzle position. The object of all of this is that four streams of water may be directed onto the main decks without doing any more than starting the fire pumps in the engine room.

Shortly after sundown it is recommended that these same hose be used to wet down the entire weather deck area of the ship (weather permitting). At this time of day the atmospheric evaporation rate is very low. All lifeboat falls, covers, weather cloths, decks, deckhouses, lifeboat nets and everything that could soak up oil should be saturated with water. The nozzles should again be lashed or clamped in place and the whole system tried at full pressure and then shut down. The ship can also be wet down during the day as often as seems desirable but the sundown drenching (weather permitting) should never be missed.

PERSONAL SECURITY

As already stated, it is assumed that each member of the crew is in possession of his personal lifesaving gear, consisting of life preserver, life suit, whistle and jack-knife, and that each man is familiar with this equipment

 

61
 
and his lifeboat and fire station, all of which would be the case on any type of ship.

SUNDOWN INSPECTION

Such inspection is strongly recommended as a part of the security program adopted for each ship. The security of the vessel with reference to that program should be reported to the Master at sundown. If you are assigned to such a detail inspect and check-check and inspect. Take nothing for granted.

DURING ACTION EVERY AVAILABLE FIRE STREAM SHOULD BE USED WITHOUT A MINUTE'S LOSS TO WASH DOWN THE OIL-SPLATTERED AREAS OF THE SHIP.

HANDLING OF SHIP

The use of the hand steering gear, if connected in time, may prove effective in putting the damaged side to the lee so that the fire can be fought. Be sure you know the location of such gear and how to use it.

Putting the fire on the lee side is vital. The ship cannot even be abandoned with reasonable safety-much less be "fought"-if it is afire from end to end.

ABANDONING SHIP

The records indicate that many men have been lost from tankers due to launching lifeboats with too much headway on the ship. It has already been stated that the average tanker when attacked is abandoned in 11 minutes if afire and 22 minutes if not. It is, of course, well understood that the spectacle of a tanker on fire produces a very understandable urge to get away but many men are lost due to excessive haste.

Sound judgment is required to determine the right moment to abandon a tanker which is on fire even after the decision to abandon has been made. If, for example, the engine room has been permanently knocked out and the ship has been immobilized it will still have considerable headway and it will probably be turning in a wide circle under the effect of the torpedo explosion which may also have set the rudder over. The ship will have headway for from 8 to 15 minutes depending on its initial speed, mass and lines, and this time can and should be determined for each ship at half, three-quarter and full speed.

If the vessel is struck in a cargo compartment when loaded, the oil from that compartment is displaced by the sea water and it pours out on

  the surface of the sea and streams aft in the wake of the ship. As the ship slowly loses headway this oil gradually ceases to stream aft from the hole in the ship's side and finally, with the ship stationary in the water, it flows out in all directions away from the ship's side. From this

TYPICAL OIL SLICKS OF TORPEDOED TANKERS
AT VARIOUS SPEEDS
TYPICAL OIL SLICKS OF TORPEDOED TANKERS AT VARIOUS SPEEDS

it will be concluded that there is less chance of getting the lifeboat abaft the wound and on the same side away with success than there is of getting the other boats away. The boat forward of the wound and on the same side can be gotten away with greatest success if it is dropped when the ship still has 1 to 3 knots speed because at this speed the oil from the wound is still streaming aft and the sea painter may be used to sheer the boat out.

The two boats on the opposite side of the ship, barring further complications, can usually be gotten away without great difficulty. In any event with slight headway on the ship and careful handling of the sea painter and the steering oar, the boat can be made to sheer away from the ship's side clear of any oil which may be there. Spreading of oil from the hole in the ship's side is shown in above illustration.

If you are tending lifeboat falls, remember that they may be full of oil. If possible use the net over the side or one of the man ropes. Sliding down fall under such conditions would

 

62
 
be particularly dangerous. Remember this.

Burning oil on the water has caused men in lifeboats to jump out of them from fright. Lifeboats have been rowed through burning oil on the surface of the water many times and they have gone back alongside the ship to take off other men, passing on the way through patches of burning oil. Having completed their mission, they have returned in safety. The records clearly indicate that the lifeboat is the best of all the lifesaving apparatus and it can be relied upon when properly handled.

Since life rafts are intended as a place of safety for those jumping from the ship or failing into the sea, they should not be released until the ship has lost considerable headway, otherwise they will be some distance from the ship when it finally comes to a stop. It is probable that the best plan is to release the raft directly abaft the wound and on the same side, immediately, otherwise it may burn. Other rafts should be released just before nearby boats are dropped. In the case of a general fire requiring the ship to be abandoned immediately all rafts should be dropped instantly. Care should be taken not to drop a raft on a lifeboat or on a man in the water. Do not ride down on rafts-rafts usually turn over when they strike the sea.

At least one raft should be left for the gun crew and every boat and raft getting clear before the gun crew should stand by as close as possible to render them every assistance.

The plan for abandoning ship should clearly show the kind of personal lifesaving gear each man should use. There are times when a lifesaving suit may be of great assistance and there are other times when it may be a hindrance. There may be times when even a life preserver is a hindrance to getting away.

Generally speaking, the following suggestions will be helpful in the use of personal lifesaving gear. If you are going over the side by jumping and you have plenty of time to get to the side where there is no oil on the water and especially if it is cold the suit will be very helpful. Jump as far as you can feet first after the ship has lost practically all of its headway and strike out using the backstroke without kicking the feet.

Experience indicates that where it becomes necessary to leave a tanker which is on fire before a lifeboat can be launched the most important consideration is to pick a place from which to dive where little or no oil will be

  encountered on the surface of the water. Usually the best place to dive will be on the side of the ship opposite to the damaged side.

The following swimming strokes are advocated because they are most effective when swimming through oil-covered water: By using the modified breaststroke a path can be cleared through the oily water by pushing the oil away from and to your sides. Thus, a clear path for swimming is opened in front of you. This same clearing of the oily water can be done when swimming the dog-paddle stroke. A few facts should be noted concerning the problem of swimming through oil-covered water. As has been indicated above, the strokes suggested are the most effective. However, it should be remembered that, when coming up through the oil surface after having jumped or dived into the water, your eyes and mouth should be kept closed until your shoulders are clear above the oily surface. With the shoulders above the surface you can then open your mouth and inhale quickly. You should also open your eyes in order to check on your position in the water. It should be emphasized, do not inhale until you have come clear above the surface of the oil, approximately to the shoulders. Exhale through the nose and mouth. Check the direction of the wind before going into the oil-covered water. Swim to windward so that you can get away from the oil patch on the surface of the water as quickly as possible.

Another good means of swimming through oily water is under-water swimming. You should swim as far under water as possible by using either the dog-paddle stroke or the modified breaststroke under water. After swimming as far under water as possible, you should then come up above the water so that your shoulders are clear of the surface before you inhale again. You then submerge and swim as far as you can go before coming up again to breathe. The methods described above will help the seaman navigate through oily water if and when necessity arises.

After getting clear of the ship try to reach a boat or raft as soon as possible. Do not stay too close to the ship. There is usually a strong back draft of air along the surface of the water and tows 'd the fire which will slowly draw a floating object toward the ship. This draft will have no effect at distances greater than two hundred yards.

Remember, eternal vigilance is the price of safety.

 

Previous Part
Previous Part
Eng Home Page
Prelim Home Page
Next Part
Next Part

 

Copyright © 2013, Maritime Park Association.
All Rights Reserved.
Legal Notices and Privacy Policy
Version 3.00