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4
THE STEERING SYSTEM
 
A. INTRODUCTION
 
4A1. General description. The rudder of the submarine is moved by hydraulic power. Under normal conditions of operation the steering system has its own source of power, a motor-driven No. 5 Waterbury A-end pump, and is therefore, except in emergencies,completely independent of the main hydraulic system described in Chapter 3.

The principal control units are assembled in the steering stand, located in the control room. However, since there is an auxiliary steering wheel in the conning tower connected to the steering stand controls by a shaft, the submarine can be steered either from the control room or from the conning tower. To allow for every contingency, the steering system is so planned that three different methods of steering, based on three different sources of hydraulic power, are available. They are designated as follows:

1. POWER, in which the hydraulic power is independently developed by a motor driven pump belonging to the system itself.

  2. HAND, in which the hydraulic power is developed in the telemotor pump by the direct manual efforts of the steersman.

3. EMERGENCY, in which the hydraulic power is supplied by the main hydraulic system.

It should be emphasized that the rudder itself is moved by hydraulic power in all three cases; the only difference between these methods is in the manner in which the power is developed.

EMERGENCY power is used only when the normal power (called simply POWER) fails. HAND power is used only when silent operation of the submarine is necessary to prevent detection by enemy craft, or when both the normal POWER and the EMERGENCY power from the main hydraulic system have failed.

The submarine can be steered by all three methods from either the control room or the conning tower.

 
B. DESCRIPTION
 
4B1. General arrangement. A schematic diagram of the steering system as a whole is shown in Figure 4-1. The system may be conveniently thought of as divided into four principal parts:

a. The normal power supply system, which consists of a Waterbury No. 5 A-end pump, the motor which drives it, the control cylinder, and the main manifold.

b. The steering stand, which consists of the main steering wheel, emergency hand wheel, telemotor pump, pump control lever, change valve, emergency control valve, conning tower connecting shaft, and a clutch.

c. The main cylinder assemblies, which consist of the cylinders and plungers and the mechanical rudder-angle indicator.

d. The rudder assembly, which consists of the connecting rods and guides, the crosshead, and the rudder itself.

  Other units or features are considered in Section 4B2e.

4B2. Detailed description. a. The normal power supply system. 1. The Waterbury pump. In normal operation, the hydraulic power used by the steering system is developed by a Waterbury No. 5 A-end pump, described in Section 2C. It is driven by a 15 horsepower electric motor at a constant speed of about 440 revolutions per minute. The pump turns in a clockwise direction as viewed from the motor end of the shaft. Its speed is constant, but the direction and angle of the tilt-box change. These factors determine the amount of oil pumped into the system to move the rudder, and the direction in which it is pumped.

2. The control cylinder. The function of the control cylinder is to translate the movement of the main steering wheel, as the

 
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Figure 4-1. Schematic view of steering system.
1) Fifteen-horsepower electric motor, speed 440 revolutions per minute; 2) magnetic brake; 3) brake release lever; 4) motor-driven Waterbury A-end
pump; 5) control cylinder; 6) steering system main manifold; 7) steering stand; 8) main steering wheel; 9) emergency steering wheel; 10) emergency
control valve; 11) telemotor pump; 12) pump control lever; 13) change valve; 14) conning tower connecting shaft; 15) port main cylinder, forward
end; 16) Port main cylinder after end; 17) starboard main cylinder, forward end; 18) starboard main cylinder, after end; 19) port plunger; 20) starboard plunger; 21) yokes for inboard connecting rods; 22) inboard connecting rods; 23) connecting rod bearings; 24) mechanical rudder-angle indicator
dial; 25) mechanical rudder-angle indicator pointer; 26) vent and replenishing manifold; 27) vent and surge tank; 28) main hydraulic system supply
manifold; 29) main hydraulic system return manifold; 30) line to main supply tank; 31) vent and replenishing line to supply tank; 32) gage; 33) relief
valve (48 pounds); 34) vent and replenishing line to stern plane Waterbury A-end pump.
Figure 4-1. Schematic view of steering system.
1) Fifteen-horsepower electric motor, speed 440 revolutions per minute; 2) magnetic brake; 3) brake release lever; 4) motor-driven Waterbury A-end pump; 5) control cylinder; 6) steering system main manifold; 7) steering stand; 8) main steering wheel; 9) emergency steering wheel; 10) emergency control valve; 11) telemotor pump; 12) pump control lever; 13) change valve; 14) conning tower connecting shaft; 15) port main cylinder, forward end; 16) Port main cylinder after end; 17) starboard main cylinder, forward end; 18) starboard main cylinder, after end; 19) port plunger; 20) starboard plunger; 21) yokes for inboard connecting rods; 22) inboard connecting rods; 23) connecting rod bearings; 24) mechanical rudder-angle indicator dial; 25) mechanical rudder-angle indicator pointer; 26) vent and replenishing manifold; 27) vent and surge tank; 28) main hydraulic system supply manifold; 29) main hydraulic system return manifold; 30) line to main supply tank; 31) vent and replenishing line to supply tank; 32) gage; 33) relief valve (48 pounds); 34) vent and replenishing line to stern plane Waterbury A-end pump.
 
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steersman turns it left or right, into a corresponding upward or downward motion of the control shaft, thereby changing the position of the tilt-box in the motor-driven Waterbury pump. This in turn varies the stroke of the pistons inside the motor-driven pump. It also determines the quantity and direction of flow of the oil which is pumped to the main rams. In this manner it controls the output of the motor-driven Waterbury pump in response to the adjustments made by the steersman when steering by normal POWER.

The control cylinder assembly consists of a pair of small hydraulic cylinders, opposed and axially in line, having in common

  a single plunger which slides between and through the cylinders. Bell-crank linkage connects this plunger to the tilt-box.

Figure 4-2 shows the details of this unit. The plunger (2) is a double-ended, solid steel, cylindrical bar with a slotted center yoke midway in its length. The yoke carries a steel sliding block which engages the bell crank (5) by a pin (4) fixed through the yoke. This pin serves as a pivot for the bell crank, the other end of which is keyed to a shaft (6).

Hydraulic oil under pressure from the telemotor is delivered to the change valve and is directed by it to one of the two ports (12). Oil is forced out of the other port (12)

Figure 4-2. Cutaway of control cylinder assembly, with old-type centering spring.
1) Hydraulic cylinders; 2) plunger; 3) crosshead; 4) pin; 5) bell crank, 6) crankshaft; 7) double crank;
8) pump control shaft; 9) centering spring; 10) spring bracket; 11) pull-rods; 12) hydraulic ports; 13) metal
space ring; 14) packing; 15) packing gland; 16) packing-gland cap.
Figure 4-2. Cutaway of control cylinder assembly, with old-type centering spring.
1) Hydraulic cylinders; 2) plunger; 3) crosshead; 4) pin; 5) bell crank, 6) crankshaft; 7) double crank; 8) pump control shaft; 9) centering spring; 10) spring bracket; 11) pull-rods; 12) hydraulic ports; 13) metal space ring; 14) packing; 15) packing gland; 16) packing-gland cap.
 
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by the plunger, back through the change valve, and into the return side of the telemotor pump. As the plunger moves back and forth between the cylinders, it turns the bell crank, rotating the shaft a few degrees in each direction. At the other end of the shaft, a double crank (7) is fixed and, as the shaft turns left or right, this crank moves the pump control shaft (8). This shaft alters the angle and direction of the tilt-box in the Waterbury pump. Figure 2-10 shows how the pump control shaft is linked to the tilt-box in the Waterbury pump.

The tilt-box is in the neutral position (zero stroke of the pistons) when it is exactly parallel to the cylinder barrel, that is, vertical. As its position is controlled by the linkage from the control cylinder, the tilt-box will remain at neutral as long as no oil is being directed by the steersman through the telemotor pump to either side of the control cylinder.

As soon as the steering wheel is turned left or right, a column of oil is sent to one side of the control cylinder, moving the control shaft up or down and tilting the tilt-box away from neutral. Unless the wheel were then turned back exactly to its former position, the tilt-box could not return to neutral. Therefore, in the absence of any other force, the steersman, to restore the tilt-box to a position of zero tilt would necessarily have to find the previous position of the steering wheel with the greatest precision otherwise the motor-driven A-end pump would continue to pump oil and the rudder would continue to move.

In practical operation, such precision of touch would be almost impossible to achieve, and the steersman would be obliged to hunt continuously for the neutral position of the wheel in order to keep the boat on a straight course. Therefore, some other means of neutralizing, or centering, the tilt-box, must be provided. Such a device is the centering spring, a powerful spring connected into the control cylinder assembly in such a way as to hold the control shaft firmly in the intermediate or neutral position, until displaced by a definite and deliberate effort of the

  steersman. The instant this effort is discontinued, the control shaft returns immediately to neutral. Thus it may be said that the centering spring provides a force which opposes any motion of the control shaft away from dead center.

For example, when the steering hand wheel is turned to the left, the telemotor pump immediately delivers oil into the left side of the change valve. The change valve, being in the normal POWER position, will direct the oil to the left end of the control cylinder. The control cylinder plunger is moved, compressing the centering spring and tilting the tilt-box. This allows the power driven Waterbury A-end pump to deliver oil immediately to the left side of its valve plate and then to a pressure line leading to the left side of the main steering manifold. Oil is distributed by the manifold to the forward starboard ram cylinder and the after-port ram cylinder, moving their plungers (port plunger forward, starboard aft) and causing the rudder to be moved to the left. As long as the steersman has the wheel turned to the left, the rudder will continue to swing to the left. By partially returning the wheel to its former position, the oil that was forced against the control cylinder plunger will be removed from the control cylinder, thus allowing the centering spring to recenter the plunger and tilt-box of the power-driven Waterbury A-end pump. Since the tilt-box has been returned to its neutral position, the pump will discontinue delivery of oil and the rudder will therefore remain at the designated rudder angle.

Through mechanical linkage and hydraulic pipe lines, the control shaft is linked with the steering wheel in an almost direct connection. That is, any motion of the steering wheel will be instantaneously translated into a corresponding motion of the control shaft. Since this rule works both ways, the resistance of the spring will be felt by the steersman. When the steersman turns the wheel in the opposite direction, the centering spring will return the control cylinder plunger to neutral. This addition to the control system eliminates all necessity for the

 
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steersman to hunt for the zero, or neutral, position.

Figure 4-2 shows one type of centering spring, found on some older classes of vessels. The spring (9) goes through a hole in the brackets (10) and is seated in the yokes at each end. The brackets are bolted rigidly to the plunger crosshead (3). As this moves either way from the center, the bracket on this side will pull the pull-rod (11) along with it. This rod, sliding freely in the opposite bracket, will pull on the far yoke, compressing the spring, and causing it to resist the motion.

On some of the later classes of submarines, the control shaft which extends through the Waterbury A-end power-driven pump has the centering spring attached to one end of the control shaft, and the control cylinder on the opposite end.

Figure 4-3 illustrates this type of installation. The pump control shaft (1) enters at

Figure 4-3. Motor-driven Waterbury A-end pump,
with new-type centering spring.
1) Pump control shaft; 2) housing for centering spring.
Figure 4-3. Motor-driven Waterbury A-end pump, with new-type centering spring.
1) Pump control shaft; 2) housing for centering spring.

  the bottom, connected to the tilt-box. The centering spring and its actuating spindle, against which the top end of the pump control shaft bears, are contained in the tall, pipelike housing (2) screwed onto the top of the power-driven Waterbury A-end pump.

Figure 4-4. Steering system main manifold.
Figure 4-4. Steering system main manifold.

3. The steering system main manifold. The steering system main manifold (Figure 4-4) consists of a multiple-port housing containing nine valves built into the body, and eight ports which connect the main rams to the sources of hydraulic power.

Figure 4-5 shows the location of the ports as seen from a top view of the manifold. The two end ports (1 and 2) are connected directly to the Waterbury A-end pump. The four ports nearest that end (3, 4, 5, 6) are connected to the fore and aft ends of the port and starboard rams. The other two ports (7 and 8) are supply and return ports for auxiliary power, that is, either HAND or EMERGENCY, whenever the motor-driven Waterbury A-end pump is shut off.

Figure 4-5 also shows three of the valves. All the valves have name plates indicating their purpose. The two at the end nearest the pump (9 and 10) are relief valves, placed in the line between the power-driven Waterbury A-end pump and the rams to prevent the building up of excessive pressures. The valve in the center (10) is the right rudder relief valve; that nearest the power-driven Waterbury A-end pump (9) is the left rudder relief

 
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valve. They are spring-loaded, and set to lift at a pressure of 1,200 pounds per square inch. The valve at the other end (11) is a hand

Figure 4-5. Diagram of steering system main manfold, top view.
1) Port to motor-driven Waterbury pump; 2) port to
motor-driven Waterbury pump; 3) port to after end
of port ram; 4) port to forward end of port ram;
5) port to forward end of starboard ram; 6) port to
after end of starboard ram; 7) port to auxiliary
power line, HAND and EMERGENCY; 8) port to
auxiliary power line, HAND and EMERGENCY; 9) left
rudder relief valve; 10) right rudder relief valve;
11) hand bypass valve; 12) vent valve.
Figure 4-5. Diagram of steering system main manifold, top view.
1) Port to motor-driven Waterbury pump; 2) port to motor-driven Waterbury pump; 3) port to after end of port ram; 4) port to forward end of port ram; 5) port to forward end of starboard ram; 6) port to after end of starboard ram; 7) port to auxiliary power line, HAND and EMERGENCY; 8) port to auxiliary power line, HAND and EMERGENCY; 9) left rudder relief valve; 10) right rudder relief valve; 11) hand bypass valve; 12) vent valve.

bypass valve, used, when needed, to bypass the hydraulic power by connecting the supply and return lines from the power-driven Waterbury A-end pump directly to each other. This bypass normally is closed.

Figure 4-6 is a bottom view of the manifold, showing the other six valves. These are all cut-out valves, used to shut off their corresponding ports. The four nearest the power-driven Waterbury A-end pump, (9, 10, 11, 12) are called power cut-out valves. The two at the left end (13 and 14), called hard and emergency cut-out valves, are used to shut off the two ports connected to the auxiliary power lines.

Figure 4-7 shows the internal structure of the valves. The hand bypass valve (1) on top of the manifold is a disk-type valve. It consists of a valve body or bonnet (6) containing a threaded traveling stem (7), its top end squared to fit into the square interior of the turn-nut (8), its lower end holding a

  double ring (9) over which the valve disk (10) fits. This disk, when screwed all the way down, fits into the valve seat (11), closing the valve. To open or close the valve, the locking cap (12) is backed off a little with a large hex-wrench, to free the turn-nut. Then a small hex-wrench is applied to the top of the turn-nut which, as it turns, rotates the stem (7), causing it to travel up or down in the bonnet, closing or opening the valve. The upper and lower chambers (13 and 14) open into two channels within the manifold body which connect to the supply and return sides of whatever source of power is being utilized. Unseating the valve disk opens these chambers to each other, thereby bypassing the oil directly from the supply to the return side of the system. This valve, therefore, normally is closed, that is, the valve disk normally is screwed down into its seat.

The six cut-out valves on the underside of the manifold, four of which (4 and 5) can

Figure 4-6. Diagram of steering system main manifold, bottom view.
1) Port to motor-driven Waterbury pump; 2) port to
motor-driven Waterbury pump; 3) port to after end
of port ram; 4) port to forward end of port ram;
5) port to forward end of starboard ram; 6) port to
after end of starboard ram; 7) port to auxiliary
power line, HAND and EMERGENCY; 8) port toauxiliary power line, HAND and EMERGENCY; 9) power
cut-out valve, forward-port ram; 10) power cut-out
valve, after-port ram; 11) power cut-out valve, after
starboard ram; 12) power cut-out valve, forward
starboard ram; 13) auxiliary power cut-out valve,
HAND and EMERGENCY; 14) auxiliary power cut-out
valve, HAND and EMERGENCY.
Figure 4-6. Diagram of steering system main manifold, bottom view.
1) Port to motor-driven Waterbury pump; 2) port to motor-driven Waterbury pump; 3) port to after end of port ram; 4) port to forward end of port ram; 5) port to forward end of starboard ram; 6) port to after end of starboard ram; 7) port to auxiliary power line, HAND and EMERGENCY; 8) port to auxiliary power line, HAND and EMERGENCY; 9) power cut-out valve, forward-port ram; 10) power cut-out valve, after-port ram; 11) power cut-out valve, after starboard ram; 12) power cut-out valve, forward starboard ram; 13) auxiliary power cut-out valve, HAND and EMERGENCY; 14) auxiliary power cut-out valve, HAND and EMERGENCY.

 
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be seen in Figure 4-7, are structurally identical with the hand bypass valve described. The nearest valve is shown partially cut away. In each of these valves, the upper chamber (15) leads into the port nearest it (17), while the lower chamber (16) leads into one of the two internal channels running lengthwise through   the manifold body. Thus, turning the stem (18) to the right and seating the valve disk (19) of any cut-out valve will blank, or cut out, the corresponding port. These valves normally are open. The cutaway also shows the internal structure of one of the relief valves (2). Here
Figure 4-7. Cutaway of steering system main manifold.
1) Hand bypass valve; 2) right rudder relief valve; 3) left rudder relief valve; 4) ram cut-out valves; 5) auxiliary power cut-out valves, HAND and EMERGENCY; 6) bonnets; 7) stem; 8) turn-nut; 9) double ring;
10) valve disk; 11) valve seat; 12) locking cap; 13) upper chamber, hand bypass valve; 14) lower chamber,
hand bypass valve; 15) upper chamber, cut-out valve; 16) lower chamber, cut-out valve; 17) ports above
corresponding cut-out valves; 18) stem of cut-out valve; 19) valve disk of cut-out valve; 20) ports to motor
driven Waterbury pump, supply and return; 21) disk of relief valve; 22) relief valve spring; 23) spring tension
adjusting nut; 24) relief valve locking cap. 25) packing-gland nut.
Figure 4-7. Cutaway of steering system main manifold.
1) Hand bypass valve; 2) right rudder relief valve; 3) left rudder relief valve; 4) ram cut-out valves; 5) auxiliary power cut-out valves, HAND and EMERGENCY; 6) bonnets; 7) stem; 8) turn-nut; 9) double ring; 10) valve disk; 11) valve seat; 12) locking cap; 13) upper chamber, hand bypass valve; 14) lower chamber, hand bypass valve; 15) upper chamber, cut-out valve; 16) lower chamber, cut-out valve; 17) ports above corresponding cut-out valves; 18) stem of cut-out valve; 19) valve disk of cut-out valve; 20) ports to motor driven Waterbury pump, supply and return; 21) disk of relief valve; 22) relief valve spring; 23) spring tension adjusting nut; 24) relief valve locking cap. 25) packing-gland nut.
 
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the disk (21), instead of being seated by turning the nut with a wrench, is held seated by the loading spring (22). The spring tension is adjusted by the adjusting nut (23), which can be reached by removing the cap (24). The two internal chambers of this valve, like those in the hand bypass valve, open into the channels leading to the power-driven Waterbury A-end ports. In practice, therefore, it will be seen that the relief valves are simply safety valves, kept closed by loading springs and opened only by excessive oil pressure, which is then able to bypass to the return side of the manifold. Two such valves are needed here, one on each side of the manifold, because either line may become alternately   supply or return, depending on whether the rudder is being turned left or right. Attached name plates differentiate the valves.

Midway on the top of the manifold body, at each side of the right rudder relief valve, is a small vent valve (12, Figure 4-5), which may be opened, when required, to vent air which may have accumulated in the manifold.

b. The steering stand. The hydraulic power which moves the rudder is directed by the steersman from the steering stand, an assembly which contains the control equipment for all three methods of steering, POWER, HAND, and EMERGENCY (see . Figure 4-8).

Figure 4-8. Control room steering stand.
1) Main steering wheel; 2) telemotor; 3) hand grip; 4) locking pin; 5) locking arm for steering wheel; 6) gear
box; 7) pump control lever, 8) telemotor shaft; 9) pump control shaft; 10) pump control shaft locking screw;
11) change valve; 12) change valve handwheel; 13) emergency control valve; 14) emergency control valve
handwheel (emergency steering wheel); 15) emergency control valve shaft; 16) clutch; 17) shaft to conning
tower steering wheel; 18) clutch handle; 19) locking bar for emergency control valve shaft; 20) emergency
control valve shaft locking arm; 21) vent valve on telemotor; 22) bed plate; 23) wing-nut clutch lock.
Figure 4-8. Control room steering stand.
1) Main steering wheel; 2) telemotor; 3) hand grip; 4) locking pin; 5) locking arm for steering wheel; 6) gear box; 7) pump control lever, 8) telemotor shaft; 9) pump control shaft; 10) pump control shaft locking screw; 11) change valve; 12) change valve handwheel; 13) emergency control valve; 14) emergency control valve handwheel (emergency steering wheel); 15) emergency control valve shaft; 16) clutch; 17) shaft to conning tower steering wheel; 18) clutch handle; 19) locking bar for emergency control valve shaft; 20) emergency control valve shaft locking arm; 21) vent valve on telemotor; 22) bed plate; 23) wing-nut clutch lock.
 
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1. The telemotor pump. Since, in operation by normal power, it is the direction of the motor-driven Waterbury A-end pump tilt-box that determines which way the rudder moves (see Section 4B2a1), and since the position of this tilt-box is controlled by the movement of oil in the control cylinder, it is clear that, to steer the submarine, some device is needed to drive that oil in the direction required. The mechanism must be one which will respond readily to the steersman's touch, yet control accurately the powerful pressures developed by the motor-driven Waterbury A-end pump. Such a device is the telemotor pump (2, Figure 4-8), the steering stand's main unit. The telemotor pump is actually a hand-operated Waterbury A-end pump. A bracket is fitted externally to it and the pump control shaft so that its tilt-box always tilts in the same direction, though its angle, that is, the degree of tilt, may be changed. Consequently, the   flow of oil depends solely on which way its shaft is rotated. If a large handwheel is fitted to this shaft, and the ports of the telemotor connected to opposite ends of the control cylinder, turning the wheel left or right will then pump oil to one end or the other of the control cylinder, which in turn tilts the tilt-box in the motor-driven Waterbury A-end pump, thus moving the rudder left or right. Therefore, turning a wheel fitted to the shaft of the telemotor pump will steer the submarine.

2. The main steering wheel. The main steering wheel (1, Figure 4-8) is mounted vertically at the after end of the steering stand. It is used for both POWER and HAND steering.

As HAND steering requires greater effort, a retractable spring hand grip (3) is built into the rim, which, during POWER steering, may be kept folded in.

Figure 4-9. Cutaway of main steering wheel and steering stand gear box.
I) Main steering wheel; 2) locking pin (spring-loaded); 3) clutch jaw; 4) grease connection; 5) main wheel
drive shaft; 6) bevel gears; 7) conning tower steering wheel shaft; 8) telemotor drive shaft; 9) gear box
housing; 10) grease connection.
Figure 4-9. Cutaway of main steering wheel and steering stand gear box.
I) Main steering wheel; 2) locking pin (spring-loaded); 3) clutch jaw; 4) grease connection; 5) main wheel drive shaft; 6) bevel gears; 7) conning tower steering wheel shaft; 8) telemotor drive shaft; 9) gear box housing; 10) grease connection.
 
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A spring-loaded locking pin (4) is built into the hub, which when pulled out allows the main steering wheel to be disengaged from its shaft. This keeps the main wheel from spinning uselessly when the submarine is being steered from the conning tower. Attached to the steering stand under the main wheel is a locking arm (5) with a forked end which can be swung out to keep the wheel stationary when it has been disengaged. The main steering wheel is connected to the telemotor pump through the gear box (6, Figure 4-8). This is shown partially cut away in Figure 4-9.

Figure 4-9 illustrates the manner in which the telemotor pump is connected both to the main steering wheel (in the control room) and the conning tower steering wheel.

The main steering wheel (1) is clutched into the main shaft (5) by a jaw clutch. It can be locked in either the clutched or de-clutched position by the spring-loaded locking pin (2). Keyed to the other end of the shaft is the bevel gear (6).

The conning tower drive shaft (7) has a similar bevel gear keyed to its lower end.

The telemotor pump drive shaft (8) also is keyed into a bevel gear.

These three gears, are meshed to form a gear train. Rotating the main wheel (1) will therefore cause the gear on the end of the telemotor pump shaft to rotate, but in the opposite direction, due to the intermediate (horizontal) bevel gear.

Of course, the vertical shaft leading to the conning tower drive shaft also rotates when the main wheel is turned, but a clutch (see Figure 4-17) disconnects this stub shaft from the conning tower driving shaft proper.

The gear housing (9) is lubricated through the grease connection (4).

3. The pump control lever. In POWER steering, as indicated above, the only function of the telemotor pump is to move the control cylinder plunger fore or aft; the actual work of swinging the rudder is then done by the power-driven Waterbury A-end pump. Since the power-driven Waterbury A-end pump is running at 440 revolutions per minute, a small

  change in the position of its tilt-box produces a large reaction at the rams, and fine and exact control is therefore needed. Such control is effected by setting the telemotor pump's tilt-box at a very small angle, the minimum piston stroke, so that turning the main wheel drives only a relatively small volume of oil into the control cylinder.

However, in HAND steering, the pressure developed in the telemotor pump by turning the main steering wheel, directly actuates the main rams. Therefore, the rudder is swung by the manual exertions of the steersman. This means that, to achieve the same fineness of control, there is no need to pump relatively small quantities of oil through the telemotor pump; on the contrary,what is wanted is a relatively large volume of oil pumped to the actuating cylinder without too many turns of the wheel. Therefore, the telemotor pump tilt-box should be set at a large angle or maximum piston stroke. This angle setting is done by means of the pump control lever (7, Figure 4-8), mounted on top of the telemotor pump, since the maximum stroke allowed by the pump control lever is determined by the bracket connection.

This is shown in more detail in Figure 4-10. It must be emphasized again that the tilt-box of a telemotor pump is always tilted away from neutral, and always in the same direction. For the steering system telemotor pump there are only two angles, or settings, POWER and HAND, shown by the name plate (5) on the frame which holds the lever (1). Moving the lever to one or the other setting moves the pump control shaft (2), which is linked to the tilt-box inside the telemotor pump(3). Whenever a tilt-box is tilted away from the neutral position, the stroke of the pistons changes-which is precisely what causes pumping action. The pressure of the oil against the piston will tend to force the tilt-box to return to neutral. This is particularly true when the angle is large or when the tilt-box is set at the HAND position. To prevent any change in angle of tilt, the pump control shaft is extended up into the lever frame, and a heavy locking screw (4) is provided to clamp the control

 
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shaft extension (6), notched for a positive grip, in the desired position.

4. The change valve. Since there are three methods of operating the steering system, POWER, HAND, and EMERGENCY, a change valve (11, Figure 4-8) is provided to open the lines being used, and close, or blank off, the others. This valve is mounted at the forward end of the steering stand, by a pair of flanged ports connecting directly to the pressure ports of the telemotor pump.

The change valve has six ports. A movable internal mechanism enables the steersman to select one of three different combinations of ports, depending upon which one of the three steering methods is in use.

The cutaway view (Figure 4-11) shows how the operation of the change valve works.

Figure 4-10. Telemotor pump control lever.
1) Pump control lever; 2) pump control shaft; 3) telemotor;4) locking screw; 5) name slate; 6) control
shaft extension.
Figure 4-10. Telemotor pump control lever.
1) Pump control lever; 2) pump control shaft; 3) telemotor;4) locking screw; 5) name slate; 6) control shaft extension.

  It is a piston-type, or traveling-nut-type valve, the various combinations of outlets being opened and shut off by a movable sleeve (1) as it is raised and lowered by the handwheel (2) This turns the shaft (3) a nonrising stem, whose male threaded end (4) engages the female threaded end of the sleeve. The sleeve and the internal chamber of the valve body (5) are accurately machined and lap-fitted to each other so that the shutoff action of the lands on the sleeve will be close-fitting. This is further improved by phosphor-bronze collars which are soldered onto the lands, the softer metal making a smooth, tight bearing surface for the steel body of the valve. Note that it is the sleeve that travels up and down,

Figure 4-11. Cutaway of change valve.
1) Sleeve; 2) handwheel; 3) shaft; 4) threaded end
of shaft; 5) valve body.
Figure 4-11. Cutaway of change valve.
1) Sleeve; 2) handwheel; 3) shaft; 4) threaded end of shaft; 5) valve body.

 
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not the handwheel shaft, which merely turns left or right. The thread used on the shaft is a steeply pitched quadruple thread with a rapid travel, which raises or lowers the sleeve to the extreme limit of travel in three quarters of a turn of the wheel.

The three possible positions of the wheel are shown by a circular indicator plate screwed to the spokes near the hub. A black enameled strip of iron formed into an indicator and attached to the valve body shows where the wheel should stop for each position.

Figure 4-12 is a diagram of the change valve in all three positions, showing the relationships between the position of the sleeve and the various oil lines entering the valve. Active oil at high pressure from the emergency lines of the main hydraulic system is shown in red; active oil at low pressure in the telemotor and control cylinder circuit is shown in blue.

At POWER, the sleeve is fully raised; the telemotor pump ports (1) are connected to the control cylinder ports (2), sending oil at low pressure, developed by the steersman in the telemotor pump, to the control cylinder.

At HAND, the sleeve is fully lowered; the telemotor pump ports (1) are connected directly to the auxiliary power ports of the

  steering system train manifold (4) (see Figure 4-6, ports 7 and 8), thus sending oil developed by the steersman in the telemotor pump, directly to the main rams.

At EMERGENCY, the sleeve is in the intermediate position; all ports are blanked off, preventing the high pressure oil (from the main hydraulic system's emergency lines) from reaching the telemotor pump and motorizing it.

WARNING. Always place the change valve in the EMERGENCY position before opening the emergency control valve. Failure to do so may result in motorization of the telemotor pump and serious injury to the operator.

The three positions of the sleeve corresponding to POWER, HAND, and EMERGENCY, are shown diagrammatically in Figure 4-13. Oil from the supply side is shown in red; return oil from a cylinder in blue. Direction of flow is indicated by arrows. At POWER, the sleeve (1) is at its uppermost position (2); the telemotor pump ports are connected to the control cylinder ports through the sleeve channel; the ports to the main rams are blanked off. At HAND the sleeve is in the lowest position; the control cylinder is bypassed, while the telemotor pump ports are opened to the rams.

Figure 4-12. Diagram of change valve in three positions.
1) To telemotor; 2) to control cylinder; 3) emergencyposition; 4) to main steering manifold, HAND.
Figure 4-12. Diagram of change valve in three positions.
1) To telemotor; 2) to control cylinder; 3) emergency position; 4) to main steering manifold, HAND.
 
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5. The emergency control valve. The emergency control valve is mounted to the left of the main steering wheel (looking forward from the wheel). It is shown at 13 in Figure 4-8. Its function is to allow the flow of oil from the main hydraulic system, in case of failure of the steering system's own power, and direct it to either side of the steering system manifold (using the same lines as those for HAND operation), from which it goes to the rams. Like the change valve, the emergency control valve is a piston-type, or traveling-nut-type, valve with a nonrising stem (see Figure 4-14). As the stem (1, Figure 4-14) is turned left or right, it raises or lowers the piston (2), opening either right rudder or left rudder port to the supply port (3) of the main hydraulic system, and thus allowing the oil to flow to one side or the other of the main steering manifold.

Details of the operating mechanism for the emergency control valve are shown in Figure 4-15. The stem is turned by a shaft

  (8) connected through a pair of horizontally mounted spur gears (6) to a handwheel (7) the emergency steering wheel-mounted horizontally above the main steering wheel, at about shoulder height. This handwheel has RIGHT RUDDER stamped into its rim with an arrow indicating how the wheel is to be turned for that operation. This wheel functions as the steering wheel when the vessel is being steered by EMERGENCY. Its position on the steering stand is shown at 14, Figure 4-8.

Figure 4-16 shows the emergency control valve in each of its three positions, indicating the relationship between the position of the piston and the flow of oil to the rams. The pressure side is shown in red, the return side in blue.

At NEUTRAL, the piston is in the intermediate position. The ports (3 and 4) leading to the steering system main manifold, and thence to the main rams, are both blanked off

Figure 4-13. Schematic diagram of ports and lands in change valve.
1) Sleeve; 2) stop.
Figure 4-13. Schematic diagram of ports and lands in change valve.
1) Sleeve; 2) stop.
 
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and the pressure from the supply port (1) cannot reach them.

At RIGHT RUDDER, the piston has moved to the bottom of its travel, the supply port (1) is opened to the port (3) leading to the after-starboard and forward-port rams; return oil from the after-port and forward-starboard rams comes in through the port (4) and out through the return port (2).

At LEFT RUDDER, the piston is at the top of its travel. Pressure from the supply port (1) goes out through the port (4) to the forward-starboard and after-port rams; return oil from the forward-port and after-starboard rams comes in through the port (3) and goes out through the return port (2).

6. The clutch. Across the shaft of the emergency control valve itself is the clutch handle (18, Figure 4-8) which, through appropriate linkage, raises and lowers the positive jaw clutch (16) located on the vertical

Figure 4-14. Cutaway of emergency control valve.
1) Nonrising stem; 2) piston; 3) supply port, from
emergency lines, main hydraulic system; 4) return
port, to emergency lines, main hydraulic system;
5) port to steering system main manifold and rams,
forward-port, after-starboard; 6) port to steering
system main manifold and rams, after-port, forward
starboard.
Figure 4-14. Cutaway of emergency control valve.
1) Nonrising stem; 2) piston; 3) supply port, from emergency lines, main hydraulic system; 4) return port, to emergency lines, main hydraulic system; 5) port to steering system main manifold and rams, forward-port, after-starboard; 6) port to steering system main manifold and rams, after-port, forward starboard.

  conning tower drive shaft (17) just under the emergency handwheel spur gears. The clutch handle is fitted with a locking bar (19) which holds the emergency control valve shaft (15) firmly in place. It is fastened by a spring loaded locking arm (20) and a wing-nut clutch lock (23).

Figure 4-15. Diagram of clutch and emergency steering wheel spur gears, clutch handle up.
1) Clutch handle; 2) linkage; 3) clutch; 4) shaft from
gear box; 5) shaft to conning tower steering
wheel; 6) spur gears; 7) emergency steering wheel;
8) emergency control valve shaft; 9) locking arm.
Figure 4-15. Diagram of clutch and emergency steering wheel spur gears, clutch handle up.
1) Clutch handle; 2) linkage; 3) clutch; 4) shaft from gear box; 5) shaft to conning tower steering wheel; 6) spur gears; 7) emergency steering wheel; 8) emergency control valve shaft; 9) locking arm.

The function of this clutch is shown in more detail in Figures 4-15 and 4-17. When the handle is down (Figure 4-17), the clutch is engaged to the emergency steering control wheel, and the steering can be done by POWER or HAND from the control room steering stand, or by EMERGENCY from the conning tower wheel. When the handle is up (Figure 4-15), the clutch is disengaged and steering can be done by POWER or HAND from the conning tower, or by EMERGENCY from the control room.

7. The conning tower steering shaft. The conning tower steering shaft (7, Figure 4-9) connects the steering stand to the conning tower steering wheel.

As shown in Figure 4-9, the drive shaft (7) from the conning tower steering wheel ends in a horizontal bevel gear, the intermediate gear of a three-gear train (6). These gears are contained in the gear box (9), an oil filled housing located on the steering stand

 
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Figure 4-16. Flow diagram of emergency control valve in three positions.
1) To main hydraulic system, supply; 2) to main hydraulic system, return; 3) to main rams, forward-port,
after-starboard; 4) to main rams, after-port, forward-starboard; 5) direction of rotation of emergency steering wheel for right rudder.
Figure 4-16. Flow diagram of emergency control valve in three positions.
1) To main hydraulic system, supply; 2) to main hydraulic system, return; 3) to main rams, forward-port, after-starboard; 4) to main rams, after-port, forward-starboard; 5) direction of rotation of emergency steering wheel for right rudder.
just forward of the main steering wheel (see 6, Figure 4-8). The conning tower steering wheel is connected and disconnected by means of the clutch, as described in the previous section (see Figures 4-15 and 4-17).

c. The rams. The main cylinder ram assemblies, usually referred to simply as the rams (port and starboard), transform hydraulic power into mechanical power to move the rudder. Figure 4-18 shows their structure. Each consists essentially of a pair of hydraulic cylinders (1) opposed and axially in line, having in common a plunger (2), or ram, which slides between and through them, and a hydraulic port(3) at each end into which oil is admitted, to move the rams forward or aft. At its center the plunger has a heavy yoke (4) forged integral with it. This yoke has a hole drilled into it to take the inboard connecting rod (5) which is locked into it at this point by heavy locknuts, one on each side of the yoke. The inboard connecting rod slides through the bearings (6). Oil leakage past the plunger is prevented by the packing (10). Figure 4-20 is an exploded view of this chevron packing, which shows clearly the cross-sectional shape of the rings. This type of packing is used in various hydraulic units

  aboard the submarine. The entire ram assembly is bolted to the framework through the brackets (7, Figure 4-18).

Mounted at the forward end of the ram shown in Figure 4-18 is the mechanical rudder-angle indicator pointer (8), which shows the angle of rudder deflection in degrees on the indicator dial (9). Another rudder-angle transmitter, electrically operated, is located on the other ram (not shown). It transmits the angle of deflection electrically to a rudder

Figure 4-17. Diagram of clutch and emergencysteering wheel, clutch handle down.
Figure 4-17. Diagram of clutch and emergency steering wheel, clutch handle down.

 
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Figure 4-18. Cutaway of main ram assembly.
1) Hydraulic cylinder; 2) ram or plunger; 3) hydraulic parts; 4) yoke;
5) inboard connecting rod; 6) bearings; 7) brackets; 8) mechanical rudder-angle indicator pointer; 9) mechanical rudder-angle indicator; 10) packing.
Figure 4-18. Cutaway of main ram assembly.
1) Hydraulic cylinder; 2) ram or plunger; 3) hydraulic parts; 4) yoke; 5) inboard connecting rod; 6) bearings; 7) brackets; 8) mechanical rudder-angle indicator pointer; 9) mechanical rudder-angle indicator; 10) packing.
 
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angle indicator on the instrument board in the control room. Figure 4-19 shows the packing used in the main ram.

Figure 4-19. Packing used in main ram.
Figure 4-19. Packing used in main ram.

d. The rudder assembly. The rudder assembly is shown in Figure 4-21. The after end of each inboard connecting rod (1) goes into a guide (2) which is simply an open ended cylinder containing a sliding member, the guide piston (3). Through the guide piston, the inboard connecting rod is linked to the outboard connecting rod (4). The guides are located beyond the point at which the inboard connecting rods emerge, through watertight packing (5), from the pressure hull (6) into the sea.

Since the guide pistons are not water tight, sea water is always present in the closed end (7) of the guide cylinders. Therefore to prevent a sudden build-up of water pressure at this point when the guide piston moves inward-a pressure which would tend to lock the pistons against further movement-the closed ends of the guide cylinders are connected to each other by a pipe (8) called the equalizing bypass. This provides a free passage between the closed ends of the cylinders for the sea water trapped behind the guides, whenever the pistons are moved.

The two outboard connecting rods are linked to opposite ends of the crosshead (9), which actually swings the rudder. Through the center pivot of the crosshead passes the

  rudder stock (10), to which the rudder (11) itself is attached. As the connecting rods are pushed in opposite directions by the hydraulic pressure, they swing the crosshead, turning the rudder.

e. Other units. Besides the principal parts already described, the steering system also contains a vent and surge tank, a vent and replenishing manifold, and several hand cut-out valves located at various points in the pipe lines.

1. The vent and surge tank. The vent and surge tank is an oil reservoir that normally

Figure 4-20. Exploded view of chevron packing for
steering system main ram.
Figure 4-20. Exploded view of chevron packing for steering system main ram.

 
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Figure 4-21. Diagram of rudder assembly and guides.
1) Inboard connecting rod; 2) connecting rod guide cylinder; 3) guide piston; 4) outboard connecting rod;
5) packing; 6) pressure hull; 7) forward (closed) end of guide cylinder; 8) equalizing line, or bypass; 9) crosshead; 10) rudder stock; 11) rudder.
Figure 4-21. Diagram of rudder assembly and guides. 1) Inboard connecting rod; 2) connecting rod guide cylinder; 3) guide piston; 4) outboard connecting rod; 5) packing; 6) pressure hull; 7) forward (closed) end of guide cylinder; 8) equalizing line, or bypass; 9) crosshead; 10) rudder stock; 11) rudder.
is kept half full. It has three separate functions:

a) Venting. It vents air which has accumulated in the system. The tank is placed at a level higher than the Waterbury pumps and motor, allowing elimination of air and replenishing of oil as well as thermal expansion of the oil in the inactive sides of the Waterbury pumps and motor.

b) Replenishing. The vent and surge tank provides replenishment of oil to the inactive side of the Waterbury speed gear, replacing oil which has been delivered from the case into the active system (see Section 2C4h).

Figure 4-22. Vent and replenishing manifold.
Figure 4-22. Vent and replenishing manifold.

  When the steering system is operating under normal power furnished by the motor driven Waterbury speed gear, oil is replenished from the case, or inactive, system into the active system by means of replenishing valves (see Section 2C4h). The reserve oil in the vent and surge tank is used to make good this loss, as well as other losses due to leakage throughout the system. It is fed into the case of the Waterbury speed gear by means of a 10- to 25-pound back-pressure. This back pressure is received from the main supply tank through the replenishing line since the vent on the vent and surge tank normally is closed. A relief valve mounted on the vent and surge tank is set to lift at 48 pounds per square inch.

c) Surges: thermal expansion. Oil circulated at high pressure throughout a hydraulic system soon becomes heated and increases in volume. For proper functioning, the system must provide room for this expansion. The vent and surge tank provides this room. As the oil expands, the level in the tank rises, relieving the other parts of the system of the strain which would otherwise be placed on them if the increased pressure had no means of escape.

The location of the vent and surge tank in the steering system is shown schematically in the piping diagram of the steering system (27, Figure 4-1).

 
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Figure 4-23. Cutaway of quick-throw, plug-type, hand
cut-out valve.
1) Handle; 2) stem; 3) packing; 4) line port; 5) valve
plug; 6) valve plug port; 7) setscrew.
Figure 4-23. Cutaway of quick-throw, plug-type, hand cut-out valve.
1) Handle; 2) stem; 3) packing; 4) line port; 5) valve plug; 6) valve plug port; 7) setscrew.

Besides its function in the steering system, this tank, because of its convenient location, is also used to perform the same services for the stern diving plane system. (see Chapter 5).

2. The vent and replenishing manifold. The vent and replenishing manifold is a three-valve manifold (see Figure-22) installed in the lines at the forward end of the steering stand. It consists of three identical cut-out valves whose structure and operate oral principles are the same as the cut-out valves on the steering system main manifold (see Section 4b2a3). Its internal mechanism is illustrated in Figure 4-7.

  The two outer valves normally are closed, except when it becomes necessary to fill or vent the system. The center valve connected to the control cylinder power line normally is open.

The location of the vent and replenishing manifold is shown in the schematic piping diagram (26, Figure 4-1).

3. Quick-throw cut-out valves. Several plug-type, quick-throw cut-out valves may be installed at various points in the hydraulic lines for the purpose of quickly shutting off the flow of oil between the units in case of a ruptured line or other emergency.

A cutaway view of this type of valve is shown in Figure 4-23. The throw, or amount of turn, of this valve stem is 90 degrees, or a quarter-turn. The stem (2) has a squared upper end fitting snugly into the hollow portion of the handle assembly ring, to which it is secured by a hex-nut and washer screwed down over the top of the stem. The lower, threaded end of the stem is screwed into the valve plug (5) and locked there by a small setscrew (7), which can be seen in the illustration at the right of the threaded portion of the stem. Running through the plug is a channel called the plug port (6). When this is lined up with the two line ports (4), the valve is OPEN. When the plug is rotated 90 degrees, this channel is at a right angle to the line between the ports, and the valve is closed. The cutaway view shows the valve in the CLOSED position.

When these two cut-out valves are closed, the motor-driven Waterbury is isolated from the rest of the steering system. On later classes of submarines, these valves have been installed between the motor-driven pump and main manifold.

 
C. OPERATION
 
4C1. Introduction. A detailed description has just been given of the essential parts of the hydraulic steering system. In this section their operation is described. As has been indicated, there are three methods of steering, called POWER, HAND, and EMERGENCY, according to the source of hydraulic pressure   utilized. For clarity, a single rudder movement-from 0 degrees to 20 degrees right rudder-is described as it occurs in each method. By so doing it is possible to show how each unit, previously taken up in detail, functions as part of the coordinated whole. The paths taken by the oil are also shown.
 
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Figure 4-24. Operation diagram of steeringsystem by normal POWER.
1) Main steering wheel; 2) change valve; 3) 15-horsepower electric motor, speed 440 revolutions per minute; 4) motor-driven Waterbury A-end pump;
5) telemotor pump; 6) control cylinder; 7) plunger; 8) bell-crank shaft; 9) steering system main manifold; 10) port main cylinder, or ram, after end;
11) starboard main cylinder, or ram, after end; 12) inboard connecting rods; 13) line to main supply tank; 14) vent and replenishing line to supply tank;
15) gage; 16) relief valve (48 pounds); 17) vent and replenishing line to stern plane Waterbury A-end pump.
Figure 4-24. Operation diagram of steering system by normal POWER.
1) Main steering wheel; 2) change valve; 3) 15-horsepower electric motor, speed 440 revolutions per minute; 4) motor-driven Waterbury A-end pump; 5) telemotor pump; 6) control cylinder; 7) plunger; 8) bell-crank shaft; 9) steering system main manifold; 10) port main cylinder, or ram, after end; 11) starboard main cylinder, or ram, after end; 12) inboard connecting rods; 13) line to main supply tank; 14) vent and replenishing line to supply tank; 15) gage; 16) relief valve (48 pounds); 17) vent and replenishing line to stern plane Waterbury A-end pump.
 
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4C2. POWER steering. a. Explanation of the diagram. Figure 4-24 shows the coordinated action of the system during POWER steering. Direction of oil flow for right rudder is shown by arrows. The power pump or high-pressure oil circuit is shown in heavy lines, red for the supply side of the line, blue for the return side. The telemotor pump or low-pressure circuit is shown in thinner lines, red for the supply side, blue for the return side. Areas and lines inactive during POWER steering are shown in black. All colors and directions shown are for right rudder. For left rudder, or a return to a smaller angle of right deflection, all arrows would point in the opposite direction, and colors would be reversed in each circuit. Refer to each index number on the diagram as it occurs in the text.

b. Operation of the system on POWER. The main steering wheel (1) is engaged in the shaft clutch and locked into its shaft by the locking pin.

The pump control lever mounted on the telemotor pump is set at POWER and locked there by the locking screw.

The change valve (2) is also set at POWER.

The clutch handle is down.

The steering main manifold ram cut-out valves are OPEN.

The various gages and levels are, checked to make sure that the system is completely filled with oil. The motor (3) which drives the Waterbury pump (4) is started by pressing the switch button at the control room steering stand insuring that the switch on the steering control panel aft is in the ON position.

The system is now ready for operation under POWER.

The submarine rudder is actuated by turning the large main wheel to right or left. Let us suppose the submarine is running on a straight course, the rudder indicator showing zero degrees deflection. The steersman receives the order, "Right, 20 degrees rudder." He turns the wheel to the right.

Its motion is transmitted through the

  gear box to the telemotor pump (5), which, drives oil at low pressure through the change valve (2) into the control cylinder pressure line. Oil is thereby driven into the after end of the control cylinder (6), moving the plunger (7) forward.

This swings the bell-crank shaft (8), tilting the tilt-box in the motor-driven Waterbury A-end pump. Instantly its pistons pump oil at high pressure through one side of the manifold (9), into the forward end of the port ram (10) and the after end of the starboard ram (11). The port ram moves aft, the starboard ram moves forward; the connecting. rods (12), pulled in opposite directions, swing the crosshead and rudder to the right.

The steersman either holds the steering wheel steady, or continues to turn it to the right (depending on how swift a reaction is needed) until the rudder indicator shows 20, degrees right rudder. Then he turns the wheel partially to the left, releasing the oil pressure. The centering spring will then bring the control cylinder plunger to a neutral, balanced position (see Section 4B2a), and recenter the control shaft, neutralizing the Waterbury pump's tilt-box and stopping any further pumping of oil to the rams. This locks the main cylinder rams or plungers in that position for as long as desired, holding the rudder steady at that angle.

But we have not yet followed the movement of oil in the system to the completion of its cycle. Both the oil in the low pressure circuit from the hand-rotated telemotor pump (5) and the oil at high pressure from the motor-driven Waterbury (4) have a return flow in their respective circuits.

We followed the oil in the low pressure circuit until it reached and actuated the plunger in the after control cylinder. It has moved forward, driving oil out of the forward end of the control cylinder, back through the change valve, into the return port of the telemotor pump, completing its cycle.

We followed the oil in the high pressure circuit from the motor-driven Waterbury A-end pump until it reached and actuated the rams. The port ram has moved aft, and the

 
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Figure 4-25. Operation diagram of steering system, by HAND.
1) Main steering wheel; 2) change valve; 3) electric motor, 15-horsepower, speed 440 revolutions per minute; 4) motor-driven Waterbury A-end pump;
5) telemotor; 6) control cylinder; 7) control cylinder plunger; 8) bell-crank shaft on control cylinder; 9) steering system main manifold; 10) port ram;
11) starboard ram; 12) inboard connecting rods; 13) line to main supply tank; 14) vent and replenishing line to main supply tank; 15) gage; 16) relief
valve (48 pounds); 17) vent and replenishing line to stern plane Waterbury A-end pump.
Figure 4-25. Operation diagram of steering system, by HAND.
1) Main steering wheel; 2) change valve; 3) electric motor, 15-horsepower, speed 440 revolutions per minute; 4) motor-driven Waterbury A-end pump; 5) telemotor; 6) control cylinder; 7) control cylinder plunger; 8) bell-crank shaft on control cylinder; 9) steering system main manifold; 10) port ram; 11) starboard ram; 12) inboard connecting rods; 13) line to main supply tank; 14) vent and replenishing line to main supply tank; 15) gage; 16) relief valve (48 pounds); 17) vent and replenishing line to stern plane Waterbury A-end pump.
 
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starboard ram has moved forward, driving oil out of the opposite end of their main cylinders, back through the manifold (9) into the return port of the motor-driven Waterbury A-end pump, completing its cycle.

4C3. HAND steering. a. Explanation of the diagram. Figure 4-25 shows he coordinated action of the system during HAND steering. Direction of oil flow for right rudder is shown by arrow's. In HAND steering, the entire steering action is accomplished by oil pressure developed in the telemotor pump by the steersman's turning of the main steering wheel. The supply side of the line is shown in red, the return side in blue. Areas and lines inactive during HAND steering are shown in black. All colors and directions shown are for right rudder. For left rudder, or a return to a smaller angle of right deflection, all arrows would point in the opposite direction, and colors would be reversed. Refer to each index number on the diagram as it occurs in the text.

b. Operation of the system on HAND power. The steering wheel (1) is locked into its shaft by the locking pin. The retractable hand grip is unfolded for use, at a right angle to the rim.

The pump control lever on the telemotor pump is set at HAND and locked there by the locking screw.

The change valve (2) is also set at HAND.

The clutch handle is down.

The steering manifold (9) hand cut-out and ram cut-out valves are OPEN.

The motor (3) and Waterbury pump (4) are OFF.

The system is now ready for operation by HAND.

The submarine is steered from the control room-by turning the large main wheel right or left. Let us suppose the submarine is running on a straight course, the rudder indicator showing zero degrees deflection. The steersman receives the order, "Right, 20 degrees rudder." He turns the wheel to the right. (The wheel is much harder to turn under HAND than under POWER, and must be turned

  much farther to achieve the same degree of rudder deflection.)

Its motion is transmitted through the gear box to the telemotor pump (5) which drives oil under pressure through the change valve to one of the auxiliary power ports in the manifold (9), into the forward end of the port ram (10) and the after end of the starboard ram (11). The port ram moves aft, the starboard ram moves forward and the connecting rods (12), pulled in opposite directions, swing the crosshead and rudder to the right.

The steersman continues to turn the wheel to the right until the rudder indicator shows 20 degrees right rudder.

It is essential to understand that, in the operation by HAND just described, the telemotor pump takes the place of the motor driven Waterbury speed gear, supplying the hydraulic power to actuate the rams and move the rudder.

But we have not yet followed the movement of oil in the system to the completion of its cycle.

The path of the oil has previously been traced from the hand-rotated telemotor pump until it reached and actuated the rams. When the port ram has moved aft and the starboard ram has moved forward, the oil is driven out of the opposite ends of their main cylinders, back through the manifold (9), out through the other auxiliary power port, back through the change valve, and into the return port of the telemotor, completing its cycle.

4C4. EMERGENCY steering. a. Explanation of the diagram. Figure 4-26 shows the coordinated action of the system during emergency steering. Direction of oil flow for right rudder is shown by arrows. In emergency steering, the entire steering action is accomplished by oil at high pressure from the emergency lines of the main hydraulic system. The supply side of the line is shown in red, the return side in blue. Areas and lines inactive during EMERGENCY steering are shown in black. All colors and directions shown are for right rudder. For left rudder, or a return to a smaller angle of right

 
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Figure 4-26. Operation diagram of steering system, by EMERGENCY.
1) Main steering wheel; 2) change valve; 3) electric motor, 15-horsepower, speed 440 revolutions per minute; 4) motor-driven Waterbury A-end pump;
5) telemotor; 6) control cylinder; 7) control cylinder plunger; 8) bell-crank shaft on control cylinder; 9) steering system main manifold; 10) port ram;
11) starboard ram; 12) inboard connecting rods; 13) emergency steering wheel; 14) spur gears; 15) emergency control valve shaft; 16) main supply
manifold, main hydraulic system; 17) main return manifold, main hydraulic system; 18) line to main supply tank; 19) vent and replenishing line to main
supply tank; 20) gage; 21) relief valve (48 pounds); 22) vent and replenishing line to stern plane Waterbury A-end pump.
Figure 4-26. Operation diagram of steering system, by EMERGENCY.
1) Main steering wheel; 2) change valve; 3) electric motor, 15-horsepower, speed 440 revolutions per minute; 4) motor-driven Waterbury A-end pump; 5) telemotor; 6) control cylinder; 7) control cylinder plunger; 8) bell-crank shaft on control cylinder; 9) steering system main manifold; 10) port ram; 11) starboard ram; 12) inboard connecting rods; 13) emergency steering wheel; 14) spur gears; 15) emergency control valve shaft; 16) main supply manifold, main hydraulic system; 17) main return manifold, main hydraulic system; 18) line to main supply tank; 19) vent and replenishing line to main supply tank; 20) gage; 21) relief valve (48 pounds); 22) vent and replenishing line to stern plane Waterbury A-end pump.
 
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deflection, all arrows would point in the opposite direction, and colors would be reversed. Refer to each index number on the diagram as it occurs in the text.

b. Operation of the system on EMERGENCY power. The steering wheel (1) is disconnected from its shaft by pulling out the locking pin in the hub, and then pulling the wheel aft, disengaging it from the clutch jaw on the drive shaft. The locking arm underneath the wheel is pulled up to a horizontal position to hold one of the wheel spokes in its fork, and locked in that position by inserting the pin under it.

The change valve (2) is set at EMERGENCY.

The clutch handle (1, Figure 4-15) is up, the locking bar arm (9, Figure 4-15) is pulled out and turned, allowing the shaft of the emergency control valve to be turned.

The motor (3, Figure 4-26) is OFF.

The steering manifold (9) hand cut-out and ram cut-out valves are OPEN.

The emergency steering valves in the main hydraulic system main supply and return manifolds (16 and 17) are now opened (see Chapter 3).

The system is now ready for operation on EMERGENCY.

The submarine is steered from the control room by turning the small emergency hand wheel (13). Let us suppose the submarine is running on a straight coarse, the rudder indicator showing zero degrees deflection. The steersman receives the order, "Right 20 degree rudder." He turns the emergency steering wheel to the left.

Its motion is transmitted through the spur gears (14) to the emergency control valve shaft (15). This turns the nonrising stem inside the valve, raising the sleeve and opening the channel from the pressure line of the main hydraulic system to one of the lines leading to the auxiliary power ports on the steering system main manifold (9).

Oil from the main hydraulic system will

  then flow through the emergency control valve to the manifold (9), into the forward end of the port ram (10) and the after end of the starboard ram (11). The port ram moves aft, the starboard ram moves forward; the connecting rods (12) swing the crosshead and rudder to the right.

But we have not yet followed the movement of oil in the system to the completion of its cycle. We have already traced the path of the oil from the main hydraulic system until it reached and actuated the rams. When the port ram has moved aft and the starboard ram has moved forward, the oil is driven out of the opposite ends of the main cylinders, back through the manifold (9) into the return port of the emergency control valve, and out into the return line to the main hydraulic return manifold, completing its cycle.

WARNING. It is necessary to turn the change valve to EMERGENCY before operating the emergency control valve. Turning the change valve to EMERGENCY blanks off all lines except the bypass ports around the telemotor pump, and thus protects the rest of the equipment from the effects of the sudden entrance of oil at a pressure of 600 pounds to 700 pounds per square inch. Oil under high pressure will actuate various moving parts accessible to it, motorize pumps, and may cause various sudden, and possibly dangerous, results to apparatus or personnel. Disconnecting the main steering wheel when changing the system over to EMERGENCY, is an added precaution.

4C5. Steering from the conning tower. The conning tower has its own steering wheel connected to the steering stand in the control room by a vertical shaft (see 7, Figure 4-9). Any of the three methods described (POWER, HAND, or EMERGENCY) is available from the conning tower wheel, depending on the position of the clutch. For POWER or HAND steering from the conning tower, the clutch handle should be up (see Figure 4-15). For EMERGENCY steering from the conning tower, the clutch should be down (see Figure 4-17).

 
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