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INDEX

Absolute humidity, 115.
Absolute, or Kelvin, scale, 5-6.
Absolute pressure, 10.
Adding oil, 61-62.
Adjusting thermostatic expansion valve, 102.
Adjustments, final, 90-91.
Advantages of Freon, 12, 18.
Air: currents of, in ventilation, 122-123; effects of motion of, 121-122; heat of, 114; purging of, from system, 59; temperatures of, 114-115.
Air-conditioning, 98-131; summary of principles of, 128-129.
Air distribution system, 124-126.
Air ducts, 124.
Air and water vapor, 113-114.
Altitude, variation of boiling point and pressure with, 9.
Aneroid barometer, 9.
Atmospheric pressure, 9.
Automatic control devices, 38-51, Figs. 7-10 to 7-21.

Balanseal compressors, York, 65-80.
Barometer, aneroid, mercury, 9.
Bearings, crankshaft, replacing of, 72-73.
Bending copper tubing, 84.
Body temperature, 118-120.
British thermal unit (Btu), 6.
Bourbon-tube pressure gage, 10.
Boiling point, variation of with altitude, 9.

Capacities of systems, relation of, 109-111.
Care and maintenance of refrigeration system, 59-64.
Centigrade scale, 5; converting to Fahrenheit, 6.
Charged system, how to open, 59.
Checking oil, 60-62.
Circulating water systems, 36, 38, Fig. 7-8.
Cleaning: air-conditioning evaporator, 108; condenser 62; copper tubing, 84; evaporator coils; before operation.
Climate: air-conditioning in arctic, 129-130; in temperate, 129; in tropical; 130-131.
Cold pipe insulation, 14.
Coldness, definition of, 3.
Comfort: and efficiency, factors affecting, 117-120; zones of, 120, Fig. 16-2.
Compound gage, 10-11.
Compressor, 28-34, 60-62, 100-101, Figs. 7-3, 7-4; comparison of ratings of, in systems, 110; crankshaft, 71-72 cylinders, 69-70; necessity of, in refrigerating system, 25-26; opening of, for repairs, 65-66; passage of Freon 12 through, 23; pistons, 71; valves, 66-69.
Compressors of different capacities, need for in systems, 109.
Condensation of saturated air, 113.
  Condenser, 34-38, 62-63, Figs. 7-5, 7-7; heat action in, 26; passage of Freon 12 through, 23.
Conditions of vapor, 11-12.
Conduction, 13; gain and loss of body heat by, 118.
Conductors of heat, good and poor, 14.
Connecting rods, removal and installation of, 72.
Connection of systems, 109-112.
Conning tower evaporators, 107-108.
Contraction and expansion, 12-13.
Control devices, automatic, 38-51, Figs. 7-10 to 7-21.
Convection, 13; forced, 122; gain and loss of body heat by, 118; natural, 122.
Conversion: of barometer readings to pressure in pounds per square inch, 9; of degrees centigrade to Fahrenheit and vice versa, 6.
Cooling of foods, 93-95.
Crankshaft: bearing replacement on, 72-73; removal and installation of, in compressor, 71-72.
Cross-connection of air-conditioning and refrigeration systems, 111-112.
Currents of air in ventilation, 122-123.
Cutout switch, 44, 46, Figs. 7-17, 7-18.
Cutting tubing and pipe, precautions in, 82.
Cycle of refrigerant, 15-16, Figs. 4-1, 4-1a.
Cylinders: of compressor, removal and installation of, 69-70; handling, of Freon 12, 21.

Daily inspection schedule, 132.
Defrosting, 58.
Dehydrator, 43-44, Figs. 7-14a, 7-15.
Dewpoint, 113, 128-129; temperature, 115.
Diagnosis of troubles, chart for, 55-57.
Dichlorodifluoromethane, see Freon 12.
Disadvantages of Freon, 12, 18, 21.
Discharge valves, servicing, 66-68.
Dry saturated vapor, 12.
Dry-bulb temperature, 114.
Ducts, air, 124.

Ebullition, 11.
Effects of air motion, 121-122.
Electric system, 57.
Elements, essential, of refrigeration cycle, 16, Figs. 4-1, 4-1a.
Essential elements of refrigeration cycle, 16, Figs. 4-1, 4-1a.
Evacuating refrigeration system, 85-86.
Evaporation, 11; loss of body heat by, 118-120.
Evaporator, 23, 25, 105-108, Figs. 14-4, 14-5; cleaning coils of, 60.
Expansion and contraction of substances with change of temperature, 12-13.
Expansion valve, see Thermostatic expansion valve.
 
136

External equalizer, 101-102, Fig. 14-2.
External pilot circuit, 104-105.
Eyes, danger to in using Freon 12, 18, 21.

Fahrenheit scale, 5; converting to centigrade, 6.
Fans, 124.
Filling Freon 12 cylinders, 21.
Flare joints, 83-84.
Flywheel, removal and installation of, 74.
Foods, stowage of, 92-95.
Forced convection, 122; ventilation, 123.
Freon 12, 16, 18-21; adding and removing, 89-90; mixing of, with oil, 33-34; refrigeration cycle of, 22-27.
Frost, formation of, 114.
Fruits, storage of, 92-93.
Fusion, latent heat of, 7.

Gage, pressure, 10.
Gain of heat from ocean to ship, 127.
Gas and vapor, difference between, 11.
Glossary, 133-135.
Good conductors of heat; 14.

Halide torch, 86-87, Fig. 11-1.
Heat: action of, in Freon 12 cycle, 25-27; of air, 114; of body, 118-120; conductors of, 14; definition of, 3; diagram of, Fig. 3-1; and humidity, 127-128; insulation of, 13-14; latent, 7; measurement of, 5-6; removal of, 4; sensible, 6-7; specific, 6; theory of, 5-14 total, 8; transfer of, 13.
Heat pump, 22-23.
High-pressure cutout switch, 44, 46, Fig. 7-18.
Human presence, effect of, on air, 98-99.
Humidity, 115-117; effect of air motion on, 121; and heat, 127-128; required in food storage, 92-93; required for health, 118; see also Figs. 16-1, 16-2.

Ice, refrigeration by, 4.
Ice cube maker, 51-52, Fig. 7-23.
Inspection schedule, 132.
Installation of system, 81-91.
Instructions for use of York compressors, 65-80.
Insulation of heat, 13-14.
Interconnection of systems, 109-112.
Internal equalizer, thermostatic expansion valve, 38-39, 101, Fig. 7-10.
Internal pilot circuit, 104-105;

Kelvin, or absolute, scale, 5-6.

Latent heat, 7; in air, 114.
Leakage, 62-63; 74-75, 85-87.
Liquid strainer, 43, Figs. 7-14, 7-14a.
Loss of heat from ship to ocean, 127.
  Low-pressure cutout switch, 44, Fig. 7-17.
Low-temperature insulation, 14.
Lowering dewpoint, 128.

Maintenance and care of system, 59-64.
Manifold, type Q; Navy; 51, Figs. 7-20, 7-21.
Measurement of heat, 5-6.
Meats, storage of, 92-93.
Mechanical refrigeration, principles of, 15-17, Figs. 4-1, 4-1a.
Mercury barometer, 9.
Methods of removing heat, 4.
Monthly inspection schedule, 132.
Motion of air, effects of, 121-122.

Natural convection, ventilation, 122-123.
Negative, or vacuum, gage pressure, 10.
New type evaporator, 105-107, Fig. 14-5.

Ocean to ship, gain of heat from, 127.
Odors, prevention of, in food storage, 93.
Oil: checking level of, 60-62; mixing of with Freon 12, 33-34, 60-61.
Oil sight glass, removal and installation of, 73.
Opening a charged system, 59,
Operation and troubles in system, 53-58.

Packless valves, 48, 51, Fig. 7-19.
Partial vacuum, 10.
Pilot circuits, internal and external, 104-105.
Pilot-operated piston valve, 104, Fig. 14-3.
Pistons, compressor, removal and installation of, 71.
Poor conductors of heat, 14.
Practical air-conditioning of submarine, 127
Precautions necessary in working around Freon 12, 21.
Pressure, 9-11.
Pressure gage, 10.
Primary refrigerants, 16.
Principles: of air-conditioning, summary of, 128-129; of mechanical refrigeration, 15-16; Figs. 4-1, 4-1a.
Properties: of foods, 94; of saturated Freon vapor (table), 19-20.
Psychrometer, sling, 115.
Psychrometric chart, 116-117, Fig. 16-1.
Psychrometry, 113-114, Fig. 16-1.
Pump: condenser and, 34-38, Fig. 7-7; heat 22-23.
Purging air from system, 59.
Purposes of air-conditioning, 98.

Q-type manifold, Navy, 51, Figs. 7-20, 7-21.

Radiation, 13; gain and loss in body heat through, 118.
 
137

Receiver, 38, Fig. 7-9; passage of Freon 12 through, 23.
Refrigerant, 4, 16.
Refrigerant mains, installation of, 82-84.
Refrigeration, 4-95.
Refrigeration cycle of Freon 12, 22-27, Figs. 6-1, 6-la.
Refrigeration ton, 16.
Regulating valve, suction pressure, 103-105.
Relative humidity, 115-116.
Relief valve, 46.
Remedies for injury to eyes from Freon 12, 21, 81.
Removing heat, methods of, 4.
RT (refrigeration ton), 16.

SAE flare joints, 83-84.
Safe refrigerant, need for in submarines, 15.
Safety precautions necessary in working around Freon 12, 21.
Saturated air, 113.
Saturated Freon vapor, table of properties of, 19-20.
Saturated vapor, 11-12.
Schedule of inspections, 132.
Scuttlebutt, 52.
Seal, compressor crankshaft, 74-80, Fig. 10-1.
Secondary refrigerants, 16.
Sensible heat, 6-7; of air, 114.
Shaft seal, compressor, 74-80, Fig. 10-1.
Ship to ocean, loss of heat from, 127.
Shutdown, 53-54, 60, 61, 62.
Sling psychrometer, 115.
Soldering tubing or pipe, 82-83.
Solenoid valve, 39, 41-42, Fig. 7-11.
Specific heat, 6; of foods, 94.
Specific humidity, 115.
Specific volume, 12-13.
Starting, after shutdown, 53-54, 60.
States of matter, 5.
Storing Freon 12, 21.
Stowage of foods, 92-95.
Strainer, liquid, 43, Figs. 7-14, 7-14a.
Sublimation, 11:
Submarine, practical air-conditioning of, 127-131.
Suction pressure regulating valve, 103-105.
Suction strainer, 51; cleaning of, 63.
Suction valves, checking of, 68-69.
Summary of air-conditioning principles, 128-129.
Superheated vapor, 12.
System: air-conditioning, 98-131; air-distribution, 124-126; refrigeration, 3-95.
  Systems, interconnection of, 109-112.

Temperature requirements in food storage, 92.
Temperatures, air, three kinds of, 114-115.
Testing for leaks, 85-87.
Theory: of air-conditioning, 113-120; of heat, 5-14.
Thermal capacity, 6.
Thermal conductance, 13.
Thermo-bulb, 38, 42, Fig. 7-13.
Thermometer scale: absolute, or Kelvin, scale, 5-6; centigrade, 5; Fahrenheit, 5.
Thermostat, 42-43, Fig. 7-12.
Thermostatic expansion valve, 23, 27, 38-39, 101-103, Figs. 7-10, 14-2; action of, 27; adjustment of, 90-91; cleaning of, 63; installation of, 84-85; passage of Freon 12 through, 23.
Total heat, 8; of air, 114.
Transfer of heat, 13.
Trouble chart, 55-57.
Tubing (pipe), 82.
Type Q Navy manifold, 51, Figs. 7-20, 7-21.
Types of refrigerants, 16.

V-belts, care of, 63-64.
Vacuum, or negative, gage pressure, 10.
Vapor, conditions of, 11=12.
Vapor, air and water, 113-114.
Vapor and gas, difference between, 11.
Vaporization, 11; latent heat of, 7.
Variation of pressure and boiling point with altitude, 9.
Vegetables, storage of, 92-93.
Ventilation, 121-123; data on, 124-125; required for food storage, 93.
Volume, specific, 12-13.

Wardroom refrigerator, 52, Fig. 7-24.
Water and air vapor, 113-114.
Water systems, circulating, 36, 38, Fig. 7-8.
Weekly inspection schedule, 132.
Wet-bulb temperature, 114-115.
Wet saturated vapor, 12.

Yearly inspection schedule, 132.
York compressors, service instructions for, 65-80.

Zinc fingers, 34, Fig. 7-6.
 
138

Figure 7-1. REFRIGERATION PIPING DIAGRAM.

Figure 7-8. CONDENSER WATER PIPING ARRANGEMENT.

Figure 14-1. AIR-CONDITIONING PIPING DIAGRAM.

Figure 18-1. AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM.

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