IN addition to the gear described in previous chapters for handling sails and spars, there are certain purchases specially rigged on ship-board, when required, to hoist weights in or out of the vessel, or to transport such weights from one part of the ship to another.
The support for these purchases may be-
First. The lower yard alone, supported by its lift.
Second. The lower yards, supported themselves by purchases from the mast-heads.
Third. The mast alone, as in the case of mast-head pendant tackles.
Fourth. The lower yard supported from the mast-head and by a derrick.
Fifth. The derrick alone.
Sixth. The sheers, already described under MASTING.
Hoisting in Light Articles. To hoist in an object of no great weight, such as a barrel of flour, use two single whips, one from the yard-arm, the other from the collar of the lower stay. The ends of the whips secure to a strap around the barrel, and by walking away with the yard-whip, the barrel is raised from the lighter alongside above the level of the rail; clap on to the stay whip, easing away the yard until the barrel is in line with the hatch, and strike it below by the stay-whip.
For a heavier weight use, instead of the single whips, the yard and stay water-whips, Fig. 267, Plate 35, described under TACKLES. See that the lower lift is taut, and hook the upper block of the yard so as to plumb the lighter.
It is desirable in port to keep the quarter-deck clear, therefore lead the yard-tackle forward on the same side as the weight is being raised, and the stay forward on the opposite side.
When using the "yard and stay," to provision or water ship, it will be found very advantageous to use a small single whip, or tricing-line, to light over the lower block of the tackle, to the great saving of paint work; the coamings of hatches should be carefully protected from injury by mats or boards.
In provisioning ship with the main "yard and stay" (water-whips) the fore-topmen break out, make up and stow the stay-tackle, and the main-topmen the yard tackle.
Hoisting Heavy Weights. In hoisting a heavy object, with purchases from the yards, it is important that the latter should be well secured, so that the yard may not be sprung or rigging endangered.
To Support the Lower Yards. Use in addition to the lift one or both top burtons, whose upper blocks are hooked into the top-pendants. It is the common practice to hook the burton of the side to the eyebolt in the burton strap on the yard, and the burton from the opposite side to a temporary strap around the yard. It would be safer when the weight is so great as to require the use of both burtons to have temporary straps for each of them near the point from which the weight is suspended, unless the regular burton strap happens to be close to that point, in which case it is of course used. Our general rule should be in supporting a lower yard or derrick, to attach the supporting tackles and guys to the yard or spar at the point from which the weight is to hang.
If both yards are to be used together, as in hoisting out boats, the main-yard will probably require bracing up, and the fore-yard bracing in. Any bracing required should be done first and then the yard topped up on the side used, if necessary, slacking the opposite lift.
After these preparations, haul taut the opposite lift first, then see that the weather lift and burtons bear an equal strain.
When the yard has been left square, or been braced forward, the burton from the opposite side is taken across forward of the mast. When a yard has been braced in, the supporting burton from the opposite side leads best abaft the topmast and between the topmast rigging and back-stays.
Hoisting in Spare Spars. Very heavy topmasts may require the use of both fore and main yard and stay tackles, but usually the main yard tackle alone will be sufficient. Fig. 377, Plate 72.
Support the main yard by both top-burtons, get an equal strain on lifts and burtons. Send down a clew jigger hooked to the main lift, and sway up and hook the upper block of the yard tackle. This block has fitted to it a strap which is rove through the thimble of the block and stopped to the back of the hook as in Fig. 2G7. The strap goes around the yard, and the hook of the block hooks into its bight.
The lower block of the yard tackle is hooked to a lashing on the balancing point of the topmast, the lashing steadied by backlashings from head and heel of the topmast. Hook the fore top-burton to a strap around the head of the topmast, and a spare burton from the main topmast head to a strap through the fid-hole, hoist the spar on board by the yard, guying it forward or aft by the top-burtons.
Hoist in other heavy spars in the same way, hoisting in
first such as are stowed underneath. See, when hooking on, that the spar has the same fore-and-aft direction as it is to take when stowed, for it would be difficult to slue it when landed inboard.
Lighter spars can be hoisted in with the water-whips, Fig. 267, Plate 35.
Few ships carry anything like a full complement of spare spars. Such as they have are usually stowed between the fore and main mast.
Stowing Booms. It is impracticable in most steamers to stow the spars amidships, on account of the smoke-stacks, although room is gained in that way. If stowed in two piles, the spars on the starboard side are spare spars for the main and mizzen, and those on the port side for the fore, and spare head-booms.
Spare topmasts stow with their heads forward and always outside the boats.
If sufficiently numerous to cause confusion, spare spars should be numbered on each end, and a list taken, which will save time in finding any spar that is wanted.
The booms are lashed to span-shackles, put in the deck for the purpose. When stowed they (and the boom-boats) are protected by a tarpaulin boom-cover.
Some vessels stow spare topsail-yards in lumber-irons, or cranes on the quarters, Fig. 378, the main on the starboard side, fore on the port. To get them into the cranes from alongside, use the boats' falls with assistance of burtons from the main and mizzen topmast heads. Support the davit heads.
To hoist a yard on board from the cranes, if in port, lower it into the water with. the boats' falls, and hoist in inboard with the main-yard tackle. If at sea, brace in the main-yard as much as possible, use the tackles described in getting in a topmast, and ease the yard clear of the irons with tackles from the main and mizzen rigging. Have steadying lines to control the yard.
Spare spars should be protected from the weather by having all cracks chinched with cotton, and filled up with white lead, and the yards painted and covered, if in the chains, in the wake of chafes.
The spars in the chains frequently foul the mainsheet, therefore there should be no lack of timenoguys on them.
Hoisting in and out Boats. One of the-most frequent operations in hoisting heavy weights with the assistance of the lower yards, is getting in and out boom-boats with the yard-tackles, triatic-stay and stay-tackles. Fig. 379.
The Triatic-stay consists of three parts-two pendants, and span. The pendants have hooks in their upper ends, which hook to bolts in the lower caps (fore and
main), or are secured around the mast-head. In the lower ends of these pendants are spliced thimbles, into which the stay-tackles hook. These pendants are spanned together by another rope, the ends of which span are spliced around thimbles which traverse on the pendants. The length of the span will be the distance you wish to have your pendants apart, viz. the length of the launch.
On long vessels, where the boats stow abaft the smokestack, the forward stay goes to the fore-topmast head, and the span from the lower end of the stay to the main cap. The main-stay hangs, as before, from the main cap. Fig. 380.
Hoisting in Boom-boats. The order will be given: IN BOATS! the crew prepare for their duties as follows:
In the launch-coxswain, assisted by some of the boat's crew to pass out oars and sails, hook purchases, &c.; or, if a steam launch, to hook on the main-yard and stay to the boiler, which is often hoisted on board first and placed in the gangway, to be afterwards hoisted in the boat when inboard.
On deck-fore and main-topmen clear away the booms for the reception of the boats.
Aloft-Forecastle-men take out their clew-jigger on fore-yard, are responsible for the fore-yard tackle, and hook the burton or burtons on the fore-yard.
Fore-topmen overhaul down their burtons, sending the falls on deck; send down fore-topsail clew-jigger for fore-triatic, and look out for fore-stay tackle.
Quarter-gunners look out for main-yard tackle, getting main clew-jigger on main-lift.
Main-topmen send down main-topsail clew-jigger for triatic-stay, overhaul down burton, and look out for mainstay tackle.
Mast-men are responsible for leading-blocks.
NOTE. A small, strap is seized on each triatic-stay pendant well below the hook. Into this becket hook the clew-jigger, and have a single hauling-line from the top to the hook of the stay pendant. The clew-jigger takes the weight of the triatic-stay and leaves enough slack to enable the pendant to be hooked readily.
The men being reported up, the officer of the deck gives the order, Lay aloft! when the men detailed will proceed to their stations. The men on the yard will receive the burtons* and clew-jiggers from the tops; when ready, give the order, Lay out! The yard-men will lay out together; secure the clew-jiggers to the lift above the burton-strap; hook the burtons; and be in readiness to secure the purchase, when swayed up to them. The men in the tops send
* Top-burtons are always kept hooked to their pendants, ready for use.
the falls of the burtons down on deck, send down from the forward part of the main and after part of the fore-top, the topsail clew-jiggers for the triatic-stay pendants, which are bent on deck to their respective tackles and pendants; and the double blocks of the stay-tackles hooked to the thimbles in the pendants and the hooks moused. The fore and main braces, and the clew-jiggers, being manned, give the order, Trice up, brace in! At which the main-yard is braced up, the fore-yard in, the purchases are whipped up to the yards, and the ends of the triatic pendants to the tops. The yards are then secured,* and the purchases hooked and moused, as directed in the foregoing paragraphs. While this is going on, the launch is hauled up alongside, oars, masts, thwarts, sails, &c., are passed out of her, and the booms prepared for her reception. The lower blocks of the yard and stay-tackles are hooked to the rings in her stem and stern posts, and the hooks moused.
Instead of trusting to stem and stern post rings, it is advisable to fit heavy boats with two chain spans; the after one hooked to an eye-bolt that is riveted through the keel nearly under the after thwart, and to the ring-bolt through the stern-post. The forward span hooks to an eye-bolt riveted through the keel forward, and to the ring-bolt through the stem. The purchases are hooked to links in the bight of each span. (See BOATS.)
The falls of the purchases lead thus: That of the main-yard purchase, through a snatch-block hooked in an eye-bolt in the deck by the main-fiferail, and then aft. The fore leads through one hooked by the fore-fiferail, leading aft. The fore-stay through one hooked by the fore-fiferail, and the main through one by the main; both the latter on the opposite side of the deck, leading aft.
Everything being in readiness, give the order, Man the yards!** At which the men lay in from the yards to the top. The yard purchases are manned, with a sufficient number of men at the stay purchases to take in the slack as the boat is purchased; one man in the bows and another in the stern of the boat. Now give the order, Walk away with the yards! When the boat is sufficiently high, order, Turn with the yards! Man the stays! At this, a turn is taken, with the yards, two men remaining by each to ease away as the boat comes in, while the remainder of the men man the stays. Walk away with the stays! As the boat comes in, the yard-tackles are eased off, until she is over the boat-chocks; then, Well the stays! Lower away of all! Both the yard and stay-tackles are lowered, and she is landed on the chocks, the men in the boats overhauling the purchases;
* The men on the yards look out for and report when the lift and burton are taut alike.
** i.e. Man the falls of the yard-tackles.
the carpenter and his mates being ready, as she is lowered, to place her properly.
It may be necessary to use the ordinary main-stay tackle, or mast-head pendant tackle, as a fore and aft purchase, to guy the boat clear of the fore-rigging and back-stays of a sailing vessel, or the smoke-stack of a steam frigate.
Hoist in the smaller boats in the same manner, using the yard and stay-tackles.
If the boats have any water in them, it is well, when a little way up, to "avast hoisting," and let it run out, or wash out any sand or dirt that may be in them, though a heavy boat should not remain long on the purchases.
After the boats are in (or out) give the order, Lay out! The men lay out on the lower yards, cast off the lizards, unhook the burtons, &c.; the topmen cast off the end of the stay-pendant-hands being stationed by the whips and the braces manned; give the cautionary order, Stand by to lower away together! then order, Haul taut, Square away! At this, the purchases are lowered on deck, the yards squared, the clew-jiggers taken off the lifts; the men on deck make up the purchases to be stowed away, and having given the topmen sufficient time to stow their gear, give the order, Lay down from aloft! when all the men are to leave the tops.
Winding Pendants, Fig. 381, Plate 74. In lifting the heaviest boats the upper block of the yard tackle hooks into a winding pendant. This pendant is fitted with a hook in the upper end which hooks to a bolt in the lower cap, or the pendant goes around the topmast above the cap and hooks into its own part. The other end of the pendant has a thimble for the hook of the upper yard tackle block. The bight of the pendant is hauled out to its place on the lower yard by a whip on the lower lift, and is secured to the yard by a stout lizard which traverses on the pendant. Be careful in taking the turns of the lizard around the yard and pendant to take them above the bull's-eye of the lizard, otherwise the strain is taken by the lizard and yard-arm instead of being transferred to the lower mast-head.
To Hoist in a Launch when underway under steam, or having the wind aft. Should it become necessary to hoist in a launch when underway, when circumstances do not permit of heaving to or stopping the engines, secure the yards as usual, and haul the launch up, say on the port side, get a stout hawser from the port quarter and secure it to the stern of the launch; secure it also inboard. Get the purchases up, hook and mouse-them, and proceed to hoist her in as before directed. The only difficulty is, that with headway on the vessel, the moment the boat is freed from the resistance she meets with in moving through the water, she will surge forward with a violence in proportion to the speed
of the vessel, and endanger the yard and purchases. The hawser from the quarter to the stern of the boat prevents this, and renders the operation, as soon as the boat leaves the water, as simple as under ordinary circumstances.
This evolution was performed by the "Constitution" during the memorable and exciting chase, in which she escaped from the British squadron, in July, 1812.
It is well when hoisting in a heavy weight to use a preventer fore-brace leading from the bowsprit end.
On board modern ships the distance between the fore and main masts is so great, that the fore-yard tackle acts very obliquely. For this and other reasons, it would be a good plan to have derricks expressly fitted for getting the boom-boats in and out; purchasing the sheet-anchors, guns and heavy weights generally, to the great saving of the yards. These derricks may be rigged temporarily of spare spars, or fitted like the modern fish-boom for the express purpose.
On board modern iron-clads a derrick rigged similar to our fish-boom is used exclusively in hoisting in and out torpedo boats and steam launches.
Launches carried on the Rail. Many of our modern vessels carry their launches on the rail, instead of stowing them amidships between the fore and main masts.
To support these boats there are fitted two stout davits, usually of iron, together with iron cradles on which the bilge of the boat rests. The cradles are supported under their centres by shores, on which the keel takes. The ends of the cradles are hinged, and can drop down clear when the boat is being hoisted or lowered.
The davit heads are supported by chain guys, spans and topping-lifts. One end of the topping-lift is shackled to the davit-head, and the other has a large ring to fit over the head of a curved iron stanchion or "strong-back," stepped inboard abreast of the davit. The topping-lift has a second ring a few feet out from its inner end, which is passed over the head of the strong-back when the davit is topped up for sea. Fig. 382, Plate 74. The topping-lifts are also provided with turn buckles, for use in setting up, Fig. 382 a.
To Hoist in the Launch. The davits are rigged out and the boat is hauled under them and hooked on. For heavy boats a triatic stay is got up, and the stay-tackles hooked into stout links at the davit heads and steadied taut. Walk away with the falls, and when these are nearly two blocks a hook in the breech of the upper block is hooked into a shackle on the lower block, Fig. 383. A rope rove through a hole in the bulwarks around a snatch-cleat on the cradle shore, and clamped to the inner gunwale with one of the gripe clamps, is used forward and aft to prevent the boat from swinging too far inboard as
the davits are topped up. Usually a boat gripe at each end is used for this purpose. Fig. 384, Plate 74.
When ready for easing in, top up on the davits by hauling on the triatic stay-tackles, put the topping-up rings of the chain topping-lifts over the heads of the strong-backs, raise and secure the outboard ends of the cradles.
Now get a strain on the falls, which have been slacked off in topping up, unhook each upper block from its lower one, and place the launch in its cradle. Unreeve the easing-in lines, and use them (generally) as a part of the gripe fastenings.
The object of hooking the upper and lower fall blocks together is to prevent the boat from easing down while topping up the davits and fouling the cradle; besides, leaving only the slack of the falls to be taken through after the boat is topped up.
To Hoist out the Launch. Having rigged the purchases, &c., as before, cast off the gripes, pull up on the falls, hook the blocks together, top up by the stay purchases, shift the topping-lifts, unclamp the cradles, ease away on the stay tackles and haul on the easing-in ropes. When rigged out, get a strain on the falls, disconnect upper and lower blocks, and lower away together on the falls.
Getting in Guns on Covered Decks, Fig. 385, Plate 75. After bracing the yard over the port through which it is intended to take the guns, secure the lizard of the pendant round the yard, five or six feet outside of the ship, and hook the top burtons just outside the lizard.
Haul taut, and bring an equal strain on the burtons and lifts. Hook a rolling-tackle* on the opposite side of the yard, and bowse it well taut. Pass the end of the pendant of the gun-purchase through the thimble of the lizard; take the end up and make it fast round the topmast just above the lower cap. To the eye of the pendant, which should hang a few feet below the yard, is hooked one block of a double purchase; overhaul down the lower double block with the fall part leading from it up through a single block lashed securely on the quarter of the yard, directly over the gangway; then through a block at the mast-head and down through a leading block on deck.
An ordinary treble purchase fall, leading from the upper block, as in the figure, is more common.
Have the port lined with pine boards to keep it from being chafed. Sheet-iron will take up less room and give better protection.
Bore a hole in the deck or decks through which it is
* ROLLING TACKLE. A stout luff hooked well out on the opposite yard and to a strap around the mast below the truss, to relieve the inboard thrust. This should be used whenever the yard is topped up, in purchasing
intended to pass the garnet, as nearly as possible over the rear end of the gun-carriage, and as near in a line with the centre of the port into which the guns are to come as the beams will allow. Pass the upper end of the garnet through the hole, and turn in the thimble, to which hook the pendant tackle. Place a tackle across the deck, ready for bowsing the gun into its carriage through the port.
Bring the gun under the yard and sling it as follows: place one bight of the slings over the cascable, and pass the lashing, which is attached to the slings, round the chase, at such a distance from the trunnions as will allow them to go into the trunnion-holes, without bringing too great a pressure of the slings against the upper port-sill. Then lash the gun-purchase to the outer bight of the slings and sway away. When the breech of the gun is above the port-sin, hook the garnet and the thwartship tackle to the cascable, and bowse on both.* When the slings bear hard on the upper port-sill, lower the gun-purchase, and bowse on the garnet until the breech is high enough for the trunnions to clear the cap-square bolts in the carriage; then bowse on the thwartship tackle until the trunnions are over the trunnion-holes, lowering the purchase as required to bring the gun into its place.
As each gun is mounted, unhook the purchase and garnet, take off the slings, run the carriage to its proper port, and place another for the next gun.
Taking in Guns over all. Sling the gun slightly breech heavy, to render it more manageable. If it is to be mounted on the spar deck, place the carriage in the gangway: if on the main deck, close to the main hatchway on that deck. In place of the garnet, hook the stay-purchase for lowering the gun into its carriage.
Getting out Guns through Ports. Secure the yard as in getting in guns, and sling the gun in the same manner. Hook the garnet and haul it well taut, so as to raise the breech of the gun as much as the port-sill will permit; hook or toggle the gun-purchase, and sway away. As soon as the trunnions are clear of the carriage, haul it from under the gun, ease away the garnet, and let the gun go out the port. As soon as the gun is perpendicular to the purchase, unhook the garnet and lower the gun into the lighter, or on the wharf, as the case may be. Use thwartship tackle if necessary.
If the gun is to be taken out over all, the stay tackle is to be substituted for the garnet, only it is hooked to the same end of the slings as the gun-purchase, and the lashing on the slings is to be passed around the chase of the gun, as near the trunnions as possible.
* If available, a large triangular link, secured in the cascable hole by the pin of the cascable will be convenient to hook in the garnet and thwartship tackle.
Hoisting out Damaged Guns. It may happen that the gun to be handled has had the trunnions or cascable shot away or injured. In a case of this kind, on board the U.S.S. Vermont, the trunnions and cascables of the spar-deck guns had been broken off previous to their delivery to purchasers who had bought them for the metal. To sling the guns in this case a toggle was placed in the muzzle and a rope strap rove through its own bight around the breech. The breech strap and toggle were connected by a back lashing, and the gun hoisted out muzzle heavy by the yard and stay tackle hooked into the bight of the strap.
Throwing Guns Overboard. The gun's crew being assembled at quarters, remove the pin and chock from the cascable, into the jaws of which place a strap; hook the double block of the train tackle into the housing-bolt over the port, bend its single block into the strap; remove the cap squares, and place a round block of wood on the sill of the port high enough to let the chase bear on it when slightly depressed; raise the breech as much as possible without lifting the gun out of the carriage. When all is ready, man the train tackle well; have the handspike-men also ready to assist in raising the breech; and if the vessel is not rolling, it will be well to have additional handspikes under the rear of the carriage to lift it also, so as to give free egress to the gun. When all is ready, give the order; "All together-launch." In a gale of wind, advantage should be taken of a favorable roll to give the word, that the action of the sea and of the men at the guns may be simultaneous.
If the guns are to be thrown overboard in shoal water where they may be subsequently recovered, they must be buoyed, and care is to be taken that each buoy-rope is of a proper length, and strong enough to weigh the gun. The best mode of securing the buoy-rope to the gun is to form a clinch, or splice an eye in the end which goes over the cascable, and take a half-hitch with the bight around the chase of the gun, and stop it with spun-yarn.*
The buoy must have sufficient buoyancy to float the rope when saturated; or in deep water, a smaller line may be used for the buoy, and attached to the rope intended for weighing the gun, that it may be hauled up when wanted.
Other Methods for getting in Guns. For taking in or hoisting out main-deck guns, no purchase that can be rigged is so handy and safe as the derrick excepting the cat.
But the cat-head is only available when it overlooks a port: the derrick may be rigged anywhere if a suitable spar is to be had.
* Guns taken out of a ship to lighten her when aground should be hoisted out and rafted clear, if there is any danger of bilging on them.
Whichever of these two methods be adopted, it must be observed that the longer the slings are, the less will the lower purchase block nip against the upper port-sill. If the cat-block be used, the hook should stand outward, and whatever kind of purchase be used in working guns through ports, the port should be lined, and the port-lid unshipped.
The use of the derrick will be described further on.
Toggle for Breech-Loading Rifle-Gun, Fig. 386. To sling a breech-loading rifle-gun, the breech mechanism having been removed, place in the breech an iron-bound toggle, Fig. 386. Set up at the muzzle with an iron cross-piece, as a washer, and a screw. The toggle affords a bearing for the chain slings.
The toggle must be of wood to avoid injury to the rifling. In any case, as the guns have little preponderance, they will be nearly centre-hung by lashing the slings at the trunnions.
The heel-tackle is hooked into the eye-bolt in the end of the toggle.
Purchasing Waist Anchors. Having secured the lower yards with the lifts and both burtons, the yards being topped up, if need be, on the side used, brace in the fore and forward the main-yard, and get an equal strain on the supporting tackles, Fig. 387, Plate 76.
The purchases used are the yard-tackles with the winding pendants, the lizards of the latter regulated so that the purchase will take the anchor clear of the side, Fig. 387.
The anchor being brought alongside in a lighter with the crown aft, pass a strap around the shank just inside the ring; the anchor being stocked, lash this strap to the stock. Hook the fore purchase into this strap, and hook the main purchase to another strap passed down over the shank and under the arms, the tackle hooking into the upper bights. The forward strap should be a long one, and lashed to the stock about one-third the distance up, to keep the stock perpendicular when the anchor is raised. Use fore-and-aft tackles as necessary.
Having swayed the anchor up, rouse it in with thwartship-jiggers, place the bills in shoes, or its arm upon the gunwale, place the shores and pass the lashings, unstocking the anchor.
The anchor rests on two shores, which may be of wood resting in saucers and secured by laniards, or they are of iron, and work on hinges, Fig. 388. The shore supports the anchor, and also throws it clear of the ship's side when let go.
To hold the anchor to the side, there are usually chain-lashings, the upper ends secured by seizings of ratline stuff; two from eye-bolts in the side below the anchor acting as jumpers to keep the anchor down, two on the shank, and one on the inboard arm to retain the anchor at the side.
In preparing to let go, the chain being bent and the
anchor stocked (by raising the upper arm of the stock with a top-burton and lowering it into place for keying), cast off the jumpers and the lashing on the arm, and stand by to cut the seizings of the shank lashings.
To transport a Waist Anchor to the bows. Get the anchor ready for letting go, and at the same time make the necessary preparations for weighing it. When ready, let go the anchor and heave it up to the bows, purchase it there with the cat and fish.
Or transport the anchor wholly by purchases, as follows: Stock the anchor, brace the main-yard up sharp and the fore-yard in a little, use the purchases, &c., previously described in getting the anchor into place. The fore-yard hooks to a lashing around the shank inside the stock, and the main to a lashing around the crown and both arms.
When the anchor is clear of the ship's side, ease away on the main-yard, hauling on the fore-yard tackle until the anchor hangs by the latter purchase. Then man the fore-brace and brace the yard up handsomely until the anchor is far enough forward to hook the cat; when lower, hook the cat and rouse it up to the cathead. Unhook all purchases and send them down.
You may hook the cat and fish as soon as the drift permits, and it is advisable to do so, as the latter, particularly, will be serviceable in transporting to the bows.
The fore-yard should not be braced in so far that the burtons and lift will take against the rigging, for in bracing them up again they would not bear an equal strain.
By this plan, you may transport anchors from the bows to the waist, but there is always risk attending the bracing of a yard with a heavy weight upon it, for the supports may be broken in detail, as the strain is shifted, and the yard sprung or carried away.
Moreover, in long modern ships, the distance through which the anchor must be transported requires a very great swing of the fore-yard. If this plan is adopted, good hands should be stationed to attend the burtons, and at the first indication of the slacking up of any one, to haul it taut again, and for that purpose jiggers clapped on the fall would be a material assistance.
When transporting waist anchors, the cable should be unshackled and a hawser, stout enough to weigh the anchor in case of accident, bent in its stead.
To transport a Waist Anchor inboard. Having previously secured the lower yards, hoist the anchor inboard with the fore and main-yard tackles, and transport it forward along the deck, the deck being wetted down and mats placed under the anchor and ball of the stock. If the vessel has a flush spar-deck, the anchor is dragged far enough forward to hook on the hoisting-out tackles immediately. But should the vessel have a topgallant forecastle,
as is generally the case, the anchor is raised from the deck to the forecastle by means of the lower pendant tackles of the side, and a mast-head pendant tackle. The anchor is then hoisted outboard by the mast-head pendant tackle and the fore-yard tackle, stocking it as soon as it is raised clear of the forecastle. If the ship is provided with a fish-boom, the fish may be substituted for the mast-head pendant tackle in hoisting the anchor out, Fig. 389, Plate 77. In either case, both purchases used are commonly hooked to the ring, or to a strap near the ring.
The anchor being outboard, lower it by the fore-yard tackle, and hook on the cat as soon as convenient, to bring it to the cat-head.
Mast-head. Pendant Tackles, Fig. 390. These are purchases, double or treble, the upper block lashed to a pendant from the topmast-head. A top pendant may be used to form the pendant, taking a turn with it around the topmast-head, securing the ends together, and lashing the upper block into the bight.
A mast-head pendant tackle is guyed clear of the top by a guy from forward or aft, as the case may be, usually secured to the pendant just above the upper block.
These purchases are very useful in hoisting heavy articles out of the fore or main hold, or in any case when the purchase is required immediately over the fore-and-aft line. They could be used in place of the stay-tackles in purchasing boats, should there be no triatic-stay.
Transporting Spare Anchors, Fig. 390, Plate 77. The anchor intended to be stowed in the fore hatch is hoisted on board, crown up and unstocked, by means of the fore-yard and mast-head pendant tackle, the latter being abaft the mast. Should the anchor stow in the main hatch and forward of the main-mast, use the main-yard and a mast-head pendant tackle at the main, and forward of the mast. Use, in addition to the purchases, fore-and-aft and thwartship tackles as necessary, and a guy on the ring of the anchor in getting it into place. The anchor stows up and down, and on modern vessels usually on the forward side of the fore hatch.
In transporting this anchor to the bows from the fore hatch, hook the mast-head pendant tackle to a stout strap around the crown, and a tackle leading aft on the lower deck is hooked to the shank of the anchor to guy it clear as it goes up. Cast off the lashings, sway up, and as the crown comes above the upper deck use the fore pendant tackle, hooked into a strap around the shank near the place for the stock, in getting the anchor forward of the mast. Having stocked it, transport it over the bows by means of the purchase on the fore-yard and fish, as in the case previously described of transporting anchors inboard. When high enough, and clear of the side, lower away to the water's edge, hook
the cat to the ring, and rouse it up to the cat-head, send down the purchases and square the yard; bend the cable, fish the anchor, and get it ready for letting go.
Should the anchor stow in the main hatch, hoist it out with the pendant tackle from the main topmast-head, and transport it forward on mats on deck.
Shoring up a Lower Yard. Fig. 391, Plate 78. To get in a very heavy weight, lower the main-yard some distance below its slings, housing it over athwartships so that the truss arms will be clear of the mast and on the side nearest to the weight, which rigs the yard out further on that side. Top up the yard on the side used and lash it to the mast, having first passed old canvas in wake of the lashings. Use rolling tackles on the opposite yard-arm, and hook both top burtons in wake of the purchase on the upper yard-arm, Fig. 391. If the jeer-blocks are needed to form the purchase used, hang the yard by pendant tackles from the lower pendants.
Get the spare main-topmast up and place its heel in a shoe in the water-way under the yard. Shore up the deck underneath and lash the head of the topmast with a cross-lashing to the after side of the yard. Use a spare gaff at about half the height of the topmast from the deck as a shore, the jaws lashed to the derrick and the peak to the mast. Reeve a topping-lift from where the topmast-head is lashed at the yard, to a block lashed above the lower cap. The topmast should be further supported by head guys forward and aft, which are omitted in the figure.
The upper block of the yard purchase is lashed to the lower yard and topmast with a long lashing. Both purchase blocks treble, or at least one of them fourfold, if such blocks are available.
The stay purchase consists of a double pendant from the lower mast-head, supporting a treble purchase. With falls, &c., of the following dimensions, a vessel sparred as heavily as the Trenton could safely raise a 10-inch rifle gun: yard purchase, 8-inch falls; stay purchases: two parts of pendant, 10-inch; falls, 8-inch; topping-lift, five parts of 6-inch.
A hawser rove from forward through a top-block at the fore cap may be secured to the eye of the stay pendant so as to haul the stay purchase forward to plumb the hatchway if the weight is to be struck below. If the weight is a gun to be placed on the gun-deck, sling it breech heavy. Fig. 391.
The Derrick. We have so far dealt chiefly with the lower yards in describing purchases, but the derrick possesses advantages which render it superior to a yard in some respects, for lifting heavy weights. The derrick transfers the weight to the deck, which can be well supported by shores from below. It removes all anxiety for
the safety of the yard and mast; it can be placed vertically or at an angle, supported either with or without the aid of a mast; it is soon rigged, and as quickly dismantled. These features are sufficient to recommend it. Moreover, it may happen in our modern ships that the vessel is fore-and-aft rigged, or so lightly sparred as to render her yards unfit to support heavy weights, or the yards themselves may be sprung, and unavailable for that reason.
The following instance of the successful use of a derrick is therefore given to show how derricks may be rigged and handled:
Recently the U.S.S. New Hampshire was towed from Norfolk to the Training Station at Newport, R.I., to be fitted up at that place. She had her topmasts fidded, lower and topmast rigging set up. The other spars, davits, &c., were on deck in an unfinished condition, all the iron-work for the yards, such as truss and sling bands, shoulder bands, and burton straps, being stowed below. The vessel carried on her spar deck fourteen boats, two being launches of the largest size, some stowed bottom up. In addition, there were two ten thousand pound anchors on deck, one in each gangway. It was required to hoist out the boats and to place the anchors on a lighter for transportation to the shore.
The boats were taken in hand first. The main-yard being the largest spar available, was rigged as a derrick. It was about 75 feet long, the size for a vessel of the Portsmouth class, the ship being much undersparred.
The lower yard-arm was stepped in a shoe close to the water-way, abreast of the main-mast. Fig. 392, Plate 79.
At the upper end, about the place for the burton strap, was lashed the upper block of a treble purchase, 6-inch fall. At the same point were hooked into suitable straps two topping-lifts, the upper one being the top burton of the side, the lower one a pendant tackle hooked into a strap around the lower mast, just above the trestle-trees-block underneath the top.
A burton from under the yard-arm, close to the purchase block, led outside to a toggle in a lower gun-deck port, acting as a jumper. An outrigger for this jumper would be needed in a vessel with less beam.
There were, in addition, forward and after guys from the fore and mizzen chains to the place for the upper purchase block. The deck was shored up under the heel of the derrick. Neither belly guys nor fishes for the lower yardarm were required, although their positions are indicated in the figure. The derrick, until rigged, lay across the rail, and was raised into position by means of the mast-head pendant tackle; topped up by the topping-lifts when the lower yard-arm was clear of the rail, the heel carried into place by heel tackles. The derrick purchase took the place
of a "yard" in hoisting out. For a "stay" there was fitted the mast-head pendant tackle, treble purchase, 6-inch fall, hung with a long lashing from the topmast-head.
Each boat was brought into position under the purchases by rollers and fore-and-aft tackles. In the case of the launches stowed bottom up, they were lifted clear of the deck by the mast-head purchase and capsized with the assistance of the derrick purchase, hooked to the same slings, underneath. The slings passed for this purpose were simply turns of stout manilla, one sling being forward of the centre of the boat, another aft, and the two joined by spans above and below, both slings kept from drawing together by back lashings over the stem and stern. Fig. 393, Plate 79.
The boat being upright was slung with a span for hoisting out, as in Fig. 394, the span for the launches being four turns of 5-inch manilla, fitted so as to render and take an equal strain. Particular attention was given to the belly lashing passed around the middle of the boat, it being made to bear an equal strain with the span. Plank spreaders were placed inside the boat between the gunwales in wake of the belly lashing. The span passed under the fore-foot and counter, with back lashings, as in the figure.
In hoisting out, the mast-head and derrick purchases were lashed to the span, the boat lifted by the mast-head purchase and swayed out and lowered by the derrick purchase.
In using the same tackles to get out the sheet anchors, both were lashed to the shank of the anchor at its balancing point, the lashing being steadied by stout back lashings from the ring and crown. Fig. 395.
The purchases described would have readily lifted 11-inch guns for a ship's battery; had it been required.
An Upright Derrick. To land the above mentioned anchors from the lighter, an upright derrick was rigged on shore. It consisted of a spar 20 feet long and about 8 inches in diameter. The heel rested on the ground, the head being supported by four guys placed as nearly as possible at equal angles, and some 50 feet from the heel of the spar. The spar was raised by jiggers on two of these guys, the other two being anchored off in the water, to get them at the required angles. The derrick being upright with one (double) block of the purchase lashed to its head, the lighter was hauled in close to the shore and the lower block of the purchase lashed inside the balancing point of the first anchor, in order to drag rather than lift. The purchase fall led from the upper block through a leading block lashed to the heel of the derrick. The anchor was raised by the purchase just clear of the lighter and was allowed to slide on skids to a point some 15 feet from the base of the
derrick, and each anchor was landed in turn abreast of the derrick and some 15 feet distant from the heel.
The purchase used was 4 1/2-inch rope, guys 4 1/2-inch. Fig. 396, Plate 80.
A Practical Method of Ascertaining the Stress on Derricks. In the figure, divide any part, a c, of the supporting line of the weight, W, into a convenient scale representing the weight suspended, (in this case 5 tons).
From a draw a b parallel to the tie rod, and from c draw c b parallel to the jib, cutting a b at b. The tension on the tie rod will be given by a b, referred to the scale a c, and the thrust on the jib will be represented by b c referred to the same scale.
Scales for the measurement of strains on any derrick formed of spars on shipboard may be constructed as in the foregoing case. Attention must be given to the relative positions of the derrick and supports which may vary from the above.
STOWAGE AND SOURCES OF SUPPLY.
THE HOLDS-BUREAUS-NAVY YARDS.
THE plan of the holds of a second-rate, Plate 81, shows the internal arrangement and disposition of the storerooms, &c.
Owing to the great differences in construction of modern vessels it is impossible to lay down fixed rules for their stowage, but certain general principles apply to all ordinary forms of steam vessels, viz.:
1. The weights of engines, boilers, tanks, ballast, &c., which are permanent fixtures for the cruise, must be so distributed according to the form of the hold, that the vessel may be brought down to her supposed best lines; which trim can be afterwards kept in the distribution of the provisions, coal, and other articles.
2. The proper stowage and security of all articles.
3. Economy in space, and a general regard to keeping near at hand certain articles for immediate use.
4. To avoid, as far as possible, taking any article into the hold until it has been properly cleaned.
The first thing to be attended to in stowing a hold is, to prepare the hold itself by having it thoroughly cleansed and white-washed, and the limbers cleared, and then to stow the ballast.
The weight of ballast used in men-of-war is generally small; the engine, boilers, coal, &c., being nearly sufficient in weight for the purpose required, and but little dead weight will be needed to perfect the trim.
Pigs of iron of square or half-round section, and about thirty inches long are used for ballast.
The pigs are generally laid directly on the skin alongside the keelsons, the limber boards being kept clear. They are not unfrequently stowed in the coal bunkers.
In placing the ballast, be careful not to form an uneven floor for the tanks above it, and still place it so compactly that the weight shall bear equally in the body of the hold.
Winging ballast, or spreading it athwartships, tends to make a vessel roll, and building up amidships, to keep her steady. Without venturing on details, it may be remarked,
that the plan of keeping the ballast in the body of the ship, and clear of the extremities, seems to be most generally approved of; while at the same time care should be taken to keep her on, or parallel to, the line of flotation, designated by the builder. Make a draft of the ballast, indicating the exact number of pigs, the position they occupy, and their weight.
After the ballast, are stowed the water-tanks, often on a skeleton floor, or better, iron chocks. The tanks are made to fit the form of the hold, and are put, according to marks, in their proper places. They are slung by placing an iron toggle, Fig. 209, Plate 28, in the man-hole.
If there be more than one row of tanks, and the manholes are near the corners, place them so as to have four man-holes close together; this gives more room for the storage of gear, and keeps the man-holes clear.
A draft of the tanks, showing their capacity and position, is kept by the navigator.
When stowed, the tanks on top should form an even surface, and be placed compactly. They are then wedged with slips of wood and the seams caulked and pitched so that no dirt can work down between them.
A bilge tank is one that has the corners cut off to fit the side or bilge of the ship.
All ships are now fitted with apparatus for condensing and aerating water. The tanks nearest the boiler are called receiving tanks, and receive the water fresh from the condenser. Other than condensed water should pass through a filtering tank.
The tanks being stowed and filled, the most bulky, wet provisions, are to be stowed next nearest the wings, and so that each kind may be got at. Pork is on the starboard side, beef on the port. The oldest provisions should be used first, restowing, when necessary, to get them uppermost.
Wet provisions are pork, beef, pickles, vinegar and molasses. The last two stowed in the spirit room."
Dry provisions are flour, sugar, beans, coffee, &c.
If the main hold is too small to hold all the dry provisions, some must be stowed forward. In this case, wet provisions form the ground tier, and dry provisions the top tier.
Where the stowing of wet provisions ends forward, or "in the breakage" of the fore hold, are stowed all the naval stores, as tar and tar oil (in tanks), pitch (in barrels), &c., and all the movable lumber, the forge and anvil, carpenters' chest and bench (when stowed below), spare buoys and buckets.
Iron racks are fitted under the beams in the hold for the stowage of planks, oars, and other small lumber, spare pieces of iron, and any spare gun gear not triced up under the upper deck. In a vessel with two holds, the after hold.
would contain spare gun carriages, lower caps, and other articles that will not probably be needed.
All wood for the galley should be barked, and all lime slaked before being received on board. Both are stowed in the fore hold.
Heavy purchases, such as the jeers, top-tackle pendants, and falls, anchor gear, and miscellaneous purchases, are stowed on platforms in the wings, above the provisions, and such platforms are called "cable tiers."
Wash-deck gear, coaling shovels and buckets, are stowed near the fore hatch; a good deal of the wash-deck gear is stowed in the chain chests, if the channels are broad enough to admit such chests.
Kedges, when not kept in the chains, are stowed in the hold; the stream anchor is secured up and down at the forward side of the hatch, crown up, unstocked, ready for hoisting out.
Triatic-stays, and yard and stay-tackles, are usually stowed in the launch.
Hawsers and towlines are kept on reels on the berth deck, the reels being as near the hatch as possible, usually at the foot of the fore hatch. No hawser should be stowed in the hold if it can be avoided, and gun-deck reels. or reels under the topgallant forecastle, may be used in addition to those on the berth deck.
The chain lockers contain the ship's chain cables.
The shot lockers contain the round shot, unboxed empty shell and grape, if supplied. The latter, when issued, is sometimes stowed around hatches on berth deck.
Canister may be stowed in the wings abreast the hatch.
The yeoman's store-room, or general store-room, is situated forward, directly abaft the collision bulkhead, if the ship is provided with one. In this store-room are kept all the spare cordage, paints, painting and illuminating oil, hooks, blocks, thimbles, ship's stationery, spare canvas, spare brooms, squilgees, and other cleaning gear, all hardware articles and tools not put on board for the special use of the engineers' force, or belonging to ordnance stores. In general terms, all small spare articles furnished for the use of the boatswain, carpenter, or sailmaker, are kept in the yeoman's store-room.
The oils mentioned above are discharged into the tanks in the fore peak, from the deck next above, by means of a tap and funnel, there being oil tanks fitted in the store-room for the reception of the oil. This is done as a precautionary measure against fire, and to avoid handling barrels of in. flammable substance below.
For a like reason, turpentine and alcohol are stowed in a "turpentine chest" aft, on the upper deck, to be readily thrown overboard in case of fire, if necessary.
The danger from fire through the ignition of fumes from
volatile oils and the like in close places, is always to be recognized in their stowage. Cotton fabrics, waste, or anything that tends to spontaneous combustion by oil soaking in it, should not be stowed in the fore peak, or in any close place, whether easy of access or not.
In vessels having a topgallant forecastle, such as the one shown in the plan, there is usually a lamp-room, situated under the forecastle, where the lamps are cleaned, trimmed, &c., and where a sufficient supply of oil is kept for daily use.
The navigator's store-room contains the spare flags, bunting, log and lead lines, boat binnacles, lamps and lanterns, signal halliard stuff, and other articles known as navigator's stores.
The medical store-room contains the medical stores not in actual use. Surgical instruments, and such medicines as are ready for immediate use, are kept in the dispensary and sick bay.
In the ordnance store-room are stored small spare articles of gun gear, sights, cap-squares, &c., and such gunner's tools as are not usually kept in the magazine, armory, or torpedo-room.
The sail-rooms contain the spare sails, hammocks, wind-sails, cots, awnings, &c. The sailmaker's bench is also stowed in the sail-room when not in use.
In a ship having two sail-rooms, one is usually reserved for a complete suit of topsails, mainsail and storm-sails, ready to be passed up promptly in case of emergency.
The bread-rooms contain the supply of biscuit.
The shell-rooms contain the loaded shell and shrapnel. For construction of shell-rooms and magazine see Ordnance Manual.
The boilers and engines occupy the space shown in the plan, with coal bunkers on either side extending to the upper decks in this class of ships.
Bunkers are filled through chutes on the deck above, covered by iron plates when not in use.
The paymaster's store-rooms contain the dry provisions and the less bulky or more valuable wet provisions. The room selected for the latter is known as the "spirit-room." Or, one of these rooms may contain portions of the spare clothing and small stores. There is frequently an additional paymaster's store-room aft for the articles of clothing.
Clothing and bread rooms are lined with tin to exclude vermin.
Casks should be placed fore and aft, bung up, and dunnage (small pieces of wood) used under the chimes to prevent shifting.
The chimes of a cask are the projection of the staves beyond the head.
The bilge of a cask is its largest circumference.
The bung of a cask is always to be found between the rivets of any two opposite hoops.
The stores received on board at a navy-yard, or purchased abroad, are supplied under the cognizance of the different bureaus of the Navy Department.
Bureaus of the Navy Department. The bureaus above referred to are divisions of the Navy Department for administrative purposes. They are eight in number.
The Bureau of Equipment and Recruiting has charge of all that relates to the recruiting, discharging and pay of enlisted persons. It establishes the complements of vessels, and controls the rendezvous and receiving ships. It has charge of the equipment of vessels with rigging, ground tackle, sails, and the greater part of the yeoman's stores, and fuel for all purposes.
The Bureau of Ordnance has charge of all that relates to the offensive and defensive armament of vessels. It, fixes the nature and place of armaments, and prescribes the kind and positions of armor, and dimensions of gun turrets within the carrying capacity of the ship, as determined by the Bureau of Construction. In conjunction with the latter bureau, it determines the location of armories and ammunition rooms, and determines itself the method of construction of such rooms. It prescribes the armament, handiness and speed of all torpedo boats, and all additional details of torpedo boats of less than eighty (80) tons displacement.
The Bureau of Navigation has charge of all that relates to the Naval Observatory, Nautical Almanac, Hydrographic Office, Department Library, and Office of Intelligence.
It furnishes navigation supplies and stores of all kinds. Bills for pilotage are rendered to this bureau, and the Office of Detail is attached to it.
Bureau of Yards and Docks. The duties of this bureau comprise all that relates to the construction and maintenance of docks, wharves, and buildings of all kinds within the limits of navy-yards, and of the Naval Asylum, but not of exterior hospitals or magazines, nor of buildings for which it does not estimate. It repairs and furnishes all buildings and offices in the navy-yards. It supplies water, gas and fuel required for yard purposes. It controls all improvements, fire apparatus, railways and railway tracks maintained for the benefit of the yards, and provides for watchmen and the protection of public property. It furnishes the oxen and teams required for all purposes in the yards.,
The Bureau of Construction and Repair. The duties of this bureau comprise all that relates. to designing, building and repairing the hulls of vessels,
boats, spars, capstans, steering-gear,* tanks, blocks, lumber, and furniture for ship's use of the kind made in joiner shops, also the turrets and armor-plating of vessels after the dimensions have been determined by the Bureau of Ordnance. It designs and (after their completion) controls all ship-houses, building slips and dry docks.
The Bureau of Steam Engineering has charge of all that relates to designing, building and repairing the steam machinery and its appurtenances used in the propulsion of vessels, also steam-pumps, heaters, &c., and the steam machinery necessary for turning the turrets. It supplies what are known as engineers' stores, comprising tools, oil, metal of various kinds, and other articles required for maintenance and repair in the Engineers' Department.
The Bureau of Provisions and Clothing has charge of all that relates to supplying the Navy with provisions, clothing, small stores, water and contingent stores in the Paymaster's Department.
The Bureau of Medicine and Surgery controls all that relates to laboratories, naval hospitals and dispensaries, and furnishes all surgical instruments and medicines.
The bureaus design the buildings erected in navy-yards for their purposes, so far as their interior arrangements are concerned, and after their completion (by the Bureau of Yards and Docks) control the same. They each control the pay organization and mustering of the labor connected with them, and contract for and superintend work done under their cognizance. Each bureau estimates for and pays from its own funds the cost necessary to carry out its duties as outlined above.
Where bureaus control buildings outside of navy-yard limits, they erect, furnish and maintain the same, or any other buildings for which they have estimated, and (subject to the provisions of the law) they are charged with the purchase, sale, and transfer of all such outside lands or buildings, and with the preservation of any public property under their control.
The Navy Regulations define more fully the relations of the bureaus to each other, and this subject need not be dwelt upon here, where the bureau organization is only outlined to show under whose cognizance the outfit of a vessel is completed.
The Chiefs of Bureaus of Equipment, Ordnance, Navigation and Yard and Docks are line officers selected from the Navy list not below the rank of commander. The chiefs of the remaining bureaus are known as the Chief Constructor, Engineer-in-Chief, Paymaster General and Surgeon General, and are selected from their respective corps.
* Steam capstans and steering-gear, supplied by steam engineering.
Navy-Yard Organization. The commanding officer (usually a captain or flag officer) is known as the commandant of the yard. All communications relating to work from the different bureaus go to him, and he is responsible for the execution of such orders.
The captain of the yard is the next line officer in rank, the executive of the station, and acts for the commandant in his absence. He has charge of the general administration of the yard, watchmen, police force, tugs, fire-brigade, and the mooring and unmooring of vessels.
There are also attached to a yard, officers in charge of the storehouses and stores of each bureau, the civil engineer of the yard representing the Bureau of Yards and Docks.
Stores are furnished from a navy-yard on requisitions made through the proper channels, and by order of the commandant of the yard, from the storehouses of the different bureaus.
The following lists give a general idea of the articles supplied under each bureau:
Equipment and Recruiting. All ground tackle and cordage; thimbles, hooks and boatswain's stores; sails, canvas, and sailmaker's stores; galley and cooking utensils; coal and wood for steaming or cooking; chairs and other furniture (not joiner work) for officers' quarters; water for steaming purposes: deck and bright-work cleaning-gear; coaling-gear; hose, fire-extinguishers; tar; life-preservers; seines; aerator, filters and condensers, for water.
These stores are mostly to be found in the following buildings, &c., of the navy-yard, in charge of the equipment officer, viz.: the sail and rigging lofts, rope-walk (Boston), anchor park, coal shed, and equipment store-house.
On board ship the boatswain, carpenter, and sail-maker have special charge of the equipment-stores in their departments, under the direction of the first lieutenant, who is the equipment-officer of the ship.
Construction Outfit and Stores.-
Spare iron and other metals,
Paints and paint oil,
Scuttle-butts and tubs,
All wooden furniture for
officers' quarters (except
Construction stores at a navy-yard will be chiefly found in the following buildings, &c.: spar-shed, boat-sheds, timber-basin, paint, joiner, blacksmith and blockmakers' shops and construction store-house.
The docking of vessels is done by Construction.
On board ship the carpenter has general charge of the construction stores under the direction of the first lieutenant, who makes out all requisitions for articles under construction.
Ordnance Outfit and Stores. All guns, small arms, or other weapons, and their appurtenances powder, shot, and every kind of ammunition, and tools for handling the same; belts and equipments for the guns' crews; torpedoes and their gear (except torpedo spars furnished by Construction), targets and electric apparatus supplied for military purposes.
The gunner is the warrant officer in immediate charge of the ordnance stores; the navigator is the ordnance officer of the ship, and makes out ordnance requisitions.
Ordnance stores are drawn from the store-house, armory and gun-park in the yard, and from the magazine, which is invariably situated outside of the navy-yard limits.
Navigation Outfit, and Stores. Compasses and binnacles; barometers and thermometers; sounding apparatus, flags, bunting, and signalling apparatus for either day or night signals; charts, sailing directions and instructions, drawing, musical, surveying and navigating instruments; lamps and their appurtenances, lamp-oil (except for engineer's department); chronometers and time-pieces, log-lines, reels and glasses; spy-glasses; fog-horns, library books, printing-press and materials, and electrical apparatus for ship's use, for bells and lights.
These articles are in charge of the navigator. The chronometers are generally received on board from the Naval Observatory; other navigation articles from the store-house in the yard.
Steam Engineering. Engines and boilers, together with their appurtenances, and tools, stores, lamps, &c., used in the engine and fire room.
The coal and water for steaming purposes come under equipment, as stated above.
Engineer's stores are supplied on requisitions made by the chief engineer of the vessel, and are expended under his direction.
The outfit under the
Bureau of Provisions and Clothing, includes the supply of water for drinking and cooking purposes, provisions, clothing, and "small stores," the latter comprising candles, tobacco, sewing materials, mess-gear, and other minor articles.
These stores are in charge of the paymaster.
Medical Stores include the medicines, surgical instruments, and other appliances for the use of the surgeon, as well as provisions for the sick and wounded; this outfit is in charge of the senior medical officer of the ship.
Medical stores on the Atlantic seaboard are drawn directly from the Naval Laboratory at New York, and are taken on board as soon as possible after the vessel has been put in commission.
The engineer's yeoman, pay yeoman and apothecary are the petty officers who act as store-keepers in their respective departments on board ship.
The Equipment, or ship's, yeoman, has charge of the articles in the general store-room.
There are three different methods of building boats, namely:-
1st. The Carvel-built, which have fore-and-aft planks, the edges meeting but not overlapping.
2d. The Clinker-built, also fore-and-aft planks, with the edges overlapping each other, like shingling.
3d. The Diagonal-built, having, as the name implies, their planking running diagonally, the inside planks running in a contrary direction to the outside ones, and their edges meeting.
Boats are single or double banked, as they have one or two rowers to a thwart.
The seats for the crew of a boat are called the thwarts; the strips running fore-and-aft, on which the thwarts rest, the rising; the space abaft the afterthwart, the stern-sheets, and forward of the foremost thwart, the fore-sheets; the spaces in the wash-streak for the oars, the row-locks.
The frames, knees, hooks, stem and stern posts of boats are generally of oak, and the planking of cedar.
Oars are made of ash. The flat part of an oar which is dipped in the water is called the blade, and that which is inboard is termed the loom, the extremity of which, being small enough to be grasped by the hand, is called the handle.
The oars are said to be double-banked when there are two men rowing at each oar.
Oars should be neatly marked by the carpenter, and the men not allowed to deface the looms.
In the navy, boats are classed as follows:
Steam launches and steam cutters, frequently built of iron or steel.
Sailing launches, barges, cutters, whale-boats, gigs, and dingies, built of wood.
To Find the Weight of Boats, multiply the square of the breadth by the length, and that product for a launch, by 2.5 ; first cutter, by 1.9; quarter boats, by 1.0; second cutter, by 1.4; stern boat, by 1.0. Answer will be in pounds.
SIZES OF BOATS U. S. NAVY.
||Breadth=Length x .282.
||Depth=breadth x .40.
||Breadth=Length x .260.
||Depth=breadth x .46.
||Breadth=Length x .258.
||Depth=breadth x .37.
||Breadth=Length x .225.
||Depth=breadth x .37.
||Breadth=Length x .185.
||Depth=breadth x .37.
||Breadth=Length x .210.
||Depth=breadth x .39.
||Breadth=Length x .265.
||Depth=breadth x .37.
Boat Equipments. Before entering upon the detail of a boat's outfit, the following articles may be mentioned as indispensable at all times to every boat, viz.:
1st. The plug.
2d. A breaker of water.
3d. A rudder which cannot be unshipped without cutting the rudder rope.
4th. The boat-hooks and the oars, or the sails and spars or both.
5th. A bailer.
The plug should be secured to the keelson by a good laniard. The water breaker should have the bung fitted with a spigot, or faucet, and laniard and the bunghole with a leather lip. If a steering oar is used instead of a rudder, it should ship in a patent crutch, narrowing at the top, from which the oar cannot be disengaged without hauling it through, loom first, until the blade is even with the crutch opening.
Rudders are usually supplied with the pintles of equal length. It will save a great deal of trouble if a small piece of the upper pintle is cut off. Otherwise, if there should be occasion to unship the rudder, it will be very difficult to ship it again in muddy water, or with any motion on the boat, since both pintles have to be pointed at once if of the same length.
In addition to the complete set of oars, there should be two spare oars, triced up under the thwarts. A painted canvas sail cover is usually provided for the sails.
Next to the above-mentioned articles may be enumerated the following as important in the ordinary outfit of a boat, namely: a full set of stretchers, a set of boat-hooks, a good arrangement for hooking on. This should consist of short chain slings shackling to a ring-bolt in the keelson forward and aft, and to rings in the stem and stern posts; "hooks" in these spans and rings in the lower block of the tackles to avoid the danger of the tackles hooking under the gunwale or thwarts are valuable, but seldom fitted. A short and a long (stout) painter for towing or mooring are also required.
If the lower blocks are to be close to the stem and stern of the boat, it is essential that the ring, shackle, ball-toggle or other arrangement used, shall permit the lower block to be above the gunwale of the boat and clear of it. This avoids fouling, which is always objectionable and may be dangerous.
Additional when at sea: Gripes, Fig. 399, fitted with slip-hooks; a boat-rope leading from the fore chains and secured to the boat's bows; life-lines hanging from the boat-davit span, the supply-box provided for by the Ordnance Manual, and, when hoisting in a sea-way, two small spars to act as skids in keeping the boat clear of the chains, &c.
A boat binnacle is to be kept trimmed and at hand ready for any boat requiring it.
At least one boat in every ship should be a good surf or life-boat, and fitted for lowering and hoisting with extraordinary expedition. In this connection, it may be mentioned that the LIFE-BUOYS should be of the most approved pattern, and that the contrivance for letting them go and firing them should be frequently examined and tested.
Boats should have their own recall, and the cornet, and general recall, painted on a piece of tin and tacked in some secure place, not the backboard.
The minutiae of boat outfits for various kinds of service will be found in the Ordnance Manual.
Lowering and Hoisting (underway or in tideways). For lowering, boats' falls should be kept in separate racks, and always clear. A boat should not be lowered while the ship has stern-way; on the contrary, it is better if the vessel be going ahead. Should the boat get under the bows, there is danger in a sea-way of her being cut in two or stove by the dolphin-striker.
In a quarter or stern-boat the after-tackle should be unhooked first, particularly when going ahead or in a tideway, otherwise the boat may wind and be swamped.
On lowering a stern-boat in a tide-way, the moment the keel touches the water the boat is swept astern, and the
falls so tautened that they cannot be unhooked without much difficulty. If when the boat is hoisted we hook a stout runner, fitted for the purpose, haul taut and belay it, and unhook the regular tackles; when the boat is lowered the runner can be allowed to unreeve instantaneously, and the boat is swept clear of the ship at once, or swings to her painter previously made fast.
When about to lower a boat, see the line from forward made fast, put the plug in, ship the rudder (if not permanently shipped), let the men in the boat hold on to the lifelines, and keep the steadying lines fast until the boat is in the water.
For hoisting, the boat should be hauled up, a careful hand steering, or dropped from the line forward and the forward tackle hooked first. It is very important that these tackles should have their lower blocks so made that they will not capsize. When the tackles are hooked the men should keep the blocks up so that they cannot unhook, by holding up the parts of the fall. Steadying lines should be used in a sea-way, leading in through the ports and well attended, with which to bind the boat, as she rises, against the skids; the life-lines should be crossed and the boat-rope from forward tended. Send all but four hands out and hoist away. When the boat is up, pass the bight of the stopper through the slings-the short chain-spans which go from the ring-bolt in the stem and stern-post to keelson-or through the ring-bolts and over the davit-end twice, and hitch before attempting to belay the fall.
For hoisting quarter-boats in a sea-way, there is nothing like jack-stays from the davits to set up to the bends at the water-line. A lizard is fitted to each, which travels up and down. With these, catch a turn around the thwarts, and the boat may be run up, clear of the side, without trouble.
Pass the gripes round the boat clear of turns. Have squaring marks put on the falls, so that she may always hang square from the davits, and in port, level with the rail. If there be no scuttle which opens of itself, take the plug out the moment the boat leaves the water. Make fast the boat-rope from forward to the bows of the boat, stop it up to the chains with a split yarn. See that the fenders are in, fill the water-breaker, and if the weather be hot, put the cover or awning on square and smooth during the day, taking it off at night.
In a stern-boat in a tide-way, or ship going ahead, do not attempt to haul across the stern or hook the stern-tackle until all is ready on deck, and then hold hard by the life-lines, for the boat will suddenly fly forward as she leaves the water. The spanker out-haul, or a whip from the boom-end, will guy the boat off the ship's rudder.
Much trouble in rounding up or overhauling down boats'
falls is avoided by hooking the blocks to small beckets worked into staples or eye-bolts in the bends.
Handling Boats under Oars. The following orders are used by officers or others in charge of boats. A cutter, for example, is supposed to be lying alongside, properly manned, and ready to shove off:
The crew, with the exception of the bowmen, seize their proper oars, and, watching the stroke oarsman, raise them briskly to the vertical, simultaneously, holding them thus directly to their centre fronts, blades fore-and-aft, those on starboard side with right hand, those on port side with left hand, down and grasping handles; the oars to be held by the hands alone, not resting on the bottom of the boat; the men face square aft, and pay strict attention to the coxswain.
Bowmen stand up, facing forwards, and attend the painter or heaving-line, or handle boat-hooks, as case may require. (They should not raise their oars until the order "Let fall" has been executed.)
In a sea-way, or strong tide-way, the after-oarsmen do not raise their oars at this command, but assist with boathooks in shoving off, and raise their oars together and before the order "Let fall."
Bowmen cast off painter or heaving line, handle boathooks, and shove the bow clear by a vigorous shove, the coxswain seeing that the ensign-staff and quarter go clear of gangway.
When the boat is sufficiently clear of the ship or wharf, the order is given:
The oars are to be eased down into the rowlocks simultaneously, and leveled. The blades should not be allowed to splash in the water. The fenders are then taken in, and the starboard stroke-oarsman gives the stroke. As the style of the stroke depends upon the after-oarsmen, they should be the best men in the boat.
In double-banked boats each man is responsible for the proper handling of his own fender. In single-banked boats No. 2 takes in and throws out the fender of No. 1, No. 3 that of No. 2, &c.
(The boat can now be pointed in the desired direction by directing the proper oars to be backed or given way upon.)
The bowmen, having shoved the boat clear, turn aft, take their seats, and lay in their boat-hooks together, and, having hauled in and coiled down the painter, if adrift, seize their oars, and, looking at each other, throw the blades over the bows, in line with the keel, simultaneously;
when the looms and handles are grasped, the oars are raised vertically together, and dropped simultaneously into the rowlocks. When the boat is properly pointed, the coxswain commands:
Give way together!
The starboard after-oar gives the stroke, the others follow him. Each oar should be lifted as high as the gunwale, and feathered by dropping the wrist until the blade is flat. When the blade is thrown forward as far as the rowlock will admit, it is then dropped into the water, easily and without splashing. (Rowing hand over hand, or from the shoulder alone, should never be permitted.)
On approaching the desired place of landing, the boat being properly pointed, at the moment the oars are leaving the water the coxswain commands:
The bowmen, closely regarding each other's motions, take one stroke, and tossing their oars, simultaneously, raise them vertically, lightly touching the blades together, letting them fall into the boat together, in line with the keel, without unnecessary noise, and pass the handles underneath the oars still in motion, taking care that their oars are "boated." They then seize their boat-hooks, face forward, and, standing up, hold their boat-hooks vertically.
When with sufficient headway to reach the desired place of landing, the command is given:
As before, the command is given while the oars are in the water. The crew, regarding the motions of the stroke-oarsman, give one stroke* and toss their oars simultaneously, raise them to a vertical position, and lay them easily and without noise into the boat, in line with the keel. The oars to be so placed in the boat that they can be readily resumed by the crew, the stroke oars to be placed nearest the gunwale, and the others in succession.
The oars being boated, the stroke oarsmen handle their boat-hooks, keeping their seats, and assist the bowmen in bringing the boat to the landing.
After boating the oars, the fenders are thrown out.
In saluting passing boats, or in stopping to hail, or to check headway, it may become necessary to lay on the oars; to do this, command-
Stand by to lay on your oars!
At this the men pay strict attention for the command-
which is given while the oars are in the water, the stroke is finished and the blades of the oars are feathered and raised simultaneously as high as the gunwale, where they are firmly held in lines parallel to each other-on no account
* Finish the uncompleted stroke and give one full stroke additional.
are the oars to be permitted to touch the water or to be thrown out of line.
At the order-
the pulling is resumed, each man regarding the stroke-oars, and taking the stroke from them.
To toss oars, the command is given
Stand by to Toss!
At the command
which is given while the oars are in the water, the stroke is completed, and the oars then thrown up to a vertical position simultaneously, blades fore and aft, each oar is held square to the front of the man holding it-on line with the centre of the body.
In going alongside of a strange or foreign vessel to deliver a message or order, requiring but a few moments to give or execute, and particularly when it is desired to keep the crew at their thwarts, it is recommended to give the order Toss, rather than Way enough! The crew to keep their oars up while the duty is performed by the midshipman in charge. The bowmen being the only men in this case, who "boat their oars."
To trail, give the command-
Stand by to Trail!
At the second order the oar is to be thrown out of the rowlock, and allowed to trail alongside, either by the trail line or by holding it by the handle.
To stop the boat's headway, order:
And if necessary-
At the first order, lay on the oars as directed; at the second, drop the blades in the water to check the headway; and at the third, pull backward, keeping stroke with the after-oars. The oars should not be dropped into the water too suddenly, lest they get broken.
To turn a boat suddenly, order, Give way starboard (or port), back port (or starboard), Oars! Both backing and pulling oars should always keep stroke with the stroke oar of their own side, all oars taking and leaving the water together.
The following are given as the indications of a good stroke:
1. Taking the whole reach forward and falling back gradually a little past the perpendicular, preserving the shoulders throughout square, and the chest developed to the end.
2. Catching the water with the lower edge of the blade inclined forward, and beginning the stroke with a full tension on the arms at the instant of contact.
3. A horizontal and dashing pull through the water as soon as the blade is covered, without ever dipping more than the blade.
4. Quick recovery after feathering, the arms being thrown forward perfectly straight at the same time as the body, the forward motion of arms and body ceasing together.
5. Equability in all the motions.
Sculling with a single oar should be taught.
Boat-rigs, Plate 83. Men-of-war boats are usually rigged as follows: Launches are sloop-rigged, with a jib and mainsail. Cutters and Whale-boats are rigged either with two sliding gunter-sails or two lug-sails; the former boats have a jib in addition.
A sliding gunter-mast, Fig. 401a, consists of two sections, nearly equal in length, called the lowermast and topmast; the latter slides upon the former, and is held in position by means of two metal rings secured to the topmast near its lower end. The topmast is on the after side of the lower mast. The sail is bent to the topmast and to metal hoops on the lower mast. Make sail by hoisting the topmast, which carries the head of the sail with it, hauling aft the sheet. The mainsail has a boom.
The rig is objected to for large boats, on account of the difficulty of handling and stowing the spar and sail, which are made up together.
Lug-sails are either standing lugs, three-quarter lugs or dipping lugs.
The halliards of a standing lug, Fig. 402, are bent to the yard a little inside of the forward end; the tack hooks, or is lashed, abaft the mast.
The halliards of a three-quarter lug, Fig. 403, are bent to the yard at one-fourth of its length from the forward end, the tack hooks a short distance forward of the mast to an eye in the fore-and-aft batten.
In a boat having two such lug-sails, it is customary to hoist the yards on opposite sides of their respective masts, and not to dip them. But if it is desired to dip, the sail is lowered a short distance, tack unhooked, taken round the mast and hooked again, while the forward end of the yard is dipped around by hauling down upon the luff of the sail. The halliards lead forward.
A regular dipping lug, Fig. 404, has the halliards bent at a point two-fifths of the length of the yard from its forward end, the tack hooks well forward of the mast, there being an eye-bolt for the fore tack on either bow.
In tacking or wearing with this rig, the after yard arm must be dipped around the mast from aft forward. This is done in tacking, as follows: the wind being on the (former)
lee bow, one hand lowers the halliards just enough to let the after yardarm go round the mast. This ensures plenty of back sail forward where needed, and as little slack sail as possible on top of the men. One hand forward bears the fore part of the sail out, the next two gather the clew of the sail forward and pass it around the mast, one hand aft unhooks the sheet as soon as the sail lifts, and rehooks when the clew is passed aft again. Balance of crew hand along the foot of the sail and assist in rehoisting. Shift fore tack to the weather bow.
In wearing, dip just before the wind is aft, rehoist when wind is on the other quarter. Do not allow the sails to gybe, and keep the halliards to windward.
In this connection may be mentioned the split lug, Fig. 405, generally used in British galleys (gigs), which have but one mast. The yard is slung at two-fifths its length from the forward end, as in case of the dipping lug, the sail is split in the wake of the mast, and furnished with a lacing, also with a second tack-lashing, or hook, for the after portion of the sail. Fitted in this manner, when the lacing is passed the sail is simply a dipping lug. With the lacing unrove and the after tack secured, the after part of the sail is used as a standing lug, the forward part (fitted with a temporary sheet) acts as a jib. The latter form of the rig is convenient in beating; the use of a jib-stay is avoided.
Dingies and gigs are usually supplied with sprit-sails-the latter boats may also have a jib. The upper end of a sprit is placed in a grommet at the peak of a sail, while the lower end ships in another grommet on the mast.
Masts should step in boxes and clamp to the thwart; clamp to be abaft the foremast and forward of the mainmast. The awkward and dangerous practice of stepping masts through a hole in the fore-and-aft batten, usually the flimsiest piece of material in the boat, cannot be too strongly condemned.
The British service rig includes an ingenious device (De Horsey's) for stepping the foremast. A stout fore-and-aft piece is fitted forward, with a slit through its centre equal in length to the distance from the heel of the mast to the partners, and in width somewhat greater than the diameter of the mast. The mast is fitted with trunnions, one on each side, resting on the after part of the fore-and-aft piece. In stepping, the mast pivots fore and aft on these trunnions. As the head goes forward and up, the heel sinks into its step, where it is confined by a pawl, which is fitted with a safety key that locks it after the heel is in place. Fig. 397, Plate 82.
With this rig the mast is stepped or unstepped in a moment. To take the mast out of the boat, unkey the cap squares of the trunnions.
The mainmast in this case is fitted in the usual way
with a box and clamp, the fore being given the easier rig on account of its situation, which renders it more difficult to handle.
Before stepping see the halliards are rove and that nothing will be required aloft. Never send a man aloft on the masts if halliards unreeve. Unstep the mast and rectify matters in that way.
Rigging. The masts being stepped, set up the shrouds equally and for a full due. Do not tamper with lee shrouds when sailing, to "set them up." If they are hove taut in a stiff breeze, the next tack will probably result in your wrenching the head of the mast off.
Halliards and Down-hauls. The yard of a lug-sail hooks to an iron traveler on the mast; the hauling end of the halliards should have an eye in its end, to be placed over the hook of the traveler before hoisting, and used as a down-haul.
Set a jib before setting the foresail. The jib being the fore-stay, if the foresail is set first the mast-head is dragged aft and the after leach will be slack. If obliged to set the foresail first, ease the fore-sheet while hoisting the jib, and let the head of the foremast go to its place. See the jib tack well out to the bowsprit end before hoisting.
Sails. Do not stretch the head of boat sails in bending them, unless they are bent when wet. Bring them to the yards and gaffs barely hand taut, to allow for shrinkage when damp, or the fit of the sail will be spoiled. See the yards slung so that the sails will set smoothly.
Boat Sailing. Make all the men who are not shoving the boat off sit down. "Shove off," "in fenders." In shoving off when the ship is not head to wind, pull clear of her before making sail. If the ship is broadside to a steady breeze you may make sail from the lee gangway, but look out for flaws.
Ship being head to wind, "Shove off," "Hoist the jib," then the foresail. If intending to sail on the wind, "hoist the mainsail" as soon as the boat is clear. If bound to leeward, let the boat pay off first to her course, then "hoist the mainsail," "ease off fore and jib sheets," and proceed.
If you want a pull on the halliards, slack the sheet; if the fore, check the main sheet at the same time.
Have the halliards coiled clear for running; do not allow the crew to stand on the thwarts or move about in the boat, nor the coxswain to let go the helm, as is sometimes done to get a pull of the main sheet, &c. By this thoughtless practice a boat may be taken aback and capsized. See that the weights are kept amidships and that all sheets are tended, not belayed.
If running and about to round to, remember that you cannot carry all the sail on a wind that you can before it, and reduce in consequence beforehand.
Running dead to leeward in a single-masted boat (gig) is dangerous. It is preferable to carry the wind a little on one quarter for half the distance, then haul aft the sheet, lower, shift the sail around, and head for your destination with the wind on the other quarter.
If your men are all sitting to windward in a breeze, make them take their proper places before passing to leeward of a vessel.
Steering and Trimming Boats. The "rule of the road" and the remarks about handling ship apply equally to a boat. See Chapter XXI.
Putting the rudder right across the stern deadens the way; 42° is considered the extreme of efficiency.
When there is no way on, or when the boat is tied by the stern-as in towing, when the tow-line is fast to the wrong place, the stern ring-bolt--the rudder has no effect whatever.
Always endeavor, either by trimming sails or disposition of weights, to reduce the boat to a "small helm," for when the rudder is dragged much across the stern the way is retarded. Weather helm will be induced by allowing the boat to be pressed by the head, and this may be caused by the bowmen sitting forward, or by press of sail, or both. If the bows are clear, a pull on the jib-sheet might relieve the helm, but not as a matter of course; for if the jib was already flat, it might be the cause of depression, and a few inches checked would perhaps answer the purpose. Then the main sheet might be the cause, and an inch of that sheet might be the remedy. But it will be of no use to attempt trimming until the sails are taut up and well set; and then the officer in command can make his alteration of trim, until the boat may be so nicely balanced that, by sending the bowmen forward and letting go the tiller, she will go about of herself.
If the bow is deep and the stern light of draught, the former is not so easily blown from the wind as the latter. If, on the contrary, the stern be deep, and the bow light, the bow is readily thrown to leeward by the conjoint action of wind and sea. In the first of these cases-supposing the sail to be well balanced-the boat would carry weather helm; in the last, lee helm; but in either, her way would be more or less diminished. The drag of cross helm might be decreased by reducing sail at one of the extremities, but at the expense of speed; whereas, by trimming weights, all sail might be carried, and speed increased.
Use water in breakers for ballast.
Tacking. Having previously described the method of dipping lugs, let us assume the boat to be a cutter fitted with jib and sliding gunters. Keep a good full for stays, then "Ready about," the helm is eased down, then "ease off the jib sheet!" if the boat is a slow worker and does not
come to readily, otherwise the jib sheet may be kept fast. Haul the main-boom handsomely amidships. When head to wind shift over the fore sheet, be careful not to make a back sail of the foresail. Bear the jib out to windward to assist in paying the boat's head around. When the jib has paid the head off sufficiently to fill the foresail, "draw jib," hauling aft the jib and fore sheet, right the helm, haul aft the main sheet.
If the boat gathers stern-board shift the helm; get out an oar on the lee bow to bring her head around, or let all the crew that are in the after part of the boat place themselves on the (old) weather quarter, the boat will then pay off the right way, owing to the pressure of the water being more on the immersed quarter than the other.
Thus, if the boat is head to wind and her bow ought to pay off to starboard, send the men who are aft to the starboard quarter, their weight depressing that quarter the bow will pay off as desired.
Men-of-war boats fitted with but one sail (unless a split. lug) should not attempt to beat to windward.
In working to windward among shipping, or in a harbor, if there is any doubt of your weathering a particular object, it is always safest to tack. In luffing up for a "half board" a boat quickly loses her way and becomes for the time being unmanageable. This would probably result in your fouling the danger you have tried to avoid.
Wearing. Put the helm up, "ease off the main sheet"! or, in a fresh breeze, "brail up the main-sail"! Slack off the fore and jib sheets as she goes off; when the wind is well on the quarter, "shift over the fore sheet"; with the wind on the new weather quarter set the mainsail, or, "haul aft the main sheet," then the fore; when nearly by the wind, haul aft the jib sheet and right the helm.
Instead of lowering the main-sail altogether, it is sufficient to "brail up," hauling aft the sheet again as soon as the sail will take on the new tack.
Under Sail and Oars, When the wind fails, get out oars and keep the boat under oars and sail as long as the latter are of any assistance. If the breeze freshens again, lay in at least the lee oars to avoid catching crabs and. splitting the gunwale. When the weather oars barely strike the water, in consequence of the boat's inclination, it is time to lay them in also. Ship rowlock shutters, if used.
Heaving-to. Put the helm down, haul the main-boom well over amidships, the jib-sheet to windward, brail up the fore-sail.
Reefing. Before reefing, tell off the men for the different duties; using lug sails, two men forward haul. down on the luff of the sail and shift the tack, one hand by the halliards, one at the downhaul, one to tend the sheet,
the rest tie the points and shift the sheet-block at the clew. Do not luff, check the sheets, lower enough to tie the points, hauling in the fore-sheet so that the men can get at the foot of the sail without reaching over the lee gunwale; shift the tack and sheet, and tie the points; slack the sheet, hoist and haul aft.
Hoist the foresail first, or if the mainsail be first hoisted, check its sheet till the boat has headway, or she will get in the wind and lose time. Reef a sliding gunter in the same way, except that there is no need of a downhaul, nor of hauling down upon the luff of the sail.
In reefing, do not roll up the foot of the sail snugly; it holds more water than when the sail is loosely tied up by the points.
Always begin to reef when the boat commences to bury her lee gunwale or shows signs of being crank.
In reefing, or performing any of the evolutions described, nobody needs to stand up. Good boatmen never jump about on the thwarts, or show more than their heads above the gunwale.
Squalls. Sailing on a wind, in moderate squalls, ease the sheets enough to relieve the boat, keep enough steerage-way to bring her promptly into the wind if the squall increases.
When caught in a hard and sudden squall, put the helm down at once, let fly the fore-sheet; and as such squalls frequently veer more or less, lower the sail; for if it catches aback there would be difficulty in getting it down, danger and sternway from keeping it hoisted.
Sailing with the wind abeam, if a squall comes up, receive it with the sheets flowing and halliards clear for running.
The squall increasing in violence, brail up the mainsail, up helm, and if need be, lower and reef the foresail.
If obliged to run before a very fresh breeze, use a reefed foresail, but in any case carry enough sail to keep ahead of the sea.
An empty breaker, or spar towed astern, will much diminish the danger of being pooped.
Caught in a Gale. If blown out to sea, or otherwise unable to reach the ship in a gale of wind, lash your spars, sails, and all but half a dozen oars, together. Make a span of the heaviest rope available. Bend the span to the opposite ends of the largest spar, bend the end of your painter to the span and launch the spars overboard; the longer the scope the easier the boat will ride, to the breakwater thus formed. The sails should be loosed on attaching their yards to the spars, they will thus contribute greatly to breaking the sea. If weights be fastened to the clews the boat's drift will be much retarded.
Capsizing. As a rule, remain by the boat-she will
assist those that cannot swim to keep afloat, and those who can swim may, with the aid of the boat, render valuable assistance.
Taking in Sail. To take in the jib, foresail being set, slack the tack and gather in the sail on the foot, lower the halliards. If the foresail is not set, lower the halliards first, gather in on the after leech and foot; when down, let go the tack.
To take in a lug-sail, check the sheet, haul down on the downhaul and luff of the sail at the same time; do not haul on the after leech, as it causes the fore-part of the sail to fill and the traveller to bind against the mast.
With sliding gunter sails, lower the halliards, then brail up.
Going alongside. If under oars, a fresh breeze blowing, pull, as a rule, for the lee gangway. Boat the oars instead of tossing them, whether going or coming, whenever there is any considerable motion, as they are apt to take under chains, ports or other projections from ships or wharves.
If under sail in a fresh breeze, always get down the masts before coming alongside. Round to ahead, down masts, out oars, and drop down; or shoot up under the stern, and down masts before getting under the quarter boats.
Ship head to wind, no tide, get the main-yard end on, keep the boat away a little to allow for rounding to, "down jib," and rig in the bowsprit in good season; when with way enough, "brail up the foresail," put the helm down, haul flat aft the main sheet, brail up the mainsail as soon as it ceases to draw, out fenders.
If there is any current, make allowance for it by heading for a point further forward or aft, as the case may be.
Riding to a windward tide, if approaching from abaft the beam, the foresail may be taken in and mast unstepped, using the mainsail only to bring her alongside. Approaching the ship from forward of the beam, unstep masts and out oars.
Whenever there is the slightest doubt of your ability to fetch the gangway under sail, brail up, unstep the masts and pull alongside.
Always unstep the masts in approaching a vessel under way, and do not board, or shove off from, a vessel which has sternway on.
If unable to fetch the ship in a strong tideway or fresh breeze, keep as much as possible in her wake. The ship will veer astern a buoy or small boat bearing a line by means of which the boat can be warped up alongside.
Under similar circumstances the gangway being unshipped (River Plate, Canton River, &c.), a small hawser may be carried around the ship outside all, the bight made
fast to the bowsprit cap, the ends reaching the water astern and the hawser suspended on both sides from each lower yard-arm by whips with bowline knots.
The hawser is triced up clear when not in use, and dropped in good season as a boat rope for approaching boats.
In going alongside a ship riding to her anchor, or underway, round to so that bow of the boat will be in the same direction as the ship's head.
But if a vessel is moored head and stern, approach her by rounding to head to the current.
THE DISPOSITION AND USES OF MEN-OF-WAR BOATS.
The steam launch and sailing launch hoist inboard, or are carried on the rail.
Barges and cutters hoist in the waist forward or abaft the gangways, or there may be enough cutters to require all four sets of davits in the waist; the barge, whale boats, and an additional cutter hoisting to two sets of double davits on the quarters; gig and dingy hoisting astern; the latter may be stowed on board in one of the launches.
The steam launch is used in towing, transporting stores and for passengers.
The sailing launch and the larger cutters are employed in all heavy work, carrying out anchors, watering and provisioning ship.
Barges are for the use of flag officers, and are supplied only to flag-ships.
Gigs are for the use of commanding officers. Whaleboats are used as life-boats or for answering signals, &c.
Dingies are used in conveying stewards and servants, or for other light work.
The cutters not reserved as working boats are the "running boats" of the ship for transporting passengers and other general duties.
In Port, nothing sooner indicates the order and discipline of a man-of-war than the clean state and efficient condition of her boats. The coxswains of the regular running boats for the day should clean and have them ready for lowering at the proper time, usually at morning colors.
When boats are lowered, they are hauled out and secured to pendants at the lower booms, fenders out; gigs and dingies are secured to the stern pendants.
Every boat when down should contain a boat-keeper the duty being taken by the members of the boat's crew in turn. Usually in a cutter, the men who occupy the same
thwart are detailed for one day, the next thwart taking the duty on the following day.
A boat-keeper is to keep his boat clear of others, to haul it up to the boom for manning, and to haul forward clear of the gangway when other boats come alongside or shove off.
Boat-keepers rise and salute all commissioned officers passing, leaving, or going on board the ship.
To keep a boat clear of a ship when riding astern, let her tow the boat-bucket.
In blowy weather heavy boats are moored at the boom with a hawser led through a block on the boom to another on the bowsprit, thence inboard. This relieves the spar of much strain.
A launch may be hoisted out of water overnight or to scrub her bottom, by using the cat and a stout purchase to the bowsprit. If hoisted for scrubbing, send the hands under her in the catamaran.
The crews of running boats should wear their neck handkerchiefs, shoes and cap-ribbons, and be mustered for inspection every morning by the officer of the deck.
Boats should be manned from the booms or stern pendants if moored there. Three minutes is a fair allowance of time for manning a boat and bringing her to the gangway.
Boat Salutes. Boats not laden nor engaged in towing, when meeting or passing other boats, observe the following ceremonies:
To a boat with the flag of an admiral, vice, or rear-admiral, or the broad pennant of a commodore, boats with a narrow pennant, and those containing staff officers of the relative rank of commanding officer, are to lie on their oars or let fly their sheets, and boats without pennants are to toss their oars or lower their sails.
All officers meeting their own immediate commander with his pennant flying, will salute by lying on their oars or letting fly the sheets.
Officers inferior in grade to any other commanding officer than their own salute also as above, lying on their oars or letting fly the sheets.
The coxswain salutes all commissioned officers by standing and raising his cap, and salutes warrant officers by raising his cap only.
The officer to whom a salute is tendered should promptly acknowledge the same by raising his cap, and in all cases the salute by raising the cap is mutually made, but first by the junior in rank or seniority.
The officer and coxswain of loaded boats, and boats engaged in towing, salute a flag officer by standing and raising their caps; in all other cases the boat officer salutes by raising the cap only. (See U. S. Navy Regulations.)
Give the preparatory order in good time, and when at such bearing and distance that the salute can be best observed, give the order of execution; permit the boats to pass before resuming the stroke, hoisting, or hauling aft.
The officer of the boat and coxswain salute at the same time of saluting with the oars or sails.
Instead of tossing, single-banked boats trail their oars.
A junior should never pass his superior officer when pulling in the same direction, except when on urgent duty.
When boats are approaching the same landing or vessel, an inferior is always to yield the way to a superior in grade. Boats about leaving the ship's side with inferiors are to give way in ample season to others approaching it with superiors.
In stepping into a boat the junior goes first, and remains standing till the senior is seated; in leaving a boat the junior remains until after the senior has disembarked.
Duties of a Boat Officer. When ordered to take charge of a boat, report promptly to the officer of the deck, dressed in the uniform of the day, and with side arms. If there is no midshipman of the quarter-deck, see the boat lowered and manned, or manned and dropped to the gangway from the boom. See the crew in uniform, coxswain in, oars up, blades fore-and-aft.
Receive your orders, and be sure that you understand them perfectly before leaving the ship, and also assure yourself that all necessary articles are in the boat.
Having received your orders get in the boat, shove off and let fall.
If going to another man-of-war use the port side, except when there are commissioned officers in the boat, or when the starboard ladder only is shipped. Salute the quarterdeck on stepping over the gangway, and report to the officer of the deck. When ready to leave the ship, request the officer of the deck to have your boat manned, instead of giving orders yourself. When your boat is ready, report your departure.
If in a tideway, and likely to be detained on board for some time, request permission for your boat to hang on at the boom; do not allow your men to come on board without permission from the officer of the deck.
If advisable, for any reason, order the coxswain as you leave the boat to shove off and lie off the ship.
Preserve silence and order at all times in your boat, see that the men pull properly, or, if sailing, that the sails are handled in accordance with the foregoing instructions.
When a boat officer must be absent from his boat, he should leave his coxswain in charge, with positive orders concerning his duty.
Pulling in for a landing among a crowd of boats, lay
on your oars at a reasonable distance from the wharf, instead of boating your oars at the last moment. This leaves you control of the boat, and you can back or give way as may be needed to avoid collision, instead of dashing in, breaking oars and boat-hooks, and may be staving your own boat. Boat the oars when no longer needed.
Make due allowance for the rate at which the tide is going past a ship, or the rate at which she may be moving, when making for her. A current frequently sets close along. the shore in the opposite direction to the one that is going by the ship; and, therefore, a little judgment may save a long pull. An inquiring boat officer will learn more of the local tides and currents by a chat with a water-man than can be found in books; and by observing the manoeuvres of native boatmen much labor and risk may be avoided.
When practicable always keep out of the strength of a contrary tide.
Avail yourself of every opportunity for steering by a range, as there are many coxswains who cannot steer a straight course athwart a strong tide.
If conveying on shore a person entitled to a salute, work up ahead of the ship if practicable, lay on your oars, flow your sheets, or stop the engine (as the case may be) at the first gun, and proceed after the last gun is fired.
A boat officer has charge of the boat, but when carrying commissioned officers the senior line officer has authority to interfere, and if need be to take command.
Never attempt to cut across the bows of a boat containing commissioned officers. Be on the alert to give the proper salutes to all officers in passing boats of whatever nationality, and be particular that the coxswain salutes all officers, and rises to salute commissioned officers.
The boat officer does not rise to salute, except when in a laden boat he passes a boat flying the broad pennant of a commodore, or the flag of an admiral.
At night, in thick weather, or when far from land, do not leave the ship without a compass; and get the bearing of the place to which you are bound before starting. Take a bearing of your own ship also before losing sight of her. It has been found very convenient to keep a supply box always in each boat, containing a pistol, flash-pan, powder, caps, a rocket and blue light, hatchet and a few nails, &c. (See Ordnance Manual.)
A boat officer is always supposed to have his watch and boarding book at hand.
When ordered on boat duty, it is well to remember your men's meal hours, either taking the provisions in the boat, or warning the master-at-arms that the crew will be absent.
Acquire the habit of sitting down in a boat, and never
stand up to perform any work which may be done sitting.
Always step at once into the midships of a boat in getting into one, and never on the gunwale.
The boat should be baled out, slings hooked, and otherwise prepared for hoisting, before reaching the ship, if intending to hook on.
In boarding a merchant vessel fill out the columns of your boarding book. If sent on board a man-of-war to offer services, &c., keep any information acquired for insertion in your book after leaving the vessel.
Finally, bear in mind at all times the following points:
Keep a boat bows on to a heavy sea.
Never jamb a helm down too suddenly or too far.
Keep your weights amidships.
Never belay the sheets.
Being Towed by a Vessel. If alongside, have the tow-rope from as far forward as possible, never make it fast, but toggle it with a stretcher to the forward thwart, steadying it over the stem with the bight of your painter, or pass it through the foremost rowlock on the side nearest the ship. Fig. 407.
When towing astern, the closer the better. In casting off, if there are other boats towing astern, either be dropped clear of them all, with your tow-line, before letting go, or be handy with your oars to avoid getting athwart-hawse of some of them.
Do not permit other boats to hold on to a vessel by your boat. Get more of your own tow-line, steady it over the stem and stern with slip lines, and pass the end into the next boat astern. Fig. 406.
Towing. In taking another boat in tow, pass clear of her oars; place yourself right ahead, exactly in line, and give way the instant that you have hold of her painter. Do not give another boat your painter until she is in line ahead of your boat. Toggle the tow-line between the two after thwarts with a stretcher. Toggle your own painter to the forward thwart before giving it to a boat ahead. This saves the stem and stern-post. If you wish to turn your boat's head, bear the tow-line over the quarter on that side to which you desire to turn, for the helm will be of little or no use.
In towing short round, do not attempt to turn before your leaders are around.
The heaviest boats should always be nearest the tow.
Boats will tow with increased effect if weighted with shot. A few lengths of stream chain is the quickest weight that can be passed in and out, besides being less damaging to the boat.
Taking another boat in tow without delaying the duty by fouling her oars, or the boat itself, is a very neat
performance, and, when well done, betokens judgment and skill.
Tow spars by their smaller ends.
A steam-launch being frequently used in towing may be fitted with a span of wire rope, the ends being secured to either quarter and with a good-sized thimble in the bight to receive the tow-line. The steering is rendered much easier by the use of this span.
Towing Fire Ships, or Vessels on Fire. When boats are sent on this service, provide them with a few lengths of small chain, to make fast to the burning vessel; grapnels would do well to throw on board, and then make fast the tow-rope to the chain of the grapnel, for the boats to tow from. There are many instances of towropes and hawsers being burnt when employed on this service, and other vessels much endangered from want of this precaution. If hawsers are sent to be made fast to a burning vessel, with the intention of warping her clear of other vessels, using a length of stream-chain cable for the bending end will be found much safer than trusting to rope alone.
Boarding a Wreck or Vessel in a Heavy Sea. Whenever practicable, a vessel, whether stranded or afloat, should be boarded to leeward, as the principal danger to be guarded against must be the collision of the boat against the vessel, or her swamping by the rebound of the sea, and the greater violence of the sea on the windward side is much more likely to cause such accidents.
In boarding a stranded vessel on the lee side, if broadside to the sea, the chief danger to apprehend is the falling of the masts or the destruction of the boat amongst the wreckage alongside. Under such circumstances it may be necessary to take a wrecked crew into a life-boat from the bow or stern.
Large life-boats used on flat shores or shoals, usually anchor to windward in boarding a wreck, and veer down from a safe distance until near enough to throw a line on board.
In every case of boarding a wreck or a vessel at sea, it is important that the lines by which a boat is made fast to the vessel should be of sufficient length to allow of her rising and falling freely with the sea, and every rope should be kept in hand ready to cut or slip in a moment, if necessary. On wrecked persons or other passengers being taken into a boat in a sea-way, they should be placed on the thwarts in equal numbers on either side, and be made to sit down, all crowding and rushing headlong into the boat being prevented as far as possible; and the captain of the ship, if a wreck, should be called on to remain on board her to preserve order until every other person shall have left the ship.219
An exception to the usual rule of boarding to leeward occurs in the case of a vessel of very low free board, such as small schooners, &c. Board such craft on the weather quarter to avoid being stove by the vessel's main-boom, or chains, &c.
Warping. A warp is a rope or a hawser employed occasionally to remove a ship from one place to another in a port or river.
To warp a vessel is to change her situation by pulling her from one part of a harbor to another, by means of warps which are taken to other ships, buoys, or certain stations on shore. The ship is then drawn forward to those fixed points, either by pulling on the warp by hand, or by application of some purchase, as a tackle, or capstan.
Wet warps require careful seizing. Make four parts of a spun-yarn seizing, take a round turn with the bight of this round the standing part of the warps, then pass the seizing (figure of eight fashion) round the hitches and standing part, then cross opposite ways with two parts each way, reeve the ends through the bights and drag all the turns taut.
The quick way to run a short warp out, is for one, boat to run away with the end, and the others to pull in fore-and-aft under the bights, as they are payed out at equal distances, according to the length of the warp and number of boats, giving way the moment they have got hold.
In all cases when you take in the end of a warp, coil enough of it forward so as to be able to make a bend the instant your boat reaches the place where you wish to make fast.
It is hardly possible to lay a heavy warp out without floating its bight. If there is a chance of its being suddenly tautened, hang it outside the boat instead of laying it fore and aft amidships.
A Guess Warp. To lay out a warp to windward, or against a tide, coil the whole warp in the boat, pull to the place assigned, make fast and drop down to the ship.
To lay out a warp to leeward, or with the tide. Take most of the warp in the boat, let the ship pay out more after the boat has shoved off, until what is in the boat is sufficient, then pay out from the boat to the make-fast. Whichever way it be, there is great judgment required in reserving a sufficiency of hawser in the boat to insure that she will reach her destination, only paying out when certain of doing so. It is from this necessity for judging the distance by the eye that we have the term "guess warp."
When you are given the end of a hawser to run out which is not becketed, put a hitch on it and stop the end down at once.
Kedging. When the operation of warping is performed by the ship's kedges, these, together with their warps, are carried out in the boats alternately, towards the place where the ship is endeavoring to arrive, so that when she is drawn up close to one, another is carried out to a sufficient distance ahead, and being sunk, serves to fix the other warp, by which she may be further advanced; the first kedge is then weighed, sent ahead, and the operation repeated. This is commonly called kedging.
When great expedition is required, the boats should be equally divided into two parties, the light boats towing the larger containing the kedge and hawsers. As soon as the first kedge is let go and the ship started ahead, the other set may "pay and go," so that when the first is at a "short stay," the second may be let go, and the ship thus kept going continuously.
The evolution of kedging was practised on board the Constitution, during the exciting chase in which she escaped from the British squadron, under Sir Philip Broke.
There are many cases when kedging might be necessary to modern vessels if disabled or not under steam.
Carrying Stores. When provisioning ship, be careful with the oars, as the blades are easily ruined by throwing them on stones or by treading on them; keep all casks "bung up," and leave space under the afterthwart for baling the boat out. Have tarpaulins for covering bread or anything that will be injured by salt water. Sling the midship casks as they are stowed. While loading, make large allowance for the roughness of water you may have to encounter.
Do not overload a boat, particularly with men or sand; the former may be attended with loss of life; in the latter case, it must be remembered that sand is much lighter when dry than wet. Be prepared to buoy treasure if carried.
A laden boat carries her way longer than a light one, therefore shorten sail or "way enough" in good time.
Boats taking in water in bulk. The launch, or largest boat you intend for the purpose of watering, must be cleared of all her gear of every description; then tow or pull her to the watering place, where she must be well washed out with water several times, until perfectly clean; when done, put the hose into the boat, and merely leave a couple of hands to attend it until the boat is full; then, by a signal from the shore, or otherwise, send a boat to tow her off to the ship; pump the water out of the boat into your tanks, and so on until you complete your water. If in a river, pull the plug out and let her fill.
In watering from a spring, keep the end of the suction hose in a tub, or have a rag around the strainer to keep out gravel or sand.
Hauling up boats on shore. Before leaving the ship, see the boat's anchor and a good luff tackle in the boat. If it is a heavy boat, say a launch, take a couple of stout towlines or small hawsers as well, with additional tackles.
Run the boat's bow on to the beach, and let a few hands on each quarter keep her in that position, by setting their oars against the ground; next, sweep her with a hawser, and guy it up at the stern to a proper height by several turns of the painter; to this hawser hook on the double block of the tackle, the other end, or single block, being overhauled to a proper length, and hooked to the boat's anchor buried in the ground, with one hand on it to prevent rising. Fig. 408.
Pass the bight of another hawser round the stern post, and having guyed it up on each side to the gunwale, hook on, on each side, a quarter tackle also, overhauled to a proper length, and hooked at the other end where convenient; man these with the remaining hands; then, having placed rollers in succession to take the boat's forefoot and keel, proceed to haul away. When up, the loose thwarts set against the ground and wash-streak will keep her upright.
The loose thwarts should also be placed for the rollers to roll on if the ground is soft.
Smaller boats do not require quarter tackles, and may be hauled up by their crews if provided with rollers and tackle, as described.
Boats that are being frequently hauled up and launched should have a hole in the forefoot, through which a strap for the tackle could reeve. When the tackle is secured to the boat at the top of her stem, it buries her gripe in the mud.
To transport on land a moderate-sized boat, turn her bottom up and shoulder her by the gunwales. A heavy boat should not at any time be turned bottom up, on account of the strain.
Having hauled up boats or small vessels on temporary ways for repairing, remember that sea-weed is as good as soap on the ways, in launching.
Embarking Heavy Articles. In the entire absence of usual resources, great weights, such as a gun for instance, may be got into a boat where there is great rise and fall by filling the boat at low water with dunnage or sand, banking up an inclined plane with shingle, rolling the gun into the boat, clearing out the sand and waiting for the tide to float her off.
Get a boat under a low bridge, or under a weight that cannot be raised high enough to clear the gunwale, by taking the plug out; then replacing it and pumping out the water.
When weighing anything heavy over the stern of the
launch, bear the rope amidships and ship the awning stanchion over it, the latter being fitted with two legs, one on either side of the stern roller. This will keep the rope from flying over to the quarter and capsizing the boat.
Life-boats. In men-of-war, a boat on each quarter is designated as a "life-boat." These boats are fitted with a detaching apparatus of some one of the patterns described below, and are otherwise prepared for immediate use at sea, the other boats being topped up and more permanently secured.
There is a life-boat's crew in each watch, composed of the best seamen in it, and with plenty of supernumeraries to supply the places of men aloft, at the wheel, or sick, The coxswain of the life-boat's crew of the watch inspects both life-boats at sundown, sees the plugs in, towline from forward secured in place and clear, falls clear for running, gripes ready for slipping, oars in place, steering-oar pointed but clear of the after block, bag of bread, breaker of water and bucket (or bailer) in the boat, and a lighted boat compass at hand abaft the wheel, in charge of cabin orderly, or in some place well known to both crews. He should report to the officer of the deck, "Life-boats clear and ready for lowering."
Being in charge of the life-boat when called away, see plug in and compass in the boat, all the gear ready as above described; send out all supernumeraries, slip the gripes, stand by lever of detaching apparatus yourself, if worked in the after part of the boat, otherwise go to the steering-oar. Caution the bowman, who may be looking out for the towline, to keep clear of the forward block till detached.
Detach the boat in good season; some forms of apparatus will slip one fall at a time if the boat becomes partly waterborne owing to delay at the lever.
The boat being unhooked, the boat-rope should have drift enough to let you shoot out well clear of the side while being towed. Take advantage of this to have every oar rigged out and manned before letting go.
If the boat is sluggish in getting clear, shove her stern out and cast off the towline; the ship moving on, leaves you head to sea; out oars as speedily as possible.
If after a man overboard, let a cool hand watch the ship for signals and steer accordingly. On reaching the man, if he has the buoy and is not exhausted, round to head to wind before picking him up. In any case, on approaching him, trail as many oars as possible, and be careful how the remaining ones are handled; get the man aboard forward if possible, then out oars, pull ahead, and take in the buoy over the quarter.
Your vessel having run to leeward to pick you up, it will be advisable in a heavy sea to tow the buoy on your way back with a good scope, letting it act as a drag.
Pull up under the lee of the ship get your towline first, as previously described under "HOISTING." Bend your line from the buoy to another line passed from aft, and let the buoy be roused up to its proper place.
In hoisting let the men put their weights on the life-lines. When hooked on, the boat is run up smartly and without stopping, as the vessel rolls toward it.
When boats are suddenly lowered, in an emergency, it is very often of the highest importance that they should be provided with means of night-signalling, _ sounding, or effecting temporary repairs. The boat boxes containing the necessary articles are now usually kept in the hold. It would be better if essential articles were kept in a small locker built in to the boat, as is the case in other navies.
In referring to the above-mentioned boats as "lifeboats," the word is not to be understood in its literal sense, as regular life-boats are not supplied to vessels of the navy.
Small empty casks or breakers, tightly bunged and lashed beneath the thwarts, would partially convert any boat into a life-boat, by making it impossible for her to founder.
Balsas, or life-rafts, are supplied to vessels of war-being of different sizes and material, but similar in design. They consist of two cylindrical-shaped air-chambers, pointed at both ends, and supporting a platform, or raft. The air cylinders are either of wood, or made of rubber covered with canvas; in smaller forms the air-chambers are sometimes of rubber, not covered. When the air-chambers are of rubber the larger balsas are usually kept empty until wanted, when the air-chambers are inflated by means of a sort of bellows and tube.
A small form of wooden balsa is used throughout the service as a catamaran, or boat for the side cleaners. The small rubber balsas are excellent substitutes for life-buoys, and in many ships are slung at the quarters for that purpose. They can be used to carry lines astern or ashore, in the case of a wreck.
For management of boats in a surf see Appendix F.
HINTS FOR BOAT OFFICERS IN CHARGE OF STEAM LAUNCHES.
The following Instructions for Working the Engines of Steam Launches are introduced here, as the boat officer is not unfrequently thrown entirely on his own resources.*
* From the "Sailors' Pocket Book," by Captain F. G. D. Bedford, R. N.
The engine should not be removed from the boat oftener than can be helped. The boiler of steam launches should be lifted, examined at the bottom, and painted every month.
See that the tanks, fitted for the purpose, are properly supplied with coal and fresh water.
The connection with propellers and water-tight joints must be made good before leaving the ship.
Water is run into the boiler through a hose by removing one of the safety-valves. When the water is showing from one-half to three-fourths up the gauge-glass, remove the hose and replace the safety-valve. Great care must be taken to see the valve and its seating perfectly clean before the valve is replaced.
To get up Steam. Put a surface of coal over the fire-bars, shut the ash-pit door, and light up with wood and coal at the front until a sufficient body of fire is obtained to ignite the coal on the bars, when the fire may be pushed back, and the ash-pit door opened.
When steam begins to show by the gauge, try the safety-valves, and use the blast (if the steam be required in great haste), until sufficient pressure be obtained.
The Boiler will require the most careful and constant attention while steaming. When attainable, fresh water should always be used.
From 40 to 50 lbs. of steam pressure is quite sufficient for all ordinary service. Leaks about tubes and tube-plates are most frequently caused by forced steaming.
The water should never be allowed to go below the mark of low level.
At high speed it is liable to show higher in the gauge-glass than it really is.
The gauge-glass and gauge-cocks must be frequently tried, the one being a check on the other.
The water moving in the glass with the movements of the boat is a proof of the glass-gauge being correct.
Care should be taken to prevent spray from striking the gauge-glass, as it is very liable to break it.
Maintain a sufficient quantity of water in the boiler and keep the feed-water supply as nearly constant as possible. In the event of the water getting low the fire must be checked as quickly as possible; to effect this, open the front connection door, shut the ash-pit door, and throw on wet ashes. In an extreme case, draw the fire.
Starting the Engine. Have every fractional part of the engines carefully oiled, especially cylinders, slide-valves, eccentrics, cranks, and thrust; open the small drain-cocks in connection with the cylinders and slide-valves, to get rid of condensed water, and let them remain open for a few turns of the engines. The steam-valve may
be left a little open while steam is getting up, to warm the engine.
Starting ahead or astern is effected by link-motion, and requires no consideration after observing the movement of the handle connected with the link.
Great care should be taken to admit the steam to the engines gently at first, and get them up to their full speed gradually.
Running. Attention to the engines is required in preventing over-heating of working parts.
Any, unusual noise must be quickly attended to, and cause ascertained.
Sea-Water. If obliged to use sea-water for the feed, let the process of blowing-off be as constant and continuous as possible.
Firing. The firing must be careful, and frequent, in just sufficient quantity to keep the fire-bars properly covered; attention to this will go far to prevent priming.
Keep the steam at a regular pressure, and the fire-bars free from clinkers by hooking them out as soon as formed.
The tubes, fire-box, smoke-box, and the space at the back of the fire-bridge should be kept free and clean; this must be done as opportunity offers.
If the screw of a steam-launch is taken off for the purpose of her being used as a sailing-boat, the brass bushes, usually provided for the purpose, should be put on the end of the shaft (first coating them with white lead and tallow), in order to prevent them from the rapid galvanic action which takes place by their close proximity to the copper sheathing on the boat's bottom. If no bushes are provided, the end of the shaft should be lapped round with spun-yarn well saturated with stiff white lead and tallow.
A steam-launch should not be driven at high speed in a seaway, and her outfit should always include a few oars and thole-pins, for use in case of accident to the machinery, also life preservers; especially in iron launches.
Jumping Booms. Steam-launches are commonly fitted with apparatus for spar-torpedoes, supplied and described by the Ordnance Bureau. To enable such torpedo boats to clear obstructions in the form of booms, the fittings shown in Fig. 398, Plate 82, have been successfully used, the object being to give the bows of the boats an upward slant on striking the boom, which enables them to jump it. The engine should be stopped on striking the boom, and until it is cleared.
The form of the skeleton frame fitted forward is, of course subject to variation, depending on the shape of the stem.
WOOD'S BOAT DETACHING APPARATUS. (PLATE 85.)
This device consists of two slotted, hinged links, A A, whose pivoting ends are secured in or near the stem and stern of the boat. The movable ends of these links are held in a fixed position, when necessary, by lengths of small chain, which are joined by a slip hook d. A tripping link, E, holds the slip-hook closed. By pulling upon the laniard, L, the slip-hook may be released, the hinged links, A, A, turn upward, and the falls, F F, are detached. Figs. 410 and 411.
The lower blocks of the falls are fitted with ball toggles, adjusted to enter the slots in the links A A. When a fall is hooked on, the tumbler, X, under the hinge, A, closes the slot and prevents accidental unhooking, whether in the case of one end of the boat being lifted by a sea in lowering, or before the falls have been set taut in hoisting.
The tumbler, X, is free to turn back to allow the toggle, F, to pass into place in hooking on, but it is then brought back immediately into place by the counter-balance on its lower end.
The ball toggles, F, may be either moused on old style of hooks, or the hooks may be removed and the toggles fitted to their places on the block-straps.
The rollers, B B, are made smaller than shown in the plate, which represents the apparatus fitted with flexible wire pendants, for which small chain is now substituted.
The enlarged figures, 412 and 413, show how the apparatus is now fitted in boats hung by the extremities, or from points nearer the centre of the boat.
In Fig. 412, y is an eyebolt for the boat's painter.
In Fig. 413 it is desirable, when possible, that the head of the stanchion, S, should be steadied against a thwart in the bow or stern sheets.
After the apparatus is fitted in the boat, the chain is taken up to the proper length and cut at Z, and the long link welded in permanently.
It should be remembered that the chain must always be set taut, and only then is the boat ready for hooking on. Either fall can be hooked independently.
The laniard used for tripping the slip-hook should also be used as a preventer when the boat is hoisted, by hitching it forward around the chain, or thwart, or other convenient place.
To Lower and Detach when the Boat is reported ready. When the crew, coxswain and officer are in the boat, and after one of the stroke oarsmen has cast loose the laniard, and handed it to the officer in charge, the officer of the deck gives the order to "lower away." As soon as the boat is near enough the
water, say about two feet, the person holding the end of the laniard gives a quick jerk, and thus freeing the ends of the chain, they slack and allow the links to rise and the toggles to escape simultaneously.
In case the ship is rolling heavily very little lowering will be necessary, as the boat can be detached as she rolls toward the water, and will be clear of the ship before the return roll.
To Hook on the Boat. As soon as the boat is clear of the ship one of the stroke oarsmen brings the ends of the chain together, refastens the sliphook and hitches the laniard forward as a securing.
The boat is then ready for hooking on when she returns to the ship, after having completed her trip.
When she comes alongside, the man in the bow gets the forward fall and sticks the toggle into the large part of the link and pushes it up beyond the tumbler. The man in the stern does the same, and as the falls are set taut on deck, they slue the turns out of the falls, the toggles acting as swivels.
BROWN'S BOAT DETACHING APPARATUS.
This contrivance for detaching boats is still in use on board some ships, and may be described as follows:
In Fig. 409, A is a fall block, C a bent lever with a slotted end, S, passing through a groove in the upright B, where it is hinged. The upright B is immovably connected at K with a stout stanchion bolted through the keel, and bears on its upper end a pivoting hook, H. The rod D hinges upon the lower end of C and upon the upright lever E, which is itself pivoted at 0. By moving the handle G forward, the traction on the rod D causes the slot S to release the hook H, and this in turn releases the fall. As shown in the figure, the action on both falls is simultaneous.
The enlarged sketch, Fig. 409 a, shows the detail of the forward part of the apparatus. Fig. 409 b shows the locking pin, by means of which the handle G is kept from being accidentally moved. In this figure, P is a plate screwed in the after thwart, D a space for the handle, B a locking pin, hinged at V. The plate is so placed that the locking pin is forward of the handle G, and must be thrown open before the handle can be moved.
FISKE'S ATTACHING, DETACHING, LOWERING AND
The boat may be hung from the ordinary boats' falls, in which case only the attaching and detaching apparatus in the boat is used. It may also be hung from the lowering and hoisting apparatus herein described.
The lowering and hoisting apparatus consists of a pendant, into the bight of which the lowering and hoisting tackle is hooked, and at the ends of which the boat hangs. The tackle is hooked into a thimble seized in the bight, and the boat is suspended from long links seized in the ends. The tackle hangs up and down alongside the mizzen mast, the ends of the pendants being rove through two blocks under the mizzen-top, and down through single blocks at the upper ends of the quarter-davits. The boat is lowered and hoisted by lowering and hauling on the hoisting tackle. It is clear that the boat must hoist and lower square. It is clear also that the use of wire-rope pendants facilitates the operation of hooking on.
The attaching and detaching apparatus in the boat consists of two similar hooks, H and H', pivoted on two similar standards, S and S', which are bolted in the bow and stern
of the boat. The boat hangs by these hooks, which are kept from turning around on their pivots by the detaching lever L and the connecting chain c. A lug l on the lever presses against a lug d on the after hook H, and holds H in
place, while the connecting chain C, which goes from the lug d to a similar lug d' on H', keeps H' also in place.
To detach, take out the safety-pin placed over the lever, and raise the lever smartly. This movement raises the lug l clear of the lug d, and frees both hooks. Both hooks now turn around simultaneously with the weight of the boat, and the boat drops square.
To hook on, put both hooks, the lever and safety-pin in the position they held before detaching. Hook on by passing the links inside the hooks. This operation forces up the valves V and V', which fall of their own weight as soon as the links are inside, and automatically lock them in, to prevent accidental unhooking.
When the boat is lowered in port, unhook the connecting chain from the after detaching hook, and stow the chain forward out of the way.