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PART VI

CCM MARK 1

601. GENERAL.

(a) The Combined Cipher Machine Mark 1 (CSP 1600) is a device which converts the ECM Mark 2 to the cryptographic equivalent of the CCM. The CCM Mark 1 is a unit similar to the ECM Mark 2 Cipher Unit. All alterations and modifications are contained within the unit and no change in the ECM Mark 2 is necessary except to insert CSP 1600 into the machine in place of CSP 887.

NOTE: When not in use, CSP 1600 is to be kept in the special metal box provided with each unit It shall be securely fastened with the four thumb screws.

602. CODE WHEELS.

(a) The Code Wheels used with CSP 1600 are similar to those used with the ECM Mark 2 except that cam-contours have been cut at irregular intervals on the periphery of each face for the purpose of actuating the Stepping Magnet Contacts, and the cam lobes have been ground off.

603. DESCRIPTION.

(a) The unit is so constructed that only five Code Wheels of the set are used at a time. These Code Wheels (together with the connections established through the plunger contacts) form the Alphabet Maze.

(b) Four Stepping Magnet Contact Operating Arms and associated Contacts are included in the unit Their function is to control the stepping of the Code Wheels. Each Contact Operating Arm in so positioned that the nose of the Contact Arm rides the periphery of a Code Wheel. As the Code Wheel is turned, the nose drops into a cam-contour thus closing the contact. When the nose rides the periphery of a Code Wheel the contact is held open. The Code Wheel controlled by this contact will step in accordance with the cam-contours on the controlling Code Wheel

NOTE: IT IS A REQUIREMENT THAT THE STEPPING CONTACTS BE CAREFULLY ADJUSTED SO THAT THE CONTACT WILL BE POSITIVELY "OPENED" OR "CLOSED", DEPENDING UPON THE POSITION OF THE CAM-CONTOURS OF THE CODE WHEEL

(c) Stepping Circuit connections are established for the circuits of the machine through two plunger contacts on the right end plate of the former Stepping Maze and through five plunger contacts of the former Index Maze.

604. STEPPING CONTROL.

(a) The Code Wheels are stepped as follows:

(1) The #3 (center) Code Wheel is stepped one letter with each Keyboard stroke, and actuates the two center (#2 and #3) Stepping Magnet Contacts.

(A) The left center (#2) Contact controls the stepping of #2 Code Wheel,

(B) The right Center (#3) Contact controls the stepping of #4 Code Wheel.

(2) The left (#1) Contact is actuated by #2 Code Wheel, and controls the stepping of #1 Code Wheel.

(3) The right (#4) Contact is actuated by #4 Code Wheel, and controls the stepping of #5 Code Wheel.

(b) The Stepping Control thus originates with the center Code Wheel and progresses to each side.

(c) The ECM Mark 2 prints and then steps whereas some machines cryptographically equivalent step and then print This requires an additional "Blank" step when using the CCM Mark 1 after each manual alignment of the Code Wheels in order to bring the machine into proper step On encipherment, the Controller is set at "R" (Reset) when depressing the "Blank" key, and then set at "E" (Encipher) in order that the first letter of the encipherment will be the initial letter of the first five letter group

 
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605. PREPARATION.

(a) The ECM Mark 2 is prepared for operation in the normal manner, except that CSP 887 Is replaced by CSP 1600 and associated Code Wheels.

606. KEY LIST.

(a) Each CCM Key List contains:

(1) The Code Wheel Arrangement.

(2) The 26-30 Letter Check.

(3) One or more Initial Code Wheel Alignments.

(b) The following illustrations are examples of the two CCM Key Setting Forms most generally used. They are based on CSP 1811.

(1) For U.S. Navy use:

CODE WHEEL ARRANGEMENT: -14R 11 13 17R 15
26-30 LETTER CHECK: - 26-30 Ltr Ck: DMOSH
INITIAL (for SECRET messages- SEC: DWVAP
CODE WHEEL (for CONFIDENTIAL messages- CON: HNYST
ALIGNMENTS (for RESTRICTED messages- RES: FEIGS

(2) For Combined (United States - British use):

CODE WHEEL ARRANGEMENT -17 16R 11R 13 19R
26-30 LETTERCHECK -26-30 Ltr. Ck: AODOT
 Initial Alignment:
INITIAL CODE WHEEL -(A) SXTED
ALIGNMENTS -(B) BSDQI

(c) The Code Wheel Arrangement consists of five numbers corresponding to the numbers engraved on the Code Wheels. Any letter prefixes or suffixes of the individual Code Wheel designations are omitted and in some Key Lists only the final digit may be shown.

(d) The 26-30 Letter Check is given as a means of checking the Code Wheel Arrangement and the operation of the machine.

(e) The Initial Code Wheel Alignment is provided for encipherment of the Message Code Wheel Alignment. Para. (b) (1) Illustrates a Key Setting designed for U. S. Navy use only, and gives three Initial Code Wheel Alignments, designated "SEC", "CON" and "RES" to be used for SECRET, CONFIDENTIAL and RESTRICTED messages respectively. Para. (b) (2) illustrates a Key Setting designed for Combined use, and gives two Initial Code Wheel Alignments, designated "A" and "B" respectively. The Key List in use will define, by means of a footnote, the classifications of messages for which "A" and "B" are to be used.

607. DEFINITIONS.

(a) In this method of operation, two different Code Wheel Alignments are used, requiring differentiation.

(1) The MESSAGE CODE WHEEL ALIGNMENT Is the alignment appearing on the Code Wheels at the start of the actual encipherment of the message. It consists of five letters selected at random.

(2) The INITIAL CODE WHEEL ALIGNMENT is the alignment used in the process of enciphering (or deciphering) the Message Code Wheel Alignment It is given in the Key List

(b) The INTERNAL INDICATOR is the encipherment of the Message Code Wheel Alignment, using the Initial Code Wheel Alignment at the beginning of the encipherment

 
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(c) The EXTERNAL INDEATOR is provided for by the Key List, Rotating Indicator List, Crypto-Channel Charts, etc. Many of the crypto-channels in which the CCM is used have been assigned several Rotating Indicators for each classification. It is important that these indicators be used equally and in random order, and checked off as used so that an Indicator will not be used again until all the others have been employed, and so that an alphabetical or other pattern will not be apparent.

608. CODE WHEEL ARRANGEMENT.

(a) Remove CSP 1600 from its metal box by unscrewing the four thumb screws.

NOTE: CSP 887 may be stowed in the metal box while CSP 1600 is in use.

(b) Determine the proper set of Code Wheels to be used. Each Key List contains this information in the Instructions. Choose the Key Setting corresponding to the date of the Date/Time Group to be used in the message. Insert the Code Wheels in CSP 1600 in accordance with the Code Wheel Arrangement given in the Key Setting.

(1) The sequence given is positions #1 to #5 inclusive, for respective Code Wheel positions in CSP 1600. The letter "R" appearing after a Code Wheel number indicates the Code Wheel so designated is to be inserted in a reversed position (I.e., with the letters appearing upside down to the operator). Insert the Code Wheel Spindle and install CSP 1600 in the machine, securing it carefully by means of the four thumb screws.

609. 26-30 LETTER CHECK.

(a) The 26-30 Letter Check is provided for checking the Code Wheel Arrangement and operation of the machine. The five letter group given is the encipherment of the letter "A" on the 26th to 30th steps inclusive using the Code Wheel Arrangement given in the Key Setting with an Initial Code Wheel Alignment of "OOOOO".

THE 26-30 LETTER CHECK SHALL BE MADE AFTER EACH CHANGE OF CODE WHEEL ARRANGEMENT. ITS USE IS MANDATORY

(b) To make the 26-30 Letter Check:

(1) Prepare the machine for operation.

(2) Insert the Code Wheels according to the Arrangement given in the Key.

(3) Set the Code Wheels by hand to an Initial Alignment of "OOOOO".

(4) Set the Controller at "R" (Reset) and set the Zeroizer to "Operate". By means of the "Blank" Key, step the Code Wheels once.

(5) Set the Controller at "E" (Encipher), and reset the Counter to zero. By means of the "Blank" and "Repeat" Keys, step the Code Wheels twenty-five times.

(6) Type (Encipher) the letter "A" five times.

(7) Compare the resultant encipherment with the values given in the Key. Any deviation necessitates a complete re-check.

(c) If the correct 26-30 Letter Check is not produced see pars. 308(d).

610. ENCIPHERMENT.

(a) Having arranged the Code Wheels in accordance with the Key Setting and having made the 26-30 Letter Check:

(1) Set the Controller at "P" (Plain), and set the Zeroizer to "Operate". When using CSP 1600 the Zeroizer is set at "Operate" for all operations. Type the heading, Date/Time Group, etc., and any other data desired. Press the Tape release tab and advance the tape two or three inches, or space several times. Type the External Indicator and space once.

 
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(2) Select at random a group of five letters to use as the MESSAGE CODE WHEEL ALIGNMENT. Make a note of the five letter group on the message being enciphered for a reference purpose in case a verification is requested.

CAUTION: THE MESSAGE CODE WHEEL ALIGNMENT FOR EACH MESSAGE ENCIPHERED BY A PARTICULAR KEY SETTING MUST BE DIFFERENT. THE SELECTION OF THE LETTERS MUST BE ENTIRELY AT RANDOM, THE LETTERS "O" AND "V" MUST NOT BE USED, AND THE LETTERS MUST NOT FOLLOW A REGULAR SYSTEM OF PROGRESSION. (See para. 329.)

(3) Select, from a Key Setting, the appropriate Initial Code Wheel Alignment for the classification of the message, and set the Code Wheels, by hand, to the reference lines in accordance with the designated letters. Set the Controller at "R" (Reset) and, by means of the "Blank" key, step the Code Wheels once, This is necessary because the CCM Mark I enciphers (or deciphers) and then steps the Code Wheels, whereas other devices cryptographically identical step the Code Wheels and then enciphers (or deciphers). (If the Controller is set at "E" when this is done, the machine will be in step, but the spacing of the five letter code groups will be displaced one letter.)

(4) Set the Controller at "E" (Encipher), and type (encipher) the MESSAGE CODE WHEEL ALIGNMENT (the five letter group selected at random in Paragraph (2) above.) This encipherment produces the INTERNAL INDICATOR.

(5) Set the Code Wheels, by hand, to the MESSAGE CODE WHEEL ALIGNMENT. Set the Controller at "R" and, by means of the "Blank" key, step the Code Wheels once.

(6) Set the Controller to "E" (Encipher), reset the Counter to zero.

(7) Type the text to be enciphered, using the space bar and alphabet keys only. Spell out numerals. The letter "X" shall normally be used to represent every mark of punctuation. When necessary for clarity, punctuation marks may be spelled out The only abbreviations for punctuation authorized are PAREN, PARA, and QUES. All punctuation shall be kept at a minimum and used only when necessary to attain clearness. The enciphered text will appear on the tape in groups of five letters. When padding is added at either or both ends to conceal a particularly short message, one in stereotyped form, or one which has been or may be encrypted in another system, the use of spaces and other stereotyped padding must be avoided. (See Chapter IV, Communication Instructions for example of objectionable padding.)

(8) When the text has been completely enciphered, note the counter reading. If it is not a multiple of five, set the controller to "P" (Plain), and type the letter "X" as many times as are needed to produce a reading which is a multiple of five. Space once.

(9) Set the Code Wheels, by hand, to the INITIAL CODE WHEEL ALIGNMENT. Set the Controller at "R" (Reset) and space once. Set the Controller at "E", and type (encipher) the MESSAGE CODE WHEEL ALIGNMENT. Check this group with the first INTERNAL INDICATOR

(10) Set the Controller at "P" (Plain) and type the EXTERNAL INDICATOR. Advance the tape through the tape channel until all the printing is clear, and tear off the tape.

611. CHECK DECIPHERMENT.

(a) As a check on accuracy, an enciphered message shall be check-deciphered prior to transmission, preferably by another coding officer, and if available, on a second machine using a different set of Code Wheels. In an emergency the check-decipherment may be deferred until after transmission, but should be completed as soon as possible. THE CHECK-DECIPHERMENT IS MANDATORY.

 
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612. EXAMPLE.

(a) The following example represents the appearance of a message enciphered in this manner. It is based on the sample Key Setting shown in para. 606 (b) (2). It is assumed PABOC is the CONFIDENTIAL External Indicator.

PABOC UEKSS NGALM BFOFR NPPLS PPAMG PBKEK UEKSS PABOC, First and last is external indicator, see paragraph 607c, next and next to last is internal indicator, see paragraph 610a4, Text is the middle five groups

613. MESSAGE LENGTH.

(a) Very long messages to be enciphered with the CCM Mark 1 should be broken up into parts, each of which uses a different Message Code Wheel Alignment. Each part should not exceed two-hundred (200) groups in length.

614. DECIPHERMENT.

(a) Using the Code Wheel Arrangement of the Key Setting as determined by the Date/Time Group, prepare the machine for operation. Make the 26-30 Letter Check.

(b) If any plain text is desired, set the Controller at "P" (Plain) and set the Zeroizer at "Operate". When using CSP 1600, the Zeroizer is set at "Operate" for all operations.

(c) Select from the Key Setting, the appropriate Initial Code Wheel Alignment for the classification of the message and set the Code Wheels, by hand, to the reference lines in accordance with the designated letters. Set the Controller at "R" (Reset) and, by means of the "Blank" key, step the Code Wheels once. Set the Controller at "D" (Decipher). Disregard the External Indicator, and type (decipher) the Internal Indicator (the second and next-to-the-last groups of the message). This decipherment produces the MESSAGE CODE WHEEL ALIGNMENT.

(d) Set the Code Wheels, by hand, to the Message Code Wheel Alignment, just obtained. Set the Controller at "R" (Reset), and by means of the "Blank" key, step the Code Wheels once.

(e) Set the Controller at "D" (Decipher), and reset the Counter to zero. Type (decipher) the text of the message.

615. CLEARING GARBLES.

(a) If the letters of the Internal Indicator at the beginning and end of the message are not identical (due to errors of transmission) try the various combinations until a Message Code Wheel Alignment Is obtained that will give intelligible text.

(b) The External Indicator of one classification may have been used in the message whereas, an Initial Code Wheel Alignment of another classification may have been erroneously employed.

(c) On decipherment if an "X" appears as a letter of the Message Code Wheel Alignment and the message does not "break" try substituting a "Z" for the "X".

(d) On decipherment, if a blank space appears as a letter of the Message Code Wheel Alignment, try substituting a "Z" for the blank spaces.

 
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ADJUSTMENTS

616. STEPPING MAGNET CONTACTS.

(a) Plate 13 illustrates the action of a Contact Operating Arm as controlled by the Cam-contours of the Code Wheel. Plate 13A shows the nose of the Contact Operating Arm resting in a cam-contour, permitting the contact to close, and Plate 13B shows the nose of the Contact Operating Arm "riding" the periphery of the Code Wheel, holding the Contact open.

CAUTION: IT IS A REQUIREMENT THAT THE STEPPING MAGNET CONTACTS POSITIVELY "MAKE" OR "BREAK" OTHERWISE CORRECT ENCIPHERMENT OR DECIPHERMENT IS IMPOSSIBLE.

611. CONTACT ADJUSTMENTS.

(a) To check the adjustment of the Stepping Magnet Contacts:

(1) Insert the Code Wheels in accordance with the Code Wheel Arrangement to be used.

(2) Rotate, by hand, the #3 (center) Code Wheel and observe the action of either the left center (#2) or right center (#3) contacts.

(A) When the nose of the Contact Operating Arm drops into a Cam-contour of the Code Wheel, the associated contact should be positively "closed" and the nose should not touch the bottom of the Cam-contour. This condition can be tested by rocking the Code Wheel back and forth slightly and observing the points at which the Code Wheel moves the Contact Arm.

(B) When the nose of the Contact Operating Arm rides the periphery of the Code Wheel the contact should be positively "opened".

(b) To adjust the Stepping Magnet Contacts:

(1) Rotate the Code Wheel until the nose of the Contact Arm is on the periphery of the Code Wheel. If necessary, bend the lower contact spring until the contact is "just open".

(2) Rotate the Code Wheel until the nose of the Contact Operating Arm drops into a Cam-contour. It should require only slight pressure to break the contact between the upper and lower contact springs. Adjust by bending the upper contact spring. The nose of the contact arm should clear the bottom of the cam-contour and the push-end of the contact operating arm should "barely clear" the upper Contact spring insulator. This adjustment is made by turning the adjustment screw.

 
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Contact must be closed when Nose of Contact Arm enters Cam-Contour
PLATE 13A
Contact must be open when Nose of Contact Arm is not in Cam-Contour
PLATE 13B
PLATE 13
 
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BLANK
 
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BLANK
 
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CSP 1100(C)

CONFIDENTIAL

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